Chilli Capsicum annuum L. an of import vegetable harvest, widely cultivated in Pakistan. Chilis are native to South and Central America. In Pakistan, Kunri is the place of ruddy chilis. It contributes about 85 % of ruddy chilis produced in Pakistan and is known as one of the largest production centres for ruddy chilis in Asia ( SBI, 2010 ) . It is a perennial little bush belongs to the household Solanaceae. It is an of import agricultural harvest, non merely because of its economic importance, but besides due to nutritionary and medicative value of its fruits.
Chilis are an first-class beginning of vitamins A and C and it besides contains Ca, P and Fe ( Horticulture, 1994 ) . Chilli is by and large adapted to tropical clime and major chili turning states are India, China, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan, Turkey and Sri Lanka. Chilis are used in salads, Indian relishs, sauces, pickles and organize a cardinal ingredient of diet in every place. It is besides used in the readying of natural coloring agents, cosmetics and hurting balms ( Savitha, 2008 ).
It is realized that harvest output is severely affected by the lacks of micronutrients ( Bose & A ; Tripathi, 1996 ) . Plant nutrition has a great importance in heightening quality and output in chilis. If a works is Zn deficient it can be controlled by direct application of Zn on works foliages because Zn Salts are easy absorbed by the foliages. Zinc has a great consequence on works life processes, like consumption of N and protein quality, photosynthesis, chlorophyll synthesis ( Potarzycki & A ; Grzebisz, 2009 ) . Lack symptoms foremost appear on younger foliages than the older foliages. A typical symptom of Zn lack is the scrawny growing of foliages. Zn is enzymes activator and is indispensable for the ingestion of sugars and saccharides transmutation ( Kirkby & A ; Romheld, 2004 ).
Plant demand of micronutrients like Zn can be fulfilled through dirt application but in Pakistan dirt pH is excessively high that limits the micronutrients uptake to works, so foliar application of micronutrients is preferred over dirt application. Foliar application of micronutrients may give 6 to 20 times better consequences in Pakistan than dirt application ( Liew, 1988 ) .
Foliar application of fertilisers is being used in vegetable and fruit harvests. Foliar fertilisers are well-known for immediate bringing of foods to the works tissues and variety meats ( Baloch, Chachar & A ; Tareen, 2008 ) . As Foliar nutrition of micronutrients is a simple method and it does non necessitate much substructure so it helps in increasing productiveness, better fertiliser usage efficiency and lessens environmental jeopardies.
Botanically, Chilli ( Capsicum annuum L. ) belongs to the household Solanaceae. Chilli is an of import harvest non from economic point of position but besides due to its nutritionary every bit good as medicative value. Growth and development is affected by the lack or deficiency of micronutrients. Due to immense importance of micronutrients in relation to works growing and development a batch of research workers have worked on foliar application of micronutrients on fruit and veggies. A brief analysis of reported work is given below.
The chili is supposed to be native to America where they have been cultivated for 1000s of old ages. Mexico and Northern Central America is thought to be the Centre of beginning of Capsicum annuum L. and were foremost introduced to Indo-Pakistan sub-continent in the seventeenth century by Portuguese and Spanish adventurers through trade paths from South America ( Malik, 1994 ) .
Baloch, et al. , ( 2008 ) conducted an experiment to look into the consequence of foliar application of macro and micronutrients on production of green chilis. They applied Higrow which is composed of Nitrophen ( 4 % ) , Nitrogen compound ( 12 % ) , Iron ( 2 % ) , Magnesium ( 2 % ) , Manganese ( 2 % ) , Boron ( 2 % ) , Copper ( 4 % ) , Molybdenum ( 2 % ) , Potash ( 8 % ) , P2O5 ( 12 % ) and Calcium ( 8 % ) . They found that the foliar application of Higrow at 7 ml/L of H2O gave better growing and output compared to other interventions.
