Pesticides are compounds that used by human being, particularly husbandmans for commanding biotical factors for a long clip and can convey a batch of environmental jobs. Among these compounds chlorine insect powder sprays have high half life, the belongings of lasting for a long clip and high lipophilicity feature. Due to holding chronic effects that resulted from consuming of this compounds, it is necessary to rating and analysis in environment particularly in nutrients and besides in fishes which have high fat and can transport this sort of insect powder sprays. So we have investigated the staying of chloride organic insect powder sprays such as D.D.T, D.D.E in the four sorts of fishes in the Caspian Sea. In this probe we have prepared for different sorts of fishes, which are extremely used, available in the Caspian Sea ( Sefid – koli- kilca – kefal ) that we selected five fish from the four different runing part ( Chalous and Babolsar metropolis and Khazar Abad and Miankaleh part ) in 2004. After cleansing, we prepared Hun musculus of the fished. Then, after the procedure of extraction, we distilled them in Vacuum by agencies of organic dissolver and at last we evaluated the remaining and reported based on PPM by Gas Chromatography ( GC ) with ECD sensor. The consequences of insect powders analyzed in four sorts of fishes been showed that the kafal sort of fish in the hunting part of Babolsar had the Highest sum of D.D.T at the rate of 0.031 PPM. Sefid in the hunting part of Babolsar was 0.03 PPM ( P & lt ; 0.05 ) . It is necessary to advert that no research has so far been done to be a standard for comparing in this country. But, fortuitously the sums of the insect powder sprays has non reached that offered degree in fishes, and it raises the dismay.
Cardinal words: D.D.T, D.D.E, Organochlorine residues, Caspian Sea, Fish
Man-made organochlorines such as DDT and DDE are extremely immune to debasement by biological, photochemical or chemical agencies. They are besides apt to bioaccumulation, are toxic and likely risky to human and/or environmental wellness. Most are prone to long-range conveyance these compounds are besides typically characterized as holding low H2O solubility and high li-pid solubility. The organ Cls have been associated with important environmental impact in a broad scope of species and at virtually all tropic degrees. Many organ Cls have been implicated in a wide scope of inauspicious human wellness and environmental effects, inAcluding impaired reproduction, endocrinal break, immunosuppression and malignant neoplastic disease. ExAposure to organ Cls has been correlated with population diminution in a figure of marine mammals such as fishes.
The primary conveyance paths into Marine and coastal environments include atmospheric deposition and surface run-off, the former being by far the greatest albeit dispersed over big countries. Because many organ Cls are comparatively volatile, their re-mobilization and long-distance redistribution through atmospheric tracts frequently complicates the identificaAtion of specific beginnings.
The Caspian Sea, the largest inland sea in the universe, is bordered by five states: Iran, Azerbaijan, TurkmeniAstan, Kazakhstan and Russia. It has no mercantile establishments and Acts of the Apostless as a reservoir for H2O in the part. Environmental pollutants found in the sea likely arrive via the Mazandaran and Gilan rivers. Industrial composites along the seashore peculiarly in mazandaran and Gilan states, in Iran, besides discharge waste straight into the Caspian Sea.
It is apparent that seafood, peculiarly Marine and fresh water fish, is a major constituent of the local diet ; it is estimated that an mean Persian individual particularly in Mazandaran state consumes fish or shellfish three or more times per hebdomad.
The purpose of this survey was to study degrees of organochlorines ( DDT and DDE ) in the four species consumed fish availAable from the local market in order to gauge potenAtial human exposure.
Material and Methods
Four normally consumed fish ( Table 1 ) were purchased from a local fish market in February 2008 ( n = 10 ) .
Table 1. Four normally consumed fish in tierces survey
Clupeonell a delicatula
All samples were collected from Caspian Sea in July and August 2008. Five indiAviduals of each fish were collected from four sites ( Chalous and Babolsar metropolis and Khazar Abad and Miankaleh part ) . Dorsal musculus of the samples were removed and frozen at -20 oC and shipped to cardinal research lab ( Sari metropolis ) for analysis. Concentrations of DDT and DDE were determined.
