interphase
telophase
(Cytokinesis often, but not always, accompanies telophase.)
prophase
(The chromatin fibers become discrete chromosomes.)
anaphase
(During anaphase, sister chromatids separate and daughter chromosomes migrate to opposite poles.)
prometaphase
(Attachment of spindle fibers to kinetochores is one of the events of pro metaphase.)
Anaphase
Cytokinesis
Prophase
Metaphase
Prometaphase
Cytokinesis
Telophase
cytokinesis as it occurs in animal cells
Prophase
Metaphase
prometaphase
Cytokinesis as it occurs in Plant Cells
telophase
two chromosomes and four chromatids
interphase
the mitotic phase

(encompasses both mitosis and cytokinesis)

Mitosis
sister chromatids
centromeres
kinetochores
interphase
mitotic spindles
chromatin
cytokinesis
centrosomes
The two SISTER CHROMATIDS of each duplicated chromosome beginning to attach to the MITOTIC SPINDLE by means of their KINETOCHORES. The CENTROSOMES anchor the MIT at opposite ends of the cell. CENTROMERE is the region of the chromosome where chromatids are most closely attached to each other.
A. Non dividing cells exit cell cycle
B. At this point, cell commits to go through the cycle.
C. DNA replicates
D. Centrosome replicates
E. Mitotic spindle begins to form.
F. Cell divides, forming two daughter cells.
The first step in preparing for division is to replicate the cell’s DNA in the S phase.

In the G2 phase, the centrosome replicates.

In early M phase, the centrosomes move away from each other toward the poles of the cell, in the process organizing the formation of the mitotic spindle.

At the end of the M phase when mitosis is complete, the cell divides (cytokinesis), forming two genetically identical daughter cells.

G1
1. N Y Y Y N
2. N N N Y Y
3. N Y Y Y Y
Sister chromatids form when DNA replicates in the S phase. The sister chromatids become individual chromosomes once they separate in early anaphase.
Similarly, the cellular DNA content doubles in the S phase when the DNA replicates. However, the cell’s DNA content does not return to its normal (undoubled) levels until after cytokinesis is complete and two daughter cells have formed.

The condensation state of the DNA is not related to the presence or absence of sister chromatids. The DNA condenses in prophase and remains condensed until after the sister chromatids separate and the new daughter cells begin to form. In late telophase/cytokinesis, the emphasis shifts to cell growth and DNA replication for the next cell cycle. For these processes to occur, the DNA needs to be de-condensed so it is accessible to the cellular machinery involved in transcription.

Prophase
Prometaphase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Cytokinesis
lengthen
lengthen, shorten
disassemble
1. Will this cell elongate during mitosis? (yes)
2. Will the sister chromatids separate from each other? (yes)
3. Will the chromosomes move to the poles of the cell? (no)
bacteria only:
*Chromosome separation begins at the origin of replication on DNA.
Eukaryotes only:
* Before separation, duplicated chromosomes condense.
* Nuclear envelope fragments, permitting chromosome separation.
* 2 copies of the duplicated chromosome are attached at their centromeres before separation.
Both Bacteria and Eukariotes:
* Chromosomes replicate before cell division.
* Replicated chromosomes separate by attaching to some other structural feature of the cell.
*Vesicles from the Golgi apparatus move along microtubules, coalesce at the plane of cell division, and form a cell plate.
*The cell plate consists of the plasma membrane and cell wall that will eventually separate the two daughter cells.
They have uncoiled to form long, thin strands.
They are sites at which microtubules attach to chromosomes.
cleavage
large cells containing many nuclei
bacteria: TRUE
animals: TRUE
plants: FALSE
bacteria: FALSE
animals: FALSE
plants: TRUE
bacteria: TRUE
animals: FALSE
plants: TRUE
G1
Fat
(A diet high in fat increases the risk of both colon and breast cancer.)
cigarette smoke
testosterone
UV light
Fat
(All of these substances can cause cancer.)
continue to divide even when they are tightly packed together.
the degradation of cyclin.
disruption of mitotic spindle formation.
cleavage furrow formation and cytokinesis
Cancer cells may be immortal.
x

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