Participating on virtual teams necessarily requires individuals to be available for electronic communication 24 hours a day.
FALSE
Managers of virtual workers should arrange for them to meet regularly
TRUE
Over 20 years ago, Peter Drucker predicted that the future organization would be organized around teamwork, but that has yet to occur
FALSE
Among the benefits of teamwork is the reduction of destructive internal competition
TRUE
While quality is usually improved by using teamwork in an organization, productivity typically suffers because teamwork is time consuming
FALSE
A team is defined as two or more freely interacting individuals who share collective norms, share collective goals, and have a common identity
FALSE
Formal communication is the essence of a team, and what differentiates it from a group
FALSE
Twenty-five new employees from across the Kendall Automotive Technologies organization are attending an orientation, receiving information about company policies, and filling out various forms. These employees comprise a team
FALSE
A team is a small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose and performance goals
TRUE
A formal group typically has no officially appointed leader, although a leader may emerge from members of the group
FALSE
In the workplace, informal groups can undercut the plans of formal groups
TRUE
Informal groups can be highly productive, even more so than formal groups
TRUE
Research finds that the majority of workplace learning occurs in formal groups
FALSE
A team created to broaden the information base for managerial decisions is known as a recommendation team
FALSE
A maintenance crew is an example of an action team
FALSE
A work team may be self-managed, cross-functional, virtual, or even all of these at the same time
TRUE
A cross-functional team is staffed with specialists pursuing a common objective
TRUE
Quality circles are now known as continuous improvement teams
TRUE
Problem-solving teams consist of small groups of volunteers or workers and supervisors who meet intermittently to discuss workplace- and quality-related problems
FALSE
About 25% of Fortune 1000 companies use some form of self-managed work teams
FALSE
Creating self-managed teams in the workplace has a very positive effect on job satisfaction and organizational commitment
FALSE
The process of getting oriented and getting acquainted with the group is known as the forming stage of team development
TRUE
Many groups stall in the performing stage of group development
FALSE
In the storming stage of group development, the leader should encourage members to work through their conflicts about tasks and goals
TRUE
Group cohesion arises during the forming stage of group development
FALSE
The norming stage of team development is a lengthy and painful one
FALSE
During the performing stage, the leader of a team should allow members the empowerment they need to work on tasks
TRUE
A leader should ease the transition of an adjourning group with rituals celebrating “the end” and “new beginnings.”
TRUE
The tendency of a group or team to stick together is known as cooperation
FALSE
Managers can stimulate cohesiveness in teams by encouraging people to have face-to-face exchanges at work
TRUE
While individuals prefer to have measurable goals as well as feedback about their performance, this is not required for teams since goals and feedback can be generated from within
FALSE
Mutual trust and commitment are developed within a team because members are mutually accountable to a supervisor
FALSE
Generally speaking, the optimal team size is considered to be 12 to 15 members
FALSE
Members of smaller teams tend to be more highly committed and satisfied
TRUE
Larger teams are more likely than small ones to have formal and autocratic leadership
TRUE
People tend to exert less effort when working in groups than when working alone, a tendency known as social loafing
TRUE
Job modeling is a socially determined set of rules for how an individual should behave in an organization
FALSE
Two types of team roles are task and stability
FALSE
An example of a task role is an initiator, someone who suggests new goals or ideas
TRUE
A maintenance role consists of behavior that fosters constructive relationships among team members
TRUE
Norms point up the boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable behavior among group or team members
TRUE
One of the primary reasons norms are enforced is to leverage the group’s power with management
FALSE
Groupthink is a cohesive group’s blind unwillingness to consider alternatives
TRUE
A positive outcome of groupthink is the development of more alternative ideas
FALSE
Allowing criticism of ideas helps prevent groupthink
TRUE
Conflict is the dramatic and often violent clash of opposing forces that lacks a simple resolution that would be satisfactory to all parties
FALSE
Certain kinds of conflict can be beneficial for organizations
TRUE
Another name for functional conflict is productive conflict
FALSE
According to research, negative conflict can have positive effects on performance
TRUE
Organizations with too much conflict tend to be plagued by apathy and missed deadlines
FALSE
Performance in the workplace is maximized with a moderate level of conflict
TRUE
When resources are scarce, conflict is more likely
TRUE
Conflict is naturally avoided when organizations are structured along functional lines
FALSE
When job boundaries are ambiguous, employees are less possessive, and conflict is likely to be minimized
FALSE
Avoiding it is never an appropriate response to conflict
FALSE
The weakness of accommodating as a method for handling conflict is that it is only a temporary fix that fails to address the underlying problem
TRUE
The conflict-handling style of compromising is appropriate when both parties to a conflict have equal power
TRUE
Speed of resolution is the primary benefit of using the collaborating conflict-handling style
FALSE
When parties to a conflict have deeply rooted, opposing value systems, the most appropriate method to handle the conflict is collaboration
FALSE
Competition is a form of conflict
TRUE
Devil’s advocacy is a method used to induce programmed conflict
TRUE
The dialectic method is the process of assigning someone to play the role of critic to voice possible objections to a proposal
FALSE
Which of the following is the best way to manage virtual teams?