Sample readying and analysis
The sample readying and analysis protocols are similar to those described in Vida and Anuschka, 1998. Briefly, about 5 g of dorsal musculus from Samples fish was thawed and homogenized with 60 g of anhydrous Na soleplate in a howitzer until a free-flowing pulverization was obtained. The sample was extracted with 225 milliliters of 1, 1 methylene chloride/hexane. Extracted sample was injected to Gas chromatography in electron gaining control sensor ( ECD ) . OC degrees ( DDT and DDE ) were measured utilizing the internal criterion method in concurrence with the corresponding external criterions utilizing selected ion monitoring manner.
Consequences and Discussion:
Concentration of DDT and DDE contents in the four species of fishes in Caspian Sea are presented in Table 2 and shown in Figures 1 and 2. DDT and DDE measured in all Samples that Hunted from four piscary Regions.
Harmonizing to Table2, DDT Residues Regarding Sefid fish has maximal sums ( 0.027 PPM ) in Babolsar. In Chalus and Babolsar Regions, Sing Koli fish, the sums of DDT Content Were the Greatest and Close together ( 0.022 in Chalus and 0.023 in Babolsar ) . The Samples of Kafal fish in Chalus Presented the upper limits of DDT Content ( 0.031 PPM ) and Finally the Kilka fish in Comparison to other fishes, Presented the lower limit of DDT Content in above piscary Regions.
Residues of DDE in the above Species of fish Were found in the Order of Sefid ( Babolsar, 0.030 ) & gt ; Kafal ( Chalus, 0.029 ) & gt ; Koli ( Chalus, 0.025 ) During the Analysis Whereas sing Kilka fish, Presented the lower limit of DDE Contents in Compared to Other fishes Under Study.
Statistical Analysis ( One-way ANOVA ) , indicated that there is n’t Significant difference sing DDT contents ( P & lt ; 0.05, sig =0.016 ) but Significant difference sing DDE ( P & lt ; 0.05, sig =0.040 ) among Fishery Sites.
The consequences presented that trouble of toxicant residues is really serious and of import and Since researches in the instance of Caspian sea fishes is really small, to compare with this survey, so, there is a demand to finish study in Caspian sea ( Mazandaran state ) and Southern Seashores of Caspian sea.
Other survey in north Atlantic indicated that means of DDT ( 0.002 PPM ) , DDE ( 0.002 PPM ) , Dieldrin ( 0.006 PPM ) and Endosulphan ( 0.007 PPM ) in liver samples ( in Shir spot fish ) , that these degrees were lower than measures proposed by WHO ( 0.05 PPM ) .
Measures of DDT and DDE in Caspian sea ( Table 2. ) was lower than WHO Standard degrees ( 0.05ppm ) but in comparing to all parts and other toxicants, presented higher measures for great usage by husbandmans in Northern state in Iran ( southern seashores of Caspian sea ) and great distribution by agribusiness centre in Mazandaran among husbandmans there is grounds that the population of seals in the Caspian sea is worsening and birthrate rates are decreasAing. Further surveies on contaminations in unrecorded animate beings and biomarker responses that may bespeak generative intervention are needed before we can reason that the “ high degrees of DDT insect powders in this population are toxicologically of import ” .
Table 2. The mean measures of DDT and DDE contents ( PPM ) in four species of fishes
in Caspian sea
Kind of fish
Mean of DDT ( PPM )
Mean of DDE ( PPM )
Measurement of toxicant residues in nutrient merchandises ( agricultural, sea, etc ) should be on a regular basis performed harmonizing to per capita ingestion of toxicants.
Constitution of mention research lab, which was equipped with analytical setup such as GC, GC-Mass, HPLC, etc in the territories ineluctable.
Health attention organisation such as fishiness agribusiness, rice, environmental and the ministry of wellness probe centres have to exactly place environmental pollution ‘s and find better schemes to accomplishing wholesome nutrients.
Establishing the toxicant and environmental pollution information centre to steer the people all the clip and inform them about the control of toxicity can be helpful.
Educating the state ‘s husbandmans about the better utilizing of toxicants particularly chlorinated toxicants that their utilizing has been abolished, is necessary.
Replacing new methods in combat against vegetable plague such a biological pesticides ( e.g. trichograma beans against phyllophagou worm ) and bacterial pesticide ( e.g. Bacillus ) .
Chlorinated toxicant residues in husbandry merchandises such as dairy merchandises should be determined.
Measuring chlorinated toxicant residues in sea merchandises, because the contaminated H2O finally reach to sea.
Measuring chlorinated toxicant residues in human ( Milk, fatty tissue, blood, liver, etc ) should be done.