What characteristic of DNA allows two connected DNA polymerases to synthesize both the leading and lagging strands?
DNA has a helical shape.
DNA is double-stranded.
DNA is antiparallel.
DNA is flexible.
DNA is flexible.
What is the function of the connector proteins?
They enable one parental DNA strand and one newly synthesized DNA strand to be held together.
They allow DNA synthesis to occur in the 3′ to 5′ direction.
They link the leading strand DNA polymerase and the lagging strand DNA polymerase together.
They produce the Okazaki fragments.
They link the leading strand DNA polymerase and the lagging strand DNA polymerase together.
Which DNA strand is synthesized continuously?
Leading strand
Lagging strand
Neither the leading nor the lagging strand is synthesized continuously.
The leading and lagging strands are both synthesized continuously.
Leading strand
Which of the following are terms associated with Okazaki fragments?
DNA ligase
Lagging strand
Discontinuous
Lagging strand, DNA ligase, and discontinuous
Lagging strand, DNA ligase, and discontinuous
Why is the DNA synthesis of the lagging strand considered discontinuous?
The synthesis is moving in the opposite direction from the replication fork.
The lagging strand only requires one primer instead of multiple primers.
The lagging strand only produces single-stranded DNA molecules.
DNA synthesis on the lagging strand occurs 3′ to 5′.
The synthesis is moving in the opposite direction from the replication fork.
What is the initial target of RNA polymerase?
The promoter
The terminator region
The template DNA
The promoter
RNA polymerase is guided by the
coding strand of DNA.
RNA strand.
template strand of DNA.
template strand of DNA.
RNA that has hydrogen bonded to itself forms a
termination protein.
terminator sequence.
promoter sequence.
stem loop.
stem loop.
How would one increase the concentration of a particular polypeptide in a cell?
Increase the level of transcription
Increase the concentration of promoters
Increase the amount of DNA
Increase the level of transcription
During elongation, how is the RNA synthesized?
5′ to 3′
Right to left
Left to right
3′ to 5′
5′ to 3′
During the initiation step of translation, the fMet charged tRNA assembles in which site of the ribosome?
E site
P site
A site
P site
How does the ribosome know if the entering charged tRNA is correct?
The preceding amino acid will not permit it to enter the A site.
The anticodon on the tRNA base pairs to the codon on the mRNA.
The incorrect tRNA does not fit into the A site.
The anticodon on the tRNA base pairs to the codon on the mRNA.
Where would one find an uncharged tRNA molecule in a ribosome?
In the A site
In the A and P sites
In the P site
In the P and E sites
In the A, P, and E sites
In the E site
In the P and E sites
What kind of bond is formed when two amino acids join together?
A peptide bond
A polar bond
A hydrogen bond
An ionic bond
A peptide bond
How is translation terminated?
When the A, P, and E sites are all filled
When the ribosome runs out of the mRNA
When a protein called a release factor enters and binds to the A site
When there are no more charged tRNA molecules
When a protein called a release factor enters and binds to the A site
What is considered to be the average natural mutation rate that occurs during DNA replication?
One in every billion nucleotides replicated.
One in every million nucleotides replicated.
One in every trillion nucleotides replicated.
One in every ten thousand nucleotides replicated.
One in every billion nucleotides replicated.
A mutation that affects the genotype of an organism but not the phenotype is called
nonsense mutation.
frameshift mutation.
silent mutation.
missense mutation.
silent mutation.
A base insertion or deletion in the translated region of the gene may lead to
silent mutation.
nonsense mutation.
frameshift mutation.
missense mutation.
frameshift mutation.
A base substitution that changes a codon coding for an amino acid to stop a codon is called
frameshift mutation.
missense mutation.
silent mutation.
nonsense mutation.
nonsense mutation.
How frequently do silent mutations occur?
One out of every billion mutations
One out of every three mutations
Half of all mutations
One out of every million mutations
One out of every three mutations
What is unique about transduction compared to normal bacteriophage infection?
The bacteriophage does not erupt from an infected cell during transduction.
Transduction transfers DNA from the chromosome of one cell to another.
The bacteriophage takes fragments of the cell with it during transduction.
Transduction transfers DNA from the chromosome of one cell to another.
How is generalized transduction different from specialized transduction?
Specialized transduction uses animal viruses instead of bacteriophage.
Generalized transduction is initiated by a lysogenic bacteriophage; specialized transduction is initiated by a lytic phage.