Datir, Apparao and Laware ( 2012 ) studied the consequence of foliar application of organically chelated micronutrients on growing and output in chili ( Capsicum annum L. ) . The consequences indicated that un-chelated micronutrient enhanced the growing and output and works characters to 10-15 % , while aminic acid spray contributed to 15-20 % addition. Whereas aminic acid-chelated micronutrients increase the growing and output lending characters to 40-100 % in chili.
Dongre, Mahorkar, Joshi and Deo ( 2000 ) studied the consequence of foliar application of micronutrients ( Zn, Fe and B ) on output and measure of chili ( Capsicum annuum L. ) in combination of 0.1 % , 0.25 % and 0.50 % severally. They found that the intervention ( ZnS04 0.50 % ) showed maximal output while intervention ( FeS04 0.25 % ) produced maximal figure of seeds/fruit.
Singh and Singh ( 2012 ) investigated the response of foliar application of micronutrients on growing and output of chili ( Capsicum annuum L. ) . The consequences indicated that works characters like figure of fruit per works, works tallness, fruit length, fruit output, weight per fruit and weight of fruit per works were higher by the foliar application of interventions 0.2 % Fe and 0.3 % Zn as compared to other interventions and control.
El-Bassiony, Fawzy, El-Samad and Riad ( 2010 ) investigated the consequence of K fertilizes on growing, output and fruit quality of sweet Piper nigrum workss ( Capsicum annuum L. ) . They found that to acquire the better vegetative and generative growing, entire fruit output and chemical composing of sweet Piper nigrum could be obtained by foliar application of K humate ( 4 gm/L ) or potassium oxide ( 4 ml/L ) as a stimulative dosage.
Kaya and Higgs ( 2002 ) studied the response of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum L. ) cultivars to foliar application of Zn when grown in sand civilization at low Zn. They found that the workss grown in low ( 0.15 I?mol la?’1 ) root zone Zn intervention had higher concentration of P and Fe furthermore workss having foliar applications of Zn at 3.5 mmol la?’1 had higher P in both the foliages and fruit. Zn, Fe, P and K concentration increased with addition of zinc concentration in the alimentary solution and besides as a foliar spray. At 7.70 I?mol la?’1 Zn in the alimentary solution Mg was lower in the roots of workss as compared to all other Zn interventions. They concluded that the negative consequence of Zn lack can easy be controlled by the foliar application of Zn when it is applied at optimum scope.
Nasri, Khalatbari and Hossein ( 2011 ) conducted an experiment of foliar application of Zn on qualitative and quantitative characteristics in bean ( Phaseolous vulgaris ) under different degrees of N and K fertilisers. They found that the foliar application of Zn on bean had increased all the features like saccharide per centum, carbohydrate output, chlorophyll of foliages, radiation usage efficiency, protein per centum and protein output etc. and besides reduced N fertiliser rate without decrease in works features.
Abbasi, Baloch, Zia-ul-hassan, Wagan, Shah and Rajpar ( 2010 ) studied the growing and output of okra under foliar application of some new multi alimentary fertiliser merchandises. The consequences showed that the works characters like figure of subdivisions per works, works tallness, figure of fruits per works, fruit length every bit good as harvest output of okra found to be maximal by application of all three foliar fertilisers with the recommended dirt applied chemical fertilisers.
Kiran, Vyakaranahal, Raikar, Ravikumar and Deshpande ( 2010 ) investigated seed output and quality of eggplant as influenced by harvest nutrition. The consequences indicated that the application of NPK 100:100:50 kg/ha + Azospirillum + Phosphate solubilizing bacteriums ( PSB ) each @ 125 g per hour angle ( root dipping ) + ZnSO4 ( 0.2 % ) spray gave maximal works tallness ( 89.47 centimeter ) , figure of foliages ( 87 ) , figure of fruits ( 20 ) , fruit output ( 27.06 t/ha ) , figure of seeds per fruit ( 1852 ) , figure of subdivisions ( 32 ) , 1000 seed weight ( 7.90 g ) , per centum of sprouting ( 97 ) , field outgrowth ( 91 ) , seed output ( 633 kg/ha ) compared to other interventions and control.
