Isolated colonies are all white in color, but some colonies are noticeably larger than others.
Isolated colonies are all white in color and about the same size.
Bacterial growth is apparent in all four quadrants.
Bacterial growth is apparent along the streaks connecting each quadrant.
Too little bacterial growth outside the first quadrant.
Contamination of the Petri plate culture.
Too much bacterial growth outside the first quadrant.
Contamination of the broth culture.
The inoculating instrument used to transfer bacteria.
The bacteria transferred to a new medium.
The bacteria that are undesired within a culture.
The sterile medium to which bacteria will be transferred.
To manipulate bacteria without introducing contaminants.
To use chemicals to inhibit or destroy bacteria.
To flame the inoculating loop.
To keep the environment sterile.
The loop portion of the instrument was heated for too long.
The wire portion of the instrument was not adequately heated.
The loop portion of the instrument was not placed in the correct part of the flame.
The student positioned the hand too close to the flame.
The hot loop may burn the student’s hand.
The hot loop may contaminate the broth culture.
The hot loop may create aerosols when it touches the culture.
The hot loop may distort the bacterial cells.
The medium will not be warm enough for the culture to grow properly.
Condensation might occur at the top of the tube.
The medium in the tube might become contaminated.
Aerosols might form.
The inoculum must be taken from a broth culture.
The agar deep medium must be heated (melted) so that it is liquid when inoculated.
Two loopfuls of inoculum must be transferred.
An inoculating needle is used to stab the inoculum into the agar.
On laboratory surfaces
On your skin
In the air
In the air, on laboratory surfaces, and on your skin
Before picking up the inoculum
After transferring the inoculum
Before and after you transfer the culture
You should never sterilize the inoculating instruments using a flame.
It is necessary to hold the inoculating instrument in the Bunsen burner flame until it becomes red hot.
After removing the cap of the culture tube, place the cap onto the bench top to prevent contamination.
Blow gently on the sterilized inoculating loop to make sure it is cool enough to pick up the culture.
All of the above
Avoid over-heating and damaging the instruments
Ensure that you are taking your time and not rushing the transfer to avoid accidents
Avoid killing the bacterial cells with excess heat
Avoid burning the surface of the bench with the inoculating loop when you place it down on the bench top
They reproduce by binary fission.
They lack a plasma membrane.
They typically have a circular chromosome.
They lack membrane-enclosed organelles.
Their DNA is not enclosed within a membrane.
Spirilla have an external flagella but spirochetes have axial filaments.
Spirochetes have a rigid, corkscrew shape while spirilla are helical and more flexible.
Spirochetes do not have a cell wall but spirilla do.
Spirochetes and spirilla are basically the same
organisms and the terms can be used interchangeably.
Spirilla are found in chains of cells whereas
spirochetes exist as individual cells.
source of nutrition.
protection against dehydration.
moves materials from a lower to a higher concentration.
requires transporter proteins.
moves materials from a higher to a lower concentration.
does not require ATP.
has 9 pairs + 2 flagella.
lives in an extreme environment.
has a cell wall.
has a mitochondrion.
pili are used for attachment to surfaces.
pili are used to transfer DNA.
pili are used for motility.
pili are used for transfer of DNA and motility.
there are only one or two pili per cell.
Their Gram reaction is due to the outer membrane.
They are toxic to humans.
They are sensitive to penicillin.
They protect the cell in a hypotonic environment.
They have an extra outer layer composed of lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and phospholipids.
clustering properties of certain rod-shaped bacteria.
cell wall fluidity.
cell membrane synthesis.
taxic movements of the cell in response to attractants or repellents.
composed of a phospholipid bilayer
site of energy production
is selectively permeable
Water will move out of the cell.
Water will move into the cell.
The cell will undergo osmotic lysis.
Sucrose will move into the cell from a higher to a lower concentration.
No change will result; the solution is isotonic.
Ribosomes are found both free-floating and attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes and in prokaryotes.
Ribosomes are the sites of lipid biosynthesis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
In eukaryotes, the ribosomes found in chloroplasts and mitochondria are 70S ribosomes, which are similar in size to prokaryotic ribosomes.
The ribosomes in the prokaryote are slightly larger than those found in the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum.
In bacteria with acid-fast cell walls, the carboxylic acid in the walls forms a layer outside a thin layer of hydrophilic polypeptides.
Gram-negative bacterial cell walls contain teichoic acids, whereas the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria do not.
In gram-negative bacteria, the thin layer of peptidoglycan is surrounded by an outer membrane made of phospholipids, lipopolysaccharides, and proteins.
The cell walls of gram-negative bacteria contain many more layers of peptidoglycan than those of gram-positive bacteria.
is circular in structure.
is found in multiple copies.
is surrounded by a nuclear membrane.
utilizes histones for chromosomal packaging.
is linear in structure.
sulfur granules – energy reserve
ribosomes – carbon storage
gas vacuoles – flotation
metachromatic granules – phosphate storage
lipid inclusions – energy reserve
It is a process in which molecules move from a region of lower concentration to one of higher concentration (or up a concentration gradient).
It requires an expenditure of energy by the cell.
It is a process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration (or down a concentration gradient).
It involves movement of molecules down a concentration gradient and may require a transport protein.
It may require a transport protein.
the plasma membrane
the plasma membrane, around organelles, and surrounding flagella
the plasma membrane
the plasma membrane and around organelles
inhibition of molecular transport.
decreased synthesis of plasma membrane.
A cell can produce many endospores.
Endospores are for reproduction.
Endospores are easily stained in a Gram stain.
Endospores allow a cell to survive environmental changes by producing a dormant period with no growth.
A cell produces one endospore and keeps growing.