Generalized transduction is initiated during lytic cycle of a virulent bacteriophage; specialized transduction is initiated during the lysogenic cycle of a temperate bacteriophage.
Only one specific host gene is transferred in both specialized transduction and generalized transduction.
Generalized transduction is initiated during lytic cycle of a virulent bacteriophage; specialized transduction is initiated during the lysogenic cycle of a temperate bacteriophage.
A transducing phage
has a viral coat made of host proteins.
cannot infect new host cells.
is a lysogenic bacteriophage.
contains fragments of the host chromosome instead of the viral genome.
contains fragments of the host chromosome instead of the viral genome.
When a transducing phage interacts with a new host cell,
the DNA from the previous host can recombine with the new host chromosome.
the new host cell will be lysed.
it will cause the new cell to produce more transducing phage.
the DNA from the previous host can recombine with the new host chromosome.
When the cell is NOT in the presence of tryptophan,
RNA polymerase can transcribe mRNA.
the repressor proteins bind to the operator.
the repressor proteins are active.
structural genes are not transcribed.
RNA polymerase can transcribe mRNA.
When is the repressor protein transcribed?
It is always transcribed.
Only in the absence of tryptophan
Only in the presence of tryptophan
It is always transcribed.
Why is the tryptophan operon turned off in the presence of tryptophan?
Tryptophan is not an important amino acid for cells.
Tryptophan can be used over and over again in the cell.
Tryptophan binds to and activates the repressor proteins; the repressor proteins, in turn, bind to the operator, preventing transcription.
Tryptophan binds to and activates the repressor proteins; the repressor proteins, in turn, bind to the operator, preventing transcription.
What is the overall function of the trp operon?
To always make sure the operator is being bound to repressor proteins
To ensure that the cell has a supply of tryptophan at all times
To control the production of repressor proteins
To block RNA polymerase from the structural genes
To ensure that the cell has a supply of tryptophan at all times
According to the animation, how do the repressor proteins block the transcription of the structural genes?
It binds to the repressor when deactivated.
It binds to the promoter when deactivated.
It binds to the repressor gene when activated.
It binds to the repressor gene when deactivated.
It binds to the promoter when activated.
It binds to the operator when activated.
It binds to the operator when activated.
What is the function of the conjugation pilus?
It carries the chromosome of F- cells.
It pulls the F+ and F- cells together.
It contains an F plasmid.
It converts F- cells into F+ cells.
It pulls the F+ and F- cells together.
What is required by an F- cell to become an F+ cell?
Conjugation pilus
An F- cell to be a recipient
F plasmid
F+ chromosome
F plasmid
What is the key difference between donor cells and recipient cells?
Cell membranes
Size
An F plasmid
A chromosome
An F plasmid
What cellular macromolecule is the fertility factor comprised of?
Lipid
Carbohydrate
Nucleic acid
Protein
Nucleic acid
At which point does a recipient cell become an F+ cell?
1. Fusion of the cell membranes
2. Attachment of the sex pilus
3. Transfer of the single stranded F factor
4. Pulling of donor and recipient cells together
5. Formation of the complementary strand of the F factor
5
1
4
3
2
5
A gene is best defined as
any random segment of DNA.
a sequence of nucleotides in DNA that codes for a functional product.
three nucleotides that code for an amino acid.
the RNA product of a transcribed section of DNA.
a sequence of nucleotides in RNA that codes for a functional product.
a sequence of nucleotides in DNA that codes for a functional product.
DNA is constructed of
two complementary strands of nucleotides bonded AC and GT.
two strands of identical nucleotides in a parallel configuration with hydrogen bonds between them.
a single strand of nucleotides with internal hydrogen bonding.
two strands of nucleotides running in an antiparallel configuration.
None of the answers is correct.
two strands of nucleotides running in an antiparallel configuration.
Which of the following is NOT a product of transcription?
mRNA
rRNA
tRNA
a new strand of DNA
None of the answers are correct; all of these are products of transcription.
a new strand of DNA
An enzyme that copies DNA to make a molecule of RNA
RNA polymerase.
DNA ligase.
DNA helicase.
transposase.
DNA polymerase.
RNA polymerase.
Which of the following is a DNA strand complementary to CGA ATC AGC?
GCT TAG TCG
TAG GCT GAT
CGA ATC AGC
GCU UAG UCG
GCT TAG TCG
x

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