Harmonizing to the Conflict theory of sociology. the specifying quality of human societies has ever been the being of different categories of people in the society and struggles of involvement between these categories of people.
In the United States. wealth and power are concentrated in the custodies of a relatively few affluent households. The involvements of this comparatively little but affluent and politically powerful category of people is ever under menace from the multitudes at big. hence institutionalised mechanisms exist in the authorities and society. that allow the rich to retain their wealth and power and the hapless to stay hapless and non-influential ( Mantsios ) .
The media is one such tool for perpetuating the power of the rich. More than half of all the mass media mercantile establishments such as newspapers. magazines and film studios are owned by merely 23 big corporations which are in bend. under the control of the upper category. It is non surprising therefore that the media engages in protagonism for the rich and for the continuation of the position quo in the economic. political and societal order ( Mantsios ) .
The basic scheme followed in the media in order to forestall the multitudes from lifting against the inequalities of the political and societal system is ‘divide and conquer’ . This does non needfully hold to be a witting determination on the portion of the media decision makers ; instead it may merely be a manifestation of the political orientation that drives media proprietors.
The media engages in motivating the larger portion of the lower categories. which are comparatively better-off subdivisions of against those subdivisions of the society which face utmost poorness and destitution. They are painted as menaces to a common person’s security. as parasites populating off the taxpayer’s money and in general as people who are hapless through their ain bad life style picks ( Mantsios ) .
The rich on the other manus are portrayed as benevolent although their corporations prosecute in patterns which are greatly harmful to the common individual and are frequently responsible for the devastation of the support of the hapless particularly little concerns. Their wealth is portrayed to be the consequence of difficult work and attempt even though the rich receive a far larger portion of the taxpayer’s money in the signifier of agricultural subsidies etc. ( Mantsios )
The media humanizes the rich by researching infinitesimal facets of their personal lives and dehumanizes the hapless as a violent. lazy and condemnable category ( Mantsios ) .
The rich are depicted as people with interesting personality oddities and eccentricities but finally harmless. those few among the rich who are convicted of condemnable behaviour are written off as ‘a few bad apples’ . In this manner the harmful effects of the endemic societal stratification in American society and the harmful actions engaged in by upper category oligarchs are glossed over or ignored ( Mantsios ) .
Social Stratification is the division of the persons in a society in discernible categories in conformity with their social influence and wealth. Different societies have different degrees of rigidness in their societal order. The more socially stratified a society. the less common it becomes for a individual born in a lower category to lift up to a higher category through their ain attempts ( Domhoff ) .
An utmost illustration of societal stratification was the traditional caste system in Hindu society. This system forced people to follow the trade of their ascendants. Therefore priestly households would merely bring forth more priests. soldier households would bring forth soldiers. servant households would bring forth lone retainers and the untouchable castaway households would bring forth lone castawaies.
In the United States. one of the manifestations of societal stratification can be observed in the instruction system. The consequence of societal position can clearly be seen in students’ public presentation in standardised trials. On mean pupils from high income households have much higher SAT tonss than pupils from low income households ( Mantsios. Class in America: Myths and Realities ) .
Another facet of societal stratification is in the occupation market. people whose parents were bluish collar workers are far more likely to be bluish collar workers. The people in the upper category on the other manus tend to stay upper category ( Domhoff ) .
Harmonizing to Marxist idea. societal stratification arose out of the unequal economic substructure of a society ; one category owned the agencies of production and the other category was forced to sell their labour to them.
In Marxist idea. the societal categories were in ageless struggle. Marx viewed history as one long battle of the under categories against the privileges in social substructure that the over categories had built for themselves.
Marx viewed the abolishment of monarchy as one measure in the devastation of over category privilege. now it was no longer acceptable for an upper category to asseverate its right to govern everyone else based on godly authorization. nevertheless ‘wage slavery’ persisted i. e. the lower classes’ were still obliged to sell their labour to those who owned the agencies of production. in order to last.
Harmonizing to Marxist thought the abolishment of private ownership was the following measure in development of a society without societal stratification.
Revolutionary. Reform. Conservative and Reactionary Social Motions
Social motion can be divided into four typed in conformity with their primary features:
Revolutionary societal motions are motions that intent to convey political turbulence and extremist societal alteration to the society. Revolutionary motions frequently seek to convey about greater societal equality and to take one person. household. ethnicity or societal class’ monopoly on power and wealth. For illustration the Abolitionist motion in the American South sought to convey an terminal to the endemic societal establishment of bondage.
Reform motions seek to convey about positive alterations in the societal order while non trying to radically endanger the bing societal hierarchy. An illustration of a reform motion would be a motion that called for better intervention of slaves instead than an terminal to bondage.
Conservative motions seek to perpetuate the bing societal order and to defy the influences which they view as endangering to the position quo. The work of pro-slavery sermonizers in the antebellum American South may be viewed as a conservative motion.
Reactionary motions are extremist and frequently violent looks of resistance to alterations taking topographic point in a society. the Southern insurrectionist motion is an illustration of a reactionist motion.
The Hip Hop motion among urban African Americans can non be neatly fitted into any of these casts. Hip hop may be regarded as ultraconservative to the extent that it was a reaction to the devastation of the traditional African American societal order by outside capitalist forces ( Rose ) .
Hip Hop can be regarded as radical motion due to the frequently extremist message of black authorization that some of the vocal wordss convey.
Hip Hop can be regarded as a reform motion due to the fact the chief advocates of the motion have neither the agencies and nor the serious dispositions for conveying approximately extremist alteration.
Hip Hop may be viewed as a conservative motion due to the fact that it seeks to perpetuate some societal inequalities such as patriarchate ( Rose ) .
In short Hip Hop is simply a tool for the voiceless to voice their defeats and concerns. its value as a cohesive motion to convey about any positive alteration in the African American community is dubious.
Gender socialisation is the progressive assimilation of a individual into the society by acceptance of behaviours which the society considers appropriate for his or her gender.
The procedure of gender socialisation is initiated at a immature age and small misss and male childs are taught to act otherwise ( Lorber ) .
Often the agencies of gender socialisation are rather elusive and may non even be realized by parents or defenders who oversee and enforce the procedure. A classical illustration of gender socialisation is parents acquiring dolls for small misss and guns for small male childs. This perniciously teaches small misss that their function in life is to be nurturers and to dress good and look nice while male childs learn that fall backing to force is a socially appropriate behaviour for them.
Bing male and female is therefore an adoptive social function that is forced upon an single by society and to be socially appropriate an single must invariably “do gender” ( Lorber ) .
This procedure of “doing gender” is particularly wash uping to those persons who do non experience sufficiently male or female. make non purely place with any gender or place with a different gender than the one considered appropriate for them by the society ( Lucal ) .
In “What It Means to be Gendered Me” . Betsy Lucal. a tall female with a male visual aspect faces many troubles. She is challenged when seeking to utilize the ladies toilet. service staff addresses her as ‘sir’ and she is suspected of fraud when trying to utilize her recognition card ( Lucal ) .
She finds that when she is with her brother. immature adult females try to chat up with her. believing them to be two unattached immature work forces. and when she is with her female friends. people tend to believe of them as a heterosexual twosomes ( Lucal ) .