We sometimes are able to generate antibodies (immune system proteins) that bind to and cover up some of the proteins of the outermost portion of a virus while it is in the bloodstream. This renders the virus unable to reproduce. What steps of viral replication are antibodies directly preventing?
Hint: Many of the proteins of the outside of a virus are used to identify and bind to a specific cell type.
Enveloped viruses have a layer of lipids surrounding their capsid. This envelope is made mostly of host cell membrane. In which step does the virus acquire this envelope?
Hint: At which stage of viral replication does the virus come closest to the host cell’s plasma membrane?
During budding release, the virus “steals” some of the host membrane to use for itself.
What occurs during vital uncoating?
The capsid breaks apart, releasing the viral genome
Hint: The goal of uncoating is to allow the virus’s genetic material to be accessed (and, therefore, replicated) by the host’s machinery
Which of the following statements concerning viruses is true?
The “host range” for a virus is determined by the presence or absence of particular components on the surface of the host cell that are required for the virus to attach.
Hint: Attachment of the virus to the host cell (the first step in the viral life cycle) requires binding of complementary molecules on the virus and host cell.
Which of the following statements regarding latent viral infections is true?
Latent infections can persist for years in an individual without causing any symptoms
Which statement is CORRECT concerning animal viruses?
Retroviruses use an enzyme called revewse transcriptase, which synthesizes DNA by copying RNA.
Hint: Retroviruses have an RNA genome that is converted to DNA inside a host cell by viral reverse transcriptase
Which statement concerning viral structure is true?
Spikes are found on some viruses. They are very consistent in structure and can be used for identification.
Hint: Some enveloped viruses have spikes, and they can be used for identification, such as the H and N spikes on the influenza virus
Which of the following is true concerning a lysogenic viral replication cycle?
During lysogeny, the viral genome intergrates into the host DNA, becoming a physical part of the chromosome.
Hint: It is inactive at this time, and virus is not produced.
Which of the following is most likely a product of an early gene?
DNA polymerase
An infectious protein is a?
An example of a latent viral infection is?
cold sores
Some viruses, such as human herpesvirus 1, infect a cell without causing symptoms. These are called?
latent viruses
Oncogenic viruses?
cause tumors to develop
The following steps occur during biosynthesis of a + strand RNA virus. What is the third step?
synthesis of – strand RNA
Which one of the following steps does NOT occur during multiplication of a picornavirus?
synthesis of DNA
The following steps occur during multiplication of retroviruses. Which is the fourth step?
synthesis of double-stranded DNA
The mechanism whereby an enveloped virus leaves a host cell is called?
Bacteriophage replication differs from animal virus replication because only bacteriophage replication involves?
injection of naked nucleic acid into the host cell
Which of the following places these items in the correct order for DNA-virus replication?
1. Maturation
2. DNA synthesis
3. Transcription
4. Translation
The following steps occur during multiplication of herpesviruses. Which of the third step?
Bacteriophages and animal viruses do NOT differ significantly in which one of the following steps?
A virus ability to infect an animal cell depends primarily upon the?
presence of receptor sites on the cell membrane
In the figure, which structure is a complex virus
True or False
Helical and icosahedral are terms used to describe the shapes of a virus envelope?
Which of the following statements provides the most significant support for the idea that viruses are nonliving chemicals?
They cannot reproduce themselves outside a host.

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