A. Focus on what is accomplished, not hours or locations.

B. When beginning with a virtual team, set the final deadline and reprimand any virtual team members who don’t make the deadline.

C. Because you don’t have face-to-face contact, relay instructions via phone.

D. Require each team member to keep their own personal record of the work that’s been done as a team.

E. Utilize employees on a global team around the clock.

A. Focus on what is accomplished, not hours or locations.
In managing virtual workers, a manager should

A. give directions only by phone or in person.

B. make sure the worker is keeping to a fixed schedule of hours.

C. let employees work using their own expectations of how to do their jobs.

D. meet regularly, face to face.

E. initiate change quickly.

D. meet regularly, face to face.
Which of the following is not a benefit of teamwork in an organization?

A. Increased speed

B. Decreased stress

C. Reduced costs

D. Improved workplace cohesiveness

E. Reduced destructive internal competition

B. Decreased stress
Two or more freely interacting individuals who share collective norms, share collective goals, and have a common identity are called a

A. cluster.

B. self-managing work team.

C. collaborative unit.

D. quality circle.

E. group.

E. group.
A _______ is defined as a small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves accountable.

A. cross-functional team

B. group

C. team

D. panel

E. formal group

C. team
A group that is created to do something productive for the organization and is headed by a leader is called a(n)

A. dynamic group.

B. formal group.

C. normative group.

D. informal group.

E. network group.

B. formal group.
Jane organized several teachers to discuss the school’s interior painting scheduled for summer. They looked at several brands, and heard a presentation by a designer who then helped them choose a color palette to recommend to school administrators. In this instance, the teachers make up a(n)

A. self-managed team.

B. virtual team.

C. cross-functional team.

D. informal group.

E. formal group.

E. formal group.
Which of the following is true of informal groups?

A. Informal groups can advance the plans of formal groups.

B. A temporary committee is an example of an informal group.

C. Members of an informal group are assigned to it by the skills they possess.

D. Informal groups have appointed leaders.

E. Informal groups are primarily created to solve an organizational problem.

A. Informal groups can advance the plans of formal groups.
In all but the worst weather, Laura and four of her coworkers met each day at 12:15 to walk the wilderness trail behind their office building. This is an example of a(n)

A. continuous improvement team.

B. informal group.

C. self-managed team.

D. virtual team.

E. formal group.

B. informal group.
A data processing group is an example of a(n)

A. routine team.

B. action team.

C. advice team.

D. production team.

E. project team.

D. production team.
A team composed of people from different departments who are pursuing a common objective is called a

A. quality circle.

B. problem-solving team.

C. cross-functional team.

D. virtual team.

E. work force.

C. cross-functional team.
Luis, Kennedy, and Jennifer met once a week for several months in the fall to redesign department work spaces, to be implemented when the organization moved to a new building in January. This is an example of a

A. top management team.

B. problem-solving team.

C. cross-functional team.

D. virtual team.

E. continuous improvement team.

B. problem-solving team.
A team that consists of members who interact by computer network to collaborate on projects is called a(n)

A. remote team.

B. e-team.

C. self-managed team.

D. informal team.

E. virtual team.

E. virtual team.
At Bremond Stafford Architects, a group of designers are developing the first drawings for a proposed multiuse development section of a large city that is being revitalized. What type of work team is this group?

