1) Microorganisms are involved in each of the following processes EXCEPT
A) infection.
B) decomposition of organic material.
C) O2 production.
D) food production.
E) smog production.
Answer: E
2) Each of the following organisms would be considered a microbe EXCEPT
A) yeast.
B) protozoan.
C) bacterium.
D) mushroom.
E) virus.
Answer: D
3) The term used to describe a disease-causing microorganism is
A) microbe.
B) bacterium.
C) virus.
D) pathogen.
E) infection.
Answer: D
4) Common commercial benefits of microorganisms include synthesis of
A) antibiotics.
B) aspirin.
C) insulin.
D) antibiotics and aspirin.
E) antibiotics and insulin.
Answer: E
5) Commercial utilization of microbial products has become increasingly popular due to their environmentally friendly nature. Removal of these products from the environment typically utilizes
A) enzymes.
B) organic acids.
C) organic solvents.
D) soap.
E) alcohol.
Answer: A
6) The formal system for classifying and naming organisms was developed by
A) Robert Koch.
B) Ignaz Semmelweis.
C) Aristotle.
D) Carolus Linnaeus.
E) Louis Pasteur.
Answer: D
7) In the name Staphylococcus aureus, aureus is the
A) genus.
B) domain name.
C) specific name.
D) kingdom.
E) family name.
Answer: C
8) A prokaryotic cell may possess each of the following cellular components EXCEPT
A) flagella.
B) a nucleus.
C) ribosomes.
D) a cell wall.
E) a cell membrane.
Answer: B
9) Which of the following is NOT associated with viruses?
A) organelles
B) nucleic acid
C) envelope
D) spikes
E) capsid
Answer: A
Figure 1.1

10) The bacterial shape of the cells in Figure 1.1 would best be described as
A) bacillus.
B) spiral.
C) coccus.
D) ovoid.
E) columnar.

