Globalization is non a new phenomenon. From the antediluvian epoch. people used to portion their thoughts in demand of their supports. endurance. Globalization is a wide construct. used to depict a assortment of phenomena that reflect increased economic. societal and political mutuality of states. Thus globalization indicates planetary interactions. in footings of economic. political. societal. cultural and environmental dimensions. as integrating in a manner to be globally connected. However. there are arguments refering the impacts of globalization on the well being of the humanity. but no uncertainties about its being. Many developing states are take parting to globalized universe. which increased the concerns about globalisation and its impacts on different facets of life. every bit good. Therefore. the nonsubjective appraisal of the effects of globalisation is an of import docket for modern-day development discourse. Here. it is necessary to understand it clearly which creates increasing demands of mensurating it every bit good.
The measuring of globalization utilizing indices is a recent development. The globalization indices of World Markets Research Centre ( WMRC. 2001 ) and the A. T. Kearney-Foreign Policy ( ATK/FP ) are the innovator in the field of mensurating globalization. ATK/FP index is a broader index and likely the most widely-known step of globalization. In add-on. it is used as the benchmark for many alternate globalization indices. Among other recent efforts to quantify globalization. Salamon and Sokolowski’s ( 2004 ) Global Civil Society Index. Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation ( CSGR. 2006 ) index of the University of Warwick. the Maastricht Globalisation Index ( MGI ) and the index produced by the KOF Swiss Economic Institute are renowned ( Dreher et el. 2008 ) .
The KOF’s Globalization index and Bangladesh:
The KOF globalization index was foremost published in 2002. which covers 123 states and includes 23 variables. The overall index includes the economic. societal and political dimensions of globalization. The recent KOF index of 2012. introduces an updated version of the original index. using more recent information with a broad coverage of 187 states. Belgium. Ireland and the Netherlands are headed the index. whilst Timor-Leste. Kiribati and the Equatorial Guinea are at the underside of the list. Bangladesh ranked 154 among the 187 states with a mark of 40. 73.
| | |Graph: | | | |South | |Asian | |Countries | |in KOF | |Index. | |2012 |
Harmonizing to this index. Nepal ( 37. 44 ) and Bhutan ( 28. 85 ) are less globalized than Bangladesh. among the neighboring South Asiatic states. Pakistan ( 52. 18 ) and India ( 51. 88 ) are taking the index among the part. followed by the Sri Lanka ( 50. 15 ) and Maldives ( 41. 24 ) .
Table: Different dimensions of Globalization in South Asiatic States
|KOF Index |Economic Globalization |Social Globalization |Political Globalization | |Country | |Bangladesh |1999 |2004 |2009 | | | | | | |Economic Globalization |19. 81 |30. 49
|34. 48 | |Actual Flows |13. 15 |22. 47 |32. 62 | |Restrictions |26. 46 |38. 51 |36. 34 | | | |Social Globalization |26. 46 |38. 51 |36. 34 | |Data on personal contact |18. 43 |18. 8 |20. 22 | |Data on Information Flows |22. 04 |28. 73 |39. 09 | |Data on Cultural Proximity |1. 75 |1. 32 |1. 21 | | | |Political Globalization |72. 09 |74. 6 |77. 41 | | | |Overall |31. 56 |36. 99 |40. 72 |
benefits of economic globalisation. every bit good as protecting itself from the daze of globalisation.
In footings of societal globalisation. still Bangladesh is non that much globalised. Its place is 182 out of 187 states. Particularly. in instance of cultural propinquity. Bangladesh scored the lowest. as there is no Macdonald’s eating house or the salesroom of Ikea.
On contrary. in footings of political globalisation. Bangladesh is comparatively more globalised or more connected with the universe system. as it stands at 68th place. Bing the taking participant of UN Security Council missions. Bangladesh scored most in this dimension of globalisation.
A critical analysis of the building and composing of the KOF’s index:
The KOF Index of Globalization ranks states based on economic. societal and political activity. The consequences of this index supply an appraisal of how much. or how small. states are opening them up and interacting with others. The aim of this index is to picture the extent of the globalisation of a state from different dimensions. non to depict the impact or effect of it. The rule constituents analysis is used to cipher the weight for variables. KOF’s analysis suggests the addition in economic globalisation of a peculiar state is due chiefly to a rise in existent flows of international fiscal minutess. consists of foreign direct investing ( FDI ) stocks. international trade flows. portfolio investing stocks. and income payments to foreign subjects. It besides calculates the de jure factors. the openness or the limitations of the trade and fiscal direction policies of a state.
From the dimension of societal globalisation. the KOF’s index consists of 11 different bomber indexs. Among them. presence of Macdonald’s eating house and Ikea salesroom indicates the cultural propinquity of a state. Here. the cultural globalisation is about acquire baffled with the Americanization.
In mensurating political globalisation. KOF’s index considers the figure of embassies in state. rank of different International Organizations. subscribing the International Treaties. and engagement in UN Security Council missions. However. though the figure of embassies a state has abroad. may vibrate increasing co-operation and even integrating ; this is non considered in KOF’s index. Again. many states made fewer parts to U. N. peacekeeping. both in footings of fiscal assistance and forces. as it is really much contextual and state particular. ensuing that even the most globalized states might confront challenges in keeping openness for political globalisation.
KOF’s index does non see or set the geographic features of states. Furthermore. it is non concerned about the environmental facets of globalisation. whereas planetary heating and clime alteration is one of the major concerns of modern-day planetary development. Acknowledging the green economic system. the incorporate ecological costs in trade and ingestion. C trade. all the of import planetary issues are wholly overlooked in this index.
Few other interesting but complex characteristics of globalisation. such as. cultural transmutations. planetary consciousness. and trans-border environmental issues. are non captured by this index. as they are hard to mensurate.
From the methodological position point. KOF’s index is wholly based on quantitative research. focused on leaden informations and statistics. which creates the hazards of over simplification. As a multi-dimensional issue. globalisation demands qualitative analysis of its assorted facets. which is absent here. An interdisciplinary attack to mensurate the globalisation could hold answered the multi-facetted dimensions of inquiries to understand and hold on the assorted phenomena of globalisations adequately.
01. Dreher. A. . et EL. ( 2008 ) Measuring Globalization- Estimating its Consequences. New York. Springer.