A. Project team

B. Production team

C. Product team

D. Action team

E. Advice team

A. Project team
A work team that works to accomplish tasks that require people with specialized training and a high degree of coordination is called a(n)

A. production team.

B. project team.

C. development team.

D. action team.

E. advice team.

D. action team.
Which of the following is most likely to be considered an action team?

A. A group of scientists working on a new cancer drug.

B. All workers on the night shift of a plastics manufacturing facility.

C. An advisory council on teacher development for a school district.

D. An airline cockpit crew.

E. An information-technology improvement task force.

D. An airline cockpit crew.
Which of the following is a characteristic of a continuous improvement team?

A. A built-in part of any effective organizational group.

B. A type of advice team.

C. Requires assigned membership.

D. Emerged from self-managed team concept.

E. Encourages high empowerment.

B. A type of advice team.
Who are typical members of continuous improvement teams?

A. Workers and supervisors

B. Supervisors and managers

C. Managers and agents representing competitors

D. Managers and outside suppliers

E. Customers and suppliers

A. Workers and supervisors
Self-managed teams are groups of workers who have been given ______ for their task domains.

A. individual incentives

B. administrative oversight

C. reduced responsibility

D. complete freedom

E. no technology

B. administrative oversight
Administrative oversight given to self-managed teams does not include

A. planning.

B. scheduling work.

C. implementing change.

D. monitoring performance.

E. staffing.

C. implementing change.
When using a self-managed team, a manager should

A. maintain detailed monitoring of its performance.

B. create the team within whatever structure currently exists.

C. offer lucrative individual bonuses.

D. allow members to hire their own coworkers.

E. provide elaborate retreats for team discussions.

D. allow members to hire their own coworkers.
Which of the following is an important aspect when creating a self-managed team?

A. Lessen the authority and autonomy that is granted.

B. Require participation to be outside of normal working hours.

C. Use some form of team compensation.

D. Allow workers to simply do their own thing.

E. Require voluntary only membership.

C. Use some form of team compensation.
Which of the following is not one of the stages of group and team development?

A. Norming

B. Storming

C. Reforming

D. Adjourning

E. Performing

C. Reforming
The question the group is asking during the forming stage of group development is

A. “Why are we here?”

B. “What’s next?”

C. “Can we do the job properly?”

D. “Why are we fighting about who does what?”

E. “Can we agree on roles and work as a team?”

A. “Why are we here?”
During the forming stage, the leader should

A. establish permanent control.

B. allow people to socialize.

C. empower team members.

D. encourage disagreement.

E. work through team conflicts.

B. allow people to socialize.
The ______ stage of team development is characterized by the emergence of individual personalities and roles and conflicts within the group.

A. norming

B. forming

C. adjourning

D. performing

E. storming

E. storming
The group development stage in which individuals test the leader’s policies and assumptions as they try to determine how they fit into the power structure is the ______ stage.

A. storming

B. norming

C. performing

D. forming

E. adjourning

A. storming
Jinhai’s team was not making much progress on defining a new production process. Maria was being very uncooperative; she did not agree with the direction Jinhai was taking, so she hadn’t helped with her part. This team is in what stage of group development?

A. Performing

B. Forming

C. Adjourning

D. Storming

E. Norming

D. Storming
During the ______ stage of team development, close relationships develop and unity and harmony emerge.

A. storming

B. norming

C. performing

D. forming

E. adjourning

B. norming
The question individuals ask during the norming stage of group development is

A. “How do I fit in here?”

B. “What’s next?”

C. “How can I best perform my role?”

D. “What do the others expect me to do?”

E. “What’s my role here?”

D. “What do the others expect me to do?”
The stage during which a group sets guidelines about issues like attendance and punctuality is the ______ stage.

