Which of these is a receptor molecule?

a D
b E
c A
d B
e C

d
A signal transduction pathway is initiated when a _____ binds to a receptor.

a signal molecule
b cyclic AMP
c tyrosine kinase
d G protein
e calmodulin

a
Which of these is a signal molecule?

a A
b D
c B
d C
e E

a
A signal molecule is also known as a(n) _____.

a receptor
b protein
c ligand
d key
e initiator

c
Which of these is the second of the three stages of cell signaling?

a gene activation
b reception
c binding of a neurotransmitter to a plasma membrane receptor
d transduction
e cell response

d
Which of these receptors is NOT a membrane receptor?

a E
b B
c C
d A
e D

a
Which of these is a G-protein-linked receptor?

a B
b D
c C
d E
e A

e
Which of these is a receptor tyrosine kinase?

a D
b A
c C
d B
e E

c
Which of these is an ion-channel receptor?

a E
b D
c A
d B
e C

b
The binding of signal molecules to _____ results in the phosphorylation of tyrosines.

a D
b A
c E
d B
e C

e
Which of these receptor molecules would allow Na+ to flow into the cell?

a D
b C
c E
d A
e B

a
Which of these extracellular signal molecules could diffuse through a plasma membrane and bind to an intracellular receptor?

a glycerol
b glucose
c cellulose
d starch
e estrogen

e
A(n) _____ is an example of a signal molecule that can bind to an intracellular receptor and thereby cause a gene to be turned on or off.

a carbohydrate
b steroid
c protein
d ion
e nucleic acid

b
_____ is a signal molecule that binds to an intracellular receptor .

a A
b D
c E
d C
e B

b
Thyroid hormones bind to _____ receptors.

a G-protein-linked
b plasma membrane ion-channel
c tyrosine-kinase
d steroid
e intracellular

e
A small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecule or ion, such as calcium ion or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cell’s interior in response to a signal received by a signal receptor protein.
second messenger
Which of these is responsible for initiating a signal transduction pathway?
a single molecule
What role does a transcription factor play in a signal transduction pathway?

a By binding to a plasma membrane receptor it initiates a cascade.
b It relays a signal from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane.
c It activates relay proteins.
d By binding to DNA it triggers the transcription of a specific gene.
e It is a plasma membrane protein that binds signal molecules.

d
Which of the following, when activated by a signal transduction pathway, moves from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of a cell?

a relay protein
b DNA
c plasma membrane receptor protein
d signal molecule
e transcription factor

e
Which of these is a membrane receptor?
A receptor site that sits in the plasma membrane.
A signal transduction pathway is initiated when a _____ binds to a receptor.

a G protein
b tyrosine kinase
c calmodulin
d signal molecule
e cyclic AMP

d
Which of these acts as a second messenger?

a G protein
b G-protein-linked receptor
c adenylyl kinase
d protein kinase
e cyclic AMP

e
Calcium ions that act as second messengers are stored in _____.

a mitochondria
b lysosomes
c peroxisomes
d endoplasmic reticula
e chloroplasts

d
_____ catalyzes the production of _____, which then opens an ion channel that releases _____ into the cell’s cytoplasm.

a Adenylyl cyclase … cyclic AMP … Ca2+
b Adenylyl cyclase … IP3 …. Ca2+
c Phospholipase C … IP3 …. Ca2+
d Protein kinase … PIP2 … Na+
e Phospholipase C … cyclic AMP … Ca2+

c
A protein kinase activating many other protein kinases is an example of _____.

a deactivation
b sensitization
c mutualism
d a cellular response
e amplification

e
The cleavage of glycogen by glycogen phosphorylase releases _____.

a galactose-1-phosphate
b cellulose
c fructose-1-phosphate
d nothing: glycogen phosphorylase cannot cleave glycogen
e glucose-1-phosphate

e
Epinephrine acts as a signal molecule that attaches to _____ proteins.

a ion-channel receptor
b nuclear receptor
c G-protein-linked receptor
d receptor tyrosine kinase
e intracellular receptor

c
Which of these is a receptor for calcium ions?

a calmodulin
b adenylyl cyclase
c G protein
d PIP2
e IP3

a
Which of these is NOT correct?

a Kinases are enzymes that phosphorylate other molecules.
b Tyrosine-kinase receptors consist of two polypeptides that join when activated by a signal molecule.
c Ion channels are found on both the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum.
d Cyclic AMP binds to calmodulin.
e Phospholipase C catalyzes the formation of IP3.

d
A toxin that inhibits the production of GTP would interfere with the function of a signal transduction pathway that is initiated by the binding of a signal molecule to _____ receptors.

a ion-channel
b G-protein-linked
c intracellular
d steroid
e receptor tyrosine kinase

b
x

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