Angiosperms are most closely related to _____.

a) bryophytes
b) seedless vascular plants
c) green algae
d) gymnosperms
e) charophyceans

d) gymnosperms
Which of these was the dominant plant group at the time that dinosaurs were the dominant animals?

a) bryophytes
b) charophyceans
c) seedless vascular plants
d) gymnosperms
e) angiosperms

d) gymnosperms
Plants evolved from green algae approximately _____ million years ago.

a) 400
b) 3,500
c) 2,200
d) 130
e) 475

e) 475
(Plants evolved from green algae about 475 million years ago.)
_____ are an example of seedless vascular plants.

a) Pine trees
b) Mosses
c) Charophyceans
d) Ferns
e) Lilacs

d) Ferns
The living plants that are most similar to the first plants to bear gametangia are the _____.

a) seedless vascular plants
b) charophyceans
c) bryophytes
d) gymnosperms
e) angiosperms

c) bryophytes

(Bryophytes, such as mosses, are the extant plants that are most similar to the first plants to bear gametangia.)

In moss, _____ produce sperm.

a) protonemata
b) antheridia
c) archegonia
d) embryos
e) sporangia

b) antheridia
(Moss antheridia, found on the tops of male gametophytes, produce sperm.)
The sperm produced by mosses require _____ to reach an archegonium.

a) animals
b) light
c) the development of a flower
d) wind
e) moisture

e) moisture
In the moss life cycle _____ cells within a sporangium undergo _____ to produce _____ spores.

a) diploid … mitosis … diploid
b) diploid … mitosis … haploid
c) haploid … meiosis … haploid
d) diploid … meiosis … haploid
e) haploid … mitosis … haploid

d) diploid … meiosis … haploid

(Diploid sporophytes develop from diploid embryos. Sporophytes bear a sporangium in which cells undergo meiosis to produce haploid spores.)

In mosses gametes are produced by _____; in ferns gametes are produced by _____.

a) mitosis … mitosis
b) meiosis … mitosis
c) binary fission … mitosis
d) mitosis … meiosis
e) meiosis … meiosis

a) mitosis … mitosis
(In both, gametes are produced by haploid gametophytes.)
Where do fern antheridia develop?

a) on the tip of the sporophyte
b) on the tip of the gametophyte
c) on the underside of the sporophyte
d) on the tip of the haploid protonema
e) on the underside of the gametophyte

e) on the underside of the gametophyte
The conspicuous part of a fern plant is a _____.

a) diploid sporophyte
b) haploid gametophyte
c) diploid gametophyte
d) diploid sorus
e) haploid sporophyte

a) diploid sporophyte

(In ferns, while the gametophyte generation is independent, the diploid sporophyte is much larger.)

In pines, the female gametophyte contains _____, each of which contains a(n) _____.

a) archegonia … egg
b) antheridia … egg
c) antheridia … sperm cell
d) archegonia … sperm cell
e) microsporangia … egg cell

a) archegonia … egg

(In pines, a megaspore repeatedly grows and divides, giving rise to a female gametophyte. The female gametophyte is the site in which egg-bearing gametophytes develop.)

In pines, an embryo is a(n) _____.

a) food reserve for the immature sporophyte
b) immature female gametophyte
c) immature sporophyte
d) immature male gametophyte seed

c) immature sporophyte
In pine trees, pollen grains get to the ovule via the _____.

a) eggs
b) integument
c) pollen cone
d) micropyle
e) megaspore

d) micropyle

(Pollen grains gain entry into the ovule via the micropyle.)

Which of these statements is true about the gametophyte tissue that surrounds the pine embryo?

a) It functions as a diploid food reserve.

b) It develops from the fusion of a microspore and a megaspore.

c) It functions as a haploid food reserve.

d) It functions as a triploid food reserve.

e) It is the remnant of the pollen tube.

c) It functions as a haploid food reserve.

(This gametophyte tissue is a source of nourishment for the embryo.)

Of the four haploid cells produced by a pine cone’s megasporocyte (megaspore mother cell), _____ survive(s).
a) one
b) integuments
c) four
d) three
e) two
a) one
In the pine, microsporangia form _____ microspores by _____.

a) diploid … mitosis
b) haploid … meiosis
c) diploid … meiosis
d) haploid … mitosis
e) triploid … fertilization

b) haploid … meiosis

(Diploid microsporangia form haploid microspores by meiosis.)

Which of these characteristics is shared by algae and seed plants?

a) chloroplasts
b) roots and shoots
c) pollen
d) embryo development within gametangia
e) vascular tissue

a) chloroplasts
Which of these is unique to flowering plants?

a) haploid gametophytes
b) double fertilization
c) pollen production
d) a dominant sporophyte generation
e) an embryo surrounded by nutritive tissue

b) double fertilization
(In flowering plants one sperm nucleus fertilizes the egg and the other sperm nucleus fuses with two other nuclei found within the ovule, thus forming triploid endosperm.)
The male gametophytes of flowering plants are also referred to as _____.

a) male sporophytes
b) embryo sacs
c) endosperm
d) megaspores
e) pollen grains

e) pollen grains
In flowering plants the integuments of the ovule develop into a(n) _____.

a) cotyledon
b) sporophyte
c) seed coat
d) endosperm
e) fruit

c) seed coat
A carpel is composed of _____.

a) stigma, style, and ovary
b) ovary, ovule, and anther
c) petal, sepal, and stamen
d) ovule, megasporocyte, and anther
e) zygote, anther, and endosperm

a) stigma, style, and ovary
In flowering plants one megaspore gives rise to _____ nuclei.

a) four diploid
b) four haploid
c) microsporangia
d) eight haploid
e) eight diploid

e) eight diploid
(The haploid megaspore undergoes three mitotic divisions.)
A stamen consists of _____.

a) ovary and sepal
b) stigma and style
c) stigma and anther
d) anther and filament
e) stigma and filament

d) anther and filament
In angiosperms, pollination is the transfer of pollen grain to the _____ of a flower on the same plant or another plant of the same species.

a) stigma
b) ovary
c) style
d) ovulate cone
e) anther

a) stigma

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