A. norming

B. storming

C. forming

D. adjourning

E. performing

A. norming
Groups that make it through storming generally do so because

A. they develop groupthink.

B. someone wins the political battle and dominates the group.

C. someone besides the leader challenges the group to resolve power struggles.

D. the work gets done.

E. the focus generally is on social loafing.

C. someone besides the leader challenges the group to resolve power struggles.
The principal by-product of the norming stage of team development is

A. adjournment.

B. uncertainty.

C. group cohesiveness.

D. conflict.

E. empowerment.

C. group cohesiveness.
______ is a “we feeling” that binds group members together.

A. Maintenance

B. Groupthink

C. Norming

D. Social loafing

E. Group cohesiveness

E. Group cohesiveness
Since hard feelings about group leadership and assignments had passed, Elena’s group recently seemed to be relating much better. At the meeting tomorrow she should take advantage of this moment by

A. helping the team identify group goals and values.

B. encouraging members to voice disagreements.

C. helping people get to know each other.

D. empowering the members.

E. throwing a thank-you party.

A. helping the team identify group goals and values.
In the performing stage of group development, members

A. prepare for disbandment.

B. develop close relationships.

C. concentrate on solving problems.

D. test the leader’s policies.

E. hold back to see what will happen.

C. concentrate on solving problems.
During the performing stage of team development, the group answers the question

A. “Can we agree on roles and work as a team?”

B. “Why are we here?”

C. “Why are we fighting?”

D. “Can we do the job properly?”

E. “Who’s in charge?”

D. “Can we do the job properly?”
Jerald led a team that has just finished up a very challenging research project that will assist management in developing long-range plans. Despite the stress of the past few months, most participants seem sad it’s over. Now Jerald should

A. have an awards ceremony.

B. emphasize unity.

C. get the group disbanded quickly to free people up for new things.

D. provide opportunities for people to get to know each other better now.

E. ensure those members can work on similar tasks going forward.

A. have an awards ceremony.
Which of the following is considered one of the most essential considerations in building a group into an effective team?

A. Trust

B. Promoting groupthink

C. Organizational structure

D. Market stability

E. Size

A. Trust
Individuals are said to be cooperating when

A. they have reciprocal faith in others’ intentions and behaviors.

B. they have a sense of togetherness and unity.

C. their efforts are systematically integrated to achieve a collective objective.

D. their motivation comes from a desire to please a supervisor or the seeking of a tangible reward.

E. they have ceased to be competitive with one another and prefer harmony.

C. their efforts are systematically integrated to achieve a collective objective.
________ is defined as reciprocal faith in others’ intentions and behaviors.

A. Cooperation

B. Trust

C. Cohesiveness

D. Unity

E. Fairness

B. Trust
Trust is based on _______, which can be enhanced by showing professionalism, technical ability, and good business sense.

A. cooperation

B. cohesiveness

C. unity

D. honesty

E. credibility

E. credibility
Which of the following is a way managers can enhance team cohesiveness?

A. Isolating the group from the actions of competitors or other threats.

B. Providing team members precise instructions for their tasks.

C. Creating a relatively large team.

D. Assigning members randomly to teams.

E. Emphasizing members’ common characteristics.

E. Emphasizing members’ common characteristics.
Which of the following is an advantage of smaller groups?

A. Fewer distractions

B. More formalized team leadership

C. More creativity and innovation

D. More division of labor

E. Better interaction and coordination

E. Better interaction and coordination
Which of the following is a disadvantage of smaller groups?

A. Unfair work distribution

B. Autocratic leadership

C. Lower morale

D. Tendency to form cliques

E. Tendency to take unreasonable risk

A. Unfair work distribution
Which of the following is an advantage of larger groups?

A. Higher morale

B. More effective interaction

C. Greater boldness

D. Able to take advantage of division of labor

E. Less social loafing

D. Able to take advantage of division of labor
Which of the following is a disadvantage of larger groups?

A. Less creativity and innovation

B. Less commitment

C. More division of labor

D. Fewer resources

E. Fewer cliques

B. Less commitment
Perry was part of a 15-person grounds beautification committee, and among its responsibilities were monthly parking lot cleanup and weekly patio sweeping. He was a part of the committee at his boss’s request but had never actually helped with anything. This is likely an example of

A. storming.

B. devil’s advocacy.

C. social loafing.

D. procrastinating

E. adjourning.

C. social loafing.
Members of a team develop their ______ based on the expectations of the team, of the organization, and of themselves.

A. roles

B. norms

C. groupthink

D. job descriptions

E. social fit

A. roles
A ______ role is behavior that concentrates on getting the team’s work done.

A. maintenance

B. performance

C. administrative

D. task

E. production

D. task
Marielle points out during the meeting that the group has fallen a half hour behind schedule according to the agenda, and should get back to the important work at hand. She is performing a ______ role.