Kanujia, Ahmed, Chattoo, Nayeema, Naryan ( 2006 ) studied the consequence of micronutrients on growing and output of chou ( Brassica oleracea volt-ampere. capitata L. ) . The consequences indicated that works tallness was maximal during both the seasons when foliar application of Zn was applied @ 100 ppm while maximal foliar application of mixture of all foods @ 100 ppm gave maximal works spread, figure of non-wrapper foliages, caput weight, caput output and caput diameter.
Anees, Tahir, Shahzad and Mahmood ( 2011 ) conducted an experiment to look into the consequence of foliar application of micronutrients ( Fe, B and Zn ) on the quality of Mangifera indica ( Mangifera indica L. ) curriculum vitae. Dusehri workss. They found that compared to command all the micronutrients gave better consequences in term of fruit quality. Whereas trees sprayed with 0.4 % FeSO4 + 0.8 % H3BO3 + 0.8 % ZnSO4 produced the maximal mush weight ( 169.2 g ) , ascorbic acid ( 150.3 mg/100 milliliter ) , entire soluble solids ( 27.9 BrixA° ) , non-reducing sugars ( 8.83 % ) , and less rock weight ( 28.13 g ) along with low sourness ( 0.178 % ) compared to rest of interventions and control.
Ghazvineh and Yousefi ( 2012 ) studied the consequence of micronutrient application on output and output constituents of corn. The consequences showed that the foliar application of Zn, Fe and Mn with K fertiliser increased the quality and measure of corn and lessened the high ingestion of fertilisers. They besides found that the best clip of foliar application in corn is at root elongation phase and cob elongation phase to acquire the higher output and efficient usage of micronutrients.
To look into the consequence of foliar application of Zn on growing and productiveness of chili harvest through different vegetive and generative parametric quantities, a research work will be conducted at University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha.
Research Design and Layout
The research work will be conducted harmonizing to randomised complete block design ( RCBD ) with 13 interventions and three reproductions. Hybrid seeds of chilli assortment “ HP-84 ” will be sown in the month of Feburary. Firstly seeds will be sown in the pots and to forestall from frost hurt and to acquire early sprouting pots will be covered with polyethylene.
After two months when chili workss will achieve proper size they will be transplanted to the prepared raised beds with the undermentioned dimensions ( PA-P = 22.5 centimeter, RA-R = 60 centimeter ) and interventions will be applied harmonizing to research program. Foliar application of Zn on chili workss will be applied with the undermentioned doses ( 0.2 % , 0.4 % , 0.6 % , and 0.8 % ) . The application of Zn doses will be twice and thrice after every 21 yearss and vegetive and generative parametric quantities will be studied.
Topographic point of Work and Facilities Available
The field work will be conducted at Horticultural Research Area while lab work will be performed at Horticulture Lab. , Department of Horticulture, University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha. All the resources and services required for carry oning the research are available at above mentioned topographic point.
Data Collection and Analysis
Datas about vegetive parametric quantities like works tallness, figure of foliages, figure of nodes, figure of subdivisions, fresh foliages weight, dry foliages weight, and informations about generative parametric quantities like figure of flowers, figure of fruits per works, entire fruit weight per works, fruit length, fruit girth, fresh fruit weight, dry fruit weight per works all will be taken. Plant tallness from zero nodes to tip will be measured in centimeter with the aid of mensurating tape. The information about figure of nodes, figure of foliages, figure of subdivisions, figure of flowers per works, figure of fruits per works will be taken by numbering.
Fruit length will be measured by mensurating tape while fruit weight will be taken with the aid of vernier calliper. Datas about fresh foliages weight, dry foliages weight, fresh fruit weight, dry fruit weight per works will be taken by weighing balance. For the analysis of collected informations computing machine package will be used. The attained consequences will be explained through different statistical methods e.g. the agencies of informations collected will be separated by Analysis of discrepancy ( ANOVA ) technique. Significant difference between intervention agencies will be compared by the Least important difference ( LSD ) trial at P= 0.05 % ( Steel, Torrie & A ; Dickey 1996 ) .