Which of the following is not a type of primary meristematic cell found in apical meristems?

a) Vascular cambium
b) Ground meristem
c) Procambium
d) Protoderm

a) Vascular cambium
(The vascular cambium is a type of cell found in lateral (not apical) meristems and is involved in secondary (not primary) growth.)
Which structure determines the direction of root growth by sensing gravity?

a) Mucigel
b) Pith
c) Root hairs
d) Root cap

d) Root cap
True or false? Plant growth involves both the production of new cells by mitosis and the expansion of cell volume.
True
Which of the following statements about the vascular cambium is true?

a) It is a layer of undifferentiated cells that develops into secondary xylem and phloem.

b) It is located between the primary xylem and cortex.

c) It is a type of apical meristem.

d) It develops into cork cells on the outside of the cortex.

a) It is a layer of undifferentiated cells that develops into secondary xylem and phloem.

(Vascular cambium is a type of lateral meristem that produces secondary xylem and phloem in a plant.)

Why do plants need secondary growth?

a) To grow taller
b) To produce a more extensive root system
c) To produce new leaves
d) To provide structural support for the plant

d) To provide structural support for the plant
Which of the following parts of a plant remains on the plant even after several years of growth?

a) Epidermis
b) Primary phloem
c) Cortex
d) Primary xylem

d) Primary xylem
(The primary xylem is located close to the pith of the plant and remains a part of the plant even after several years of growth.)
True or false? Primary growth can occur at both the apical and lateral meristems at the tips of the roots and stems in a plant.
False

(Primary growth results in increased length and occurs only at the apical meristems at the tips of the roots and stems in a plant.)

Secondary growth NEVER occurs in _____.
a) roots
b) stems
c) stems and leaves
d) roots and leaves
e) leaves
e) leaves
_____ provides cells for secondary growth.
a) Vascular cambium
b) Secondary xylem
c) The root
d) Secondary phloem
e) Apical meristem
a) Vascular cambium
Vascular cambium forms wood toward the stem’s _____ and secondary phloem toward the stem’s _____.

a) center … surface
b) center … center
c) top … bottom
d) surface … surface
e) surface … center

a) center … surface
What is the function of cork?

a) providing cells for primary growth

b) providing cells for secondary growth

c) insulation and waterproofing

d) providing a site for photosynthesis

e) regulating the opening and closing of stomata

c) insulation and waterproofing
How is the supply of vascular cambium maintained?

a) by the differentiation of apical meristem

b) by the differentiation of secondary phloem

c) by the differentiation of cork

d) by the division of its cells

e) by the differentiation of secondary xylem

d) by the division of its cells

(When a vascular cambium cell divides, one cell differentiates and the other cell remains meristematic.)

Which of these are symbiotic associations?

a) symplast
b) root hairs
c) Casparian strips
d) apoplasts
e) mycorrhizae

e) mycorrhizae
In roots the _____ forces water and solutes to pass through the plasma membranes of _____ cells before entering the _____.

a) Casparian strip … endodermis … xylem

b) Casparian strip … ectoderm … xylem

c) xylem … endodermis … Casparian strip

d) transpiration … endodermis … xylem

e) Casparian strip … endodermis … phloem

a) Casparian strip … endodermis … xylem
(The Casparian strip is a waterproof barrier that forces water and solutes to pass through the plasma membranes of endodermis cells.)
_____ provide(s) the major force for the movement of water and solutes from roots to leaves.

a) Translocation
b) Transfer cells
c) Root pressure
d) Bulk flow
e) Transpiration

e) Transpiration
(Transpiration, the evaporation of water from leaves, exerts a pull that bears the primary responsibility for the movement of water and solutes from roots to leaves.)
_____ bonds are responsible for the cohesion of water molecules.

a) Peptide
b) Hydrogen
c) Ionic
d) Nonpolar covalent
e) Polar covalent

b) Hydrogen
_____ cells are the cells that regulate the opening and closing of stomata, thus playing a role in regulating transpiration.

a) Sieve-tube member
b) Companion
c) Guard
d) Casparian strip
e) Tracheid

c) Guard
x

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