A. relational

B. task

C. maintenance

D. social

E. production

B. task
Someone at a team meeting who says, “Let’s hear from those who oppose this plan” is performing a ______ role.

A. maintenance

B. social

C. coordinator

D. reorientation

E. task

A. maintenance
Tension was thick in the room as the management team discussed changes to promotion requirements. But then Chris made a joke about Jake’s white-knuckled grip on his pen, and the laughter seemed to improve the mood. Chris was acting in a ______ role.

A. relational

B. task

C. maintenance

D. social

E. production

C. maintenance
Which of the following is not a reason to enforce norms?

A. To clarify role expectations.

B. To create a written document of behavioral guidelines for new employees.

C. To help the group survive.

D. To emphasize the group’s important values.

E. To help individuals avoid embarrassing situations.

B. To create a written document of behavioral guidelines for new employees.
Nordstrom’s department store chain emphasizes the great lengths to which it goes in customer service, an example of which of these reasons to enforce norms?

A. To clarify role expectations.

B. To help the group survive.

C. To create cohesiveness.

D. To emphasize the group’s important values.

E. To help individuals avoid embarrassing situations.

D. To emphasize the group’s important values.
When members of a group are friendly and tight-knit but unable to disagree enough to properly appraise alternatives, they are said to be experiencing

A. paradigm paralysis.

B. groupthink.

C. social loafing.

D. the dialectic method.

E. devil’s advocacy.

B. groupthink.
Dave sat through the meeting feeling convinced his team was misinterpreting recent marketing research, but he didn’t say anything. The team leader was a close friend. Plus, he didn’t want to disrupt the team since he perceived himself to be the only one with reservations. Dave’s team appears to be experiencing

A. groupthink.

B. storming.

C. social loafing.

D. norming.

E. devil’s advocacy.

A. groupthink.
Peer pressure, which leads group members to question the loyalty of other members who express dissent, is a symptom of

A. social loafing.

B. norming.

C. devil’s advocacy.

D. groupthink.

E. storming.

D. groupthink.
To prevent groupthink, a manager should

A. reinforce how capable the group is.

B. never admit errors to outsiders.

C. bring in outside experts for fresh perspectives.

D. encourage everyone to “get with the team.”

E. express high confidence in the group’s previous decisions.

C. bring in outside experts for fresh perspectives.
Dysfunction conflict is sometimes called ______ conflict.

A. negative

B. irregular

C. destructive

D. aggressive

E. apathetic

A. negative
Which of the following is characteristic of workgroups with too little conflict?

A. Dissatisfaction

B. Indecision

C. Political infighting

D. Lack of teamwork

E. Turnover

B. Indecision
Which of the following is a manifestation of excessive conflict in the workplace?

A. Apathy

B. Lack of creativity

C. Missed deadlines

D. Violence

E. Indecision

D. Violence
Workplace performance is maximized when

A. conflict is absent.

B. conflict is at a very low level.

C. conflict is at a moderate level.

D. conflict is at a high level.

E. conflict occurs only at nonmanagerial levels.

C. conflict is at a moderate level.
________ conflict is defined as interpersonal opposition based on personal dislike, disagreement, or differing styles.

A. Personality

B. Competitive

C. Dysfunctional

D. Communication

E. Programmed

A. Personality
Hannah is on a team with Carson, and they are often in conflict. Hannah likes to begin her work with careful planning and she gets started immediately. Carson, on the other hand, likes trying out several ideas, and tends to be working frantically at the last minute. Their team conflict most likely stems from

A. time pressure.

B. a personality clash.

C. communication failure.

D. ambiguous jurisdictions.

E. inconsistent goals.

B. a personality clash.
Which of the following is a source of conflict in the workplace?

A. Excessive communication

B. Strict job boundaries

C. Too many resources

D. Lack of diversity

E. Inconsistent goals

E. Inconsistent goals
Ken, whose primary job is supervising a small production group, is not getting cooperation from all members on the cross-functional team he leads. In particular, Bethany, a marketing manager, seems to resist his direction. The source of conflict in this cause may be

A. time pressure.

B. a personality clash.

C. communication failure.

D. status differences.

E. ambiguous jurisdictions.

D. status differences.
Toyota’s automobile recall problems may have been rooted in the difference between Japanese and American attitudes about

A. ambiguity.

B. conflict.

C. advocacy.

D. division of labor.

E. performance.

B. conflict.
The conflict-handling style in which a person allows the desires of another to prevail is known as

A. forcing.

B. accommodating.

C. avoiding.

D. collaborating.

E. compromising.

B. accommodating.
When issues causing conflict are trivial, or when emotions are high and cooling off would be helpful, which conflict-handling style is preferable?