Answer: A
11) Protozoan motility structures include
A) cilia.
B) flagella.
C) pseudopods.
D) cilia and pseudopods only.
E) cilia, flagella, and pseudopods.
Answer: E
12) Viruses are not considered living organisms because they
A) cannot reproduce by themselves.
B) are structurally very simple.
C) can only be visualized using an electron microscope.
D) typically associated with disease.
E) are ubiquitous in nature.
Answer: A
13) The infectious agent that causes AIDS is a
A) virus.
B) bacterium.
C) yeast.
D) protozoan.
E) mold.
Answer: A
14) Which of the following is NOT a domain in the three-domain system?
A) animalia
B) archaea
C) bacteria
D) eukarya
Answer: A
15) Classification of organisms into three domains is based on
A) the presence of a cell wall.
B) the number of cells in the organism.
C) cellular organization.
D) nutritional requirements.
E) cellular proteins.
Answer: C
16) Archaea differ from bacteria in that archaea
A) have diverse cell wall compositions.
B) lack nuclei.
C) use organic compounds for food.
D) reproduce by binary fission.
E) are prokaryotic.
Answer: A
17) Who is credited with first observing cells?
A) Robert Hooke
B) Anton van Leeuwenhoek
C) Robert Koch
D) Louis Pasteur
E) Carolus Linnaeus
Answer: A
18) Who is credited with first observing microorganisms?
A) Robert Hooke
B) Anton van Leeuwenhoek
C) Robert Koch
D) Louis Pasteur
E) Carolus Linnaeus
Answer: B
19) Biogenesis refers to the
A) spontaneous generation of organisms from nonliving matter.
B) development of life forms from preexisting life forms.
C) development of aseptic technique.
D) germ theory of disease.
Answer: B
20) If you were setting up an experiment to disprove spontaneous generation in a liquid medium, which of the following would be essential to the experiment?
A) supplying the liquid with nutrients
B) starting with a liquid that contains microorganisms
C) adding antibiotics to the liquid
D) using a sterile liquid and eliminating exposure to microorganisms
E) adding carbon dioxide to the liquid
Answer: D
21) The arguments supporting spontaneous generation were finally disproved by
A) Louis Pasteur.
B) Francesco Redi.
C) Rudolf Virchow.
D) John Needham.
E) Lazzaro Spallanzani.
Answer: A
22) Regarding Louis Pasteur’s experiments with the S-neck flask, which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Air exchange was involved.
B) A food source was provided.
C) The possibility of contamination was removed.
D) All preexisting microorganisms were killed.
E) All of the answers are correct.
Answer: E
23) The microbial process of converting sugars to alcohol is known as
A) fermentation.
B) pasteurization.
C) tyndallization.
D) lyophilization.
E) alcoholism.
Answer: A
24) Proof that a microbe could cause disease was provided by
A) Pasteur.
B) Lister.
C) Koch.
D) Wasserman.
E) Semmelweis.
Answer: C
25) The use of phenol (carbolic acid) as a wound disinfectant was first practiced by
A) Lister.
B) Semmelweis.
C) Pasteur.
D) Holmes.
E) Koch.
Answer: A
26) Mycology is the study of
A) mycoplasma.
B) mushrooms.
C) protozoa.
D) molds.
E) molds, yeast, and mushrooms.
Answer: E
27) The first step for directly linking a microbe to a specific disease according to Koch’s postulates is to
A) culture the blood or other body fluid from a diseased animal using nutrient medium.
B) inject a sample of blood or other body fluid from a diseased animal into a healthy animal.
C) obtain a sample of blood or other body fluid from a diseased animal.
D) compare the blood of a sick animal to blood obtained from a healthy animal.
E) isolate microbes from the blood of healthy animals.
Answer: C
28) In which of the following situations would Koch’s postulates be utilized?
A) determination of the cause of a patient’s illness in a hospital microbiology lab
B) development of a new antibiotic in a pharmaceutical lab
C) determination of the cause of cancer in a patient
D) formulation of a vaccine against a new pathogen in a genetic engineering lab
E) whenever the scientific method is used to investigate a microbiological problem
Answer: A
29) Robert Koch identified the cause of
A) smallpox.
B) anthrax.
C) diphtheria.
E) tuberculosis.
Answer: B
30) ________ is the physician first associated with vaccination.
A) Pasteur
B) Jenner
C) Lister
D) Koch
E) Escherich
Answer: B
31) Which of the following findings was essential for Edward Jenner’s vaccination process?
A) Exposure to a milder disease form may produce immunity.
B) A weakened microorganism will not cause disease.
C) Someone who recovers from a disease will not acquire that disease again.
D) Disease is caused by viruses.
E) Pathogenic microorganisms infect all humans and animals in the same manner.
Answer: A
32) Antibiotics are produced by
A) viruses.
B) bacteria.
C) protozoa.
D) fungi.
E) bacteria and fungi.
Answer: E
33) The first antibiotic to be utilized was
A) salvarsan.
B) vancomycin.
C) penicillin.
D) sulfonamides.
E) quinine.
Answer: C
34) Who was the first scientist to pursue a “magic bullet” that could be used to treat infectious disease?
A) Jenner
B) Pasteur
C) Ehrlich
D) Lister
E) Semmelweis
Answer: C
35) Fungal infections are studied by
A) virologists.
B) bacteriologists.
C) parasitologists.
D) mycologists.
E) herpetologists.
Answer: D
36) Vaccinations are available for all of the following diseases EXCEPT
A) measles.
B) rubella.
C) mumps.
D) strep throat.
E) hepatitis B.
Answer: D
37) Recombinant DNA refers to the
A) study of bacterial ribosomes.
B) study of the function of genes.
C) interaction between human and bacterial cells.
D) synthesis of proteins from genes.
E) DNA resulting when bacterial genes are inserted in an animal genome.
Answer: E
38) Molecular biology is the study of
A) DNA synthesis.
B) RNA replication.
C) protein synthesis.
D) enzyme function.
E) the structure and function of macromolecules essential to life.
Answer: E
39) Microorganisms are essential to our life. Each of the following is an example of a beneficial function of microorganisms EXCEPT
A) alternative fuel production.
B) bioremediation.
C) gene therapy.
D) agriculture.
E) increased morbidity.
Answer: E
40) The major food producers for other living organisms is/are
A) higher plants.
B) cyanobacteria.
C) algae.
D) higher plants and algae.
E) higher plants, cyanobacteria, and algae.
Answer: E
41) Gene therapy is currently used to treat all of the following diseases EXCEPT
A) severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID).
B) Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy.
C) cystic fibrosis.
D) LDL-receptor deficiency.
E) colon cancer.
Answer: E
42) Recombinant DNA technology has become an increasingly important part of our life. It is used for all of the following EXCEPT
A) vaccine production.
B) enhancing food longevity.
C) synthesis of water.
D) drug production.
E) increasing the nutritional value of food.
Answer: C
43) Normal microbiota are typically found in and on all the following body locations EXCEPT the
A) skin.
B) mouth.
C) colon.
D) blood.
E) upper respiratory system.
Answer: D
44) Which of the following statements about biofilms is FALSE?
A) Compared to free-living bacteria, biofilms are more sensitive to antibiotics.
B) Biofilms in pipes can block the flow of water.
C) Biofilms in your body protect mucous membranes from harmful microbes.
D) Biofilms on medical devices cause infections.
E) Biofilms on rocks provide food for animal life.
Answer: A
45) Development of emerging infectious disease can be a result of all of the following EXCEPT
A) microbial mutation.
B) modern transportation.
C) use of genetically modified foods.
D) changes in the environment.
E) overuse of antibiotics.
Answer: C
1) Infectious disease is almost totally eradicated in our world.
Answer: FALSE
2) A student has obtained a sample of pond water for study. Using the high-power lens, he observes several cells with nuclei. He can conclude that the cells are NOT bacteria.
Answer: TRUE
3) The process of pasteurization to reduce food spoilage utilizes high heat to kill all bacteria present.
Answer: FALSE
4) Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first microbiologist to use a microscope to examine environmental samples for the presence of microorganisms.
Answer: TRUE
5) Spontaneous generation refers to living cells arising only from other living cells.
Answer: FALSE
6) Microbes are associated with life-sustaining benefits as well as life-threatening diseases.
Answer: TRUE
7) All cells possess a cell wall.
Answer: FALSE
8) Some viruses can contain both DNA and RNA.
Answer: FALSE
9) Bovine spongiform encephalitis (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) is caused by a virus.
Answer: FALSE
10) All pathogens known to infect humans have been identified at this point in time.
Answer: FALSE

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