A. Collaborating

B. Forcing

C. Accommodating

D. Avoiding

E. Compromising

D. Avoiding
Rachel missed another deadline and her boss Keri is very upset. She will have to explain to the client again why the project is behind. Keri thinks she may say something she’ll regret if she talks to Rachel about this now, so she decides to wait awhile. Keri is using the ______ conflict-handling style.

A. avoiding

B. collaborating

C. compromising

D. forcing

E. accommodating

A. avoiding
Travis proposed the purchase of a new Minolta copier to his boss. Amir said that he has always used and liked Xerox copiers, but when he thinks about it later he realizes he does not really feel strongly about it. Amir should adopt a(n) ______ conflict-handling style.

A. avoiding

B. collaborating

C. compromising

D. forcing

E. accommodating

E. accommodating
Malia told her team that she is moving forward with a change to the bonus structure, despite vocal objections from several team members. Malia is using the ______ conflict-handling style.

A. avoiding

B. collaborating

C. compromising

D. forcing

E. accommodating

D. forcing
______ is the conflict-handling style that strives to devise solutions that benefit both parties.

A. Avoiding

B. Collaborating

C. Compromising

D. Forcing

E. Accommodating

B. Collaborating
The disadvantage of the ______ conflict-handling style is that it is very time consuming.

A. avoiding

B. collaborating

C. compromising

D. forcing

E. accommodating

B. collaborating
In which of the following conditions should constructive conflict be stimulated?

A. The group seems to be apathetic.

B. Managers want to achieve work objectives.

C. The group is adapting to change.

D. Managers are in charge of self-managed teams.

E. There is a lot of internal competition.

A. The group seems to be apathetic.
______ is designed to elicit different opinions without inciting people’s personal feelings.

A. Groupthink

B. Programmed conflict

C. Social loafing

D. Storming

E. Dysfunctional conflict

B. Programmed conflict
Becca asked Kevin, one of her team members, to purposefully think of and voice criticisms as the group discussed a popular idea to open a branch office in another state. This is an example of the use of

A. devil’s advocacy.

B. groupthink.

C. the dialectic method.

D. storming.

E. dysfunctional conflict.

A. devil’s advocacy.
______ is the process of having two people or groups play opposing roles in a debate in order to better understand a proposal.

A. Storming

B. Positive conflict

C. Devil’s advocacy

D. Groupthink

E. The dialectic method

E. The dialectic method
Why does teamwork matter? What results can it achieve?
Teamwork matters because it can support the organization’s mission and strategy by enhancing performance in several ways:

Increased productivity
Increased speed
Decreased costs
Improved quality
Reduced destructive conflict and competition
Improved workplace cohesiveness

What are the four types of work teams? Describe what each does and provide an example of each.
The types of work teams are: advice, production, project, and action.

Advice teams advise managers in decision making. Examples are committees, review panels, advisory councils, employee involvement groups, and quality circles.

Production teams perform day-to-day operations. Examples are mining teams, flight-attendant crews, maintenance crews, assembly teams, data processing groups, and manufacturing crews.

Project teams do creative problem solving. Examples are task forces, research groups, planning teams, architect teams, engineering teams, and development teams.

Action teams accomplish tasks that require people with specialized training and a high degree of coordination. Examples include hospital surgery teams, airline cockpit crews, mountain-climbing expeditions, police SWAT teams, and labor contract-negotiating teams.

Define a self-managed team and how its activities may differ from other teams. From what type of team did it evolve?
Self-managed teams are defined as groups of workers who are given administrative oversight for their task domains. Administrative oversight involves delegated activities such as planning, scheduling, monitoring, and staffing.

In many places, such as the Texas Instruments electronics factory in Malaysia, the continuous improvement teams have evolved into a system made up almost entirely of self-managed teams, with routine activities formerly performed by supervisors now performed by team members.

Describe the stages of group development. For each, discuss what questions the individual asks at that stage, and what the leader should do to facilitate it.
Forming: the process of getting oriented and acquainted. People ask, “Why are we here?” Leaders should help people get to know each other.
Storming: individual personalities and roles emerge, and conflict begins. People ask, “Why are we fighting over who does what and who’s in charge?” Leaders should encourage people to speak out with ideas and disagreements and to work through their conflicts.
Norming: conflicts are resolved, close relationships develop, and unity and harmony emerge. People ask, “Can we agree on roles and work as a team?” Leaders should emphasize unity and help the team identify goals and values.
Performing: members solve problems and complete the task. People ask, “Can we do the job properly?” Leaders should empower members.
Adjourning: members prepare for disbandment. People ask, “Can we help members transition out?” Leaders can help ease the transition with rituals.
Name at least four of the major considerations when building a group into an effective team. Briefly, describe what a manager should do in each area.
The most essential considerations in building a group into an effective team are (1) cooperation, (2) trust, and (3) cohesiveness. These are followed by (4) performance goals and feedback, (5) motivation through mutual accountability, (6) size, (7) roles, (8) norms, and (9) awareness of groupthink.

Cooperation: Help employees to share knowledge and learn from one another.
Trust: Through enhancing your credibility by showing professionalism, technical ability, and good business sense, you can build trust in your team members.
Cohesiveness: Managers can stimulate cohesiveness by encouraging people to have face-to-face exchanges at work.
Performance goals and feedback: The manager should make sure that teams have and know their purpose, and it is expressed in measurable goals and feedback.
Motivation through mutual accountability: The manager encourages the team to accept responsibility through actions such as allowing the team to hire its own members.
Size: Managers understand the advantages and disadvantages of small and large teams, and try to build on strengths while alleviating weaknesses.
Roles: The manager should facilitate other team members in determining what their roles in the group will be.
Norms: Managers can stimulate cohesiveness by allowing people on work teams to pick their own teammates, allowing off-the-job social events, and urging team members to recognize and appreciate each other’s contributions to the team goal. Cohesiveness is also achieved by keeping teams small, and making sure performance standards are clear and accepted.
Groupthink: The manager should allow and encourage criticism and bring other perspectives into the group.

What is groupthink? Why does it occur? Describe a hypothetical situation in which it seems to be occurring. What should a manager do about it?
Groupthink is a cohesive group’s blind unwillingness to consider alternatives. It arises when cohesion in a group becomes too high, and it causes reduction in alternative ideas and limiting of information. Some symptoms include invulnerability, inherent morality, and stereotyping of opposition; rationalization and self-censorship; and illusion of unanimity, peer pressure, and mindguards. Managers should strive to decrease it by allowing criticism and encouraging other perspectives.
Describe the relationship between the amount of conflict and performance. With what level of conflict is performance maximized?
Work groups, departments, or organizations that experience too little conflict tend to be plagued by apathy, lack of creativity, indecision, and missed deadlines. The result is that organizational performance suffers.
Excessive conflict, on the other hand, can erode organizational performance because of political infighting, dissatisfaction, lack of teamwork, and turnover. Workplace aggression and violence are manifestations of excessive conflict.
Thus, it seems that a moderate level of conflict can induce creativity and initiative, thereby raising performance, as shown in the diagram below (see Figure 13.2). As might be expected, however, the idea as to what constitutes “moderate” will vary among managers.
Explain the conflict-handling styles a manager might adopt. Give an example of each. Under what circumstances is each style appropriate?
The five styles are:

1. Avoiding—ignoring or suppressing a conflict; appropriate when a person needs to buy time in unfolding and ambiguous situations.
2. Accommodating—allowing the other person’s desires to prevail; appropriate when the issue isn’t important and is simple and not getting worse.
3. Forcing—ordering or otherwise using power to get people to do it your way; appropriate when quick results are essential.
4. Compromising—splitting the difference; appropriate when both sides have opposite goals and/or possess equal power.
5. Collaborating—devising solutions that benefit both parties; appropriate for complex issues plagued by misunderstanding.

The student should give an example of each style.

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