The chief aim of the Millennium Declaration was to specify a common vision for development by 2015. With this indorsement. Kenya set a limited figure of accomplishable ends to be attained by the twelvemonth 2015 through accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) . These ends are: 1 ) Eradicate utmost poorness and hungriness
2 ) Achieve cosmopolitan primary instruction
3 ) Promote gender equality and empower adult females
4 ) Reduce Child Mortality
5 ) Improve Maternal Health
6 ) Combat HIV AND AIDS. Malaria and Other diseases
7 ) Ensure Environmental sustainability
8 ) Develop a Global Partnership for development
GOAL 1——Eradicate utmost poorness and hungriness
This end had 3 marks in topographic point:
Target A: Halve. between 1990 and 2015. the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a twenty-four hours. Indexs for Monitoring Advancement: •
1 ) Proportion of population below $ 1 ( PPP ) per twenty-four hours 2 ) Poverty spread ratio
3 ) Share of poorest quintile ( one fifth ) in national ingestion. where families are divided into quintiles harmonizing to their gross ingestion Target B: Achieve full and productive employment and nice work for all. including adult females and immature people Indexs for Monitoring Advancement:
1 ) Growth rate of GDP per individual employed
2 ) Employment-to-population ratio
3 ) Proportion of employed people populating below $ 1 ( PPP ) per twenty-four hours 4 ) Proportion of ain history and lending household workers in entire employment Target 1. Degree centigrade: Halve. between 1990 and 2015. the proportion of people who suffer from hunger Indexs for Monitoring Advancement:
1 ) Prevalence of scraggy kids under five old ages of age 2 ) Proportion of population below minimal degree of dietetic energy ingestion 2. 4 Challenges in Achieving Goal 1
The state faces a figure of challenges towards accomplishment of marks under Goal 1. These include: Unemployment: High unemployment. particularly among the vernal population. has put force per unit area on assorted sectors of the economic system. This state of affairs is aggravated by an instruction system that does non efficaciously produce accomplishments that respond to the demands of the labour market. Rural to urban migration has besides significantly contributed to unemployment in urban countries. Womans form the most deprived group among the unemployed. HIv and AIds: The high rate of HIV/AIDS has impacted negatively on agricultural production since the bulk of septic individuals constitute the most productive section of the population. Unfavorable Land Tenure systems: Lack of security of land term of office has frequently resulted in low use of agricultural land. In peculiar. the procedures of execution of land adjudication. the colony of land differences. and reclaiming of irregularly acquired land are slow. Poor Rural Infrastructure: Poor rural roads and communicating webs have frequently led to high conveyance costs for agricultural merchandises to markets every bit good as farm inputs. In add-on. electricity is either missing or excessively expensive taking to reduced investings in other related services.
Weak Coordination of Major stakeholders: An integrated development scheme for the agricultural sector through consonant plans in substructure. H2O. lands and colony. and electricity is presently missing. The consequence has been ineffectiveness in the realisation of the growing marks set for the sector. Unfavorable Upwind Conditionss: Most harvest and farm animal agriculture in Kenya is rain-fed. and hence prone to endure fluctuations. Droughts and inundations have increased significantly in recent old ages. This is aggravated by widespread land debasement. Low and worsening Land Productivity: The lifting population densenesss and the subsequent subdivision of land ( into wasteful units ) andcontinuous cultivation have led to rapid depletion of dirt foods. worsening outputs and environmental debasement. High Cost of Farm Inputs: The cost of cardinal inputs such as certified seeds and fertilisers is high and beyond the range of many little graduated table husbandmans. This. coupled with high degrees of poorness. has led to low productiveness and nutrient insecurity in many families. Poor catastrophe Preparedness: Inadequate capacity for plague and diseases control. surveillance and response constrains trade in farm animal and farm animal merchandises therefore impeding entree to moneymaking international markets.
This state of affairs threatens nutrient security in the state particularly in ASALs where pastoralist communities depend on farm animal for their support and nutriment. Weak Maritime surveillance ( Offshore Fishing ) : Kenya has 536 kilometer coastline. 200 maritime stat mis of Exclusive Economic Zone ( EEZ ) and 12 maritime stat mis of territorial Waterss. Lack of capacity to efficaciously supervise and implement conformity and ordinances regulating the development of seaward territorial Waterss has limited Kenya’s ability to to the full work the offshore fishing potency. Low Absorption of Modern Technology: The usage of modern scientific discipline and engineering in production is still really limited. This has been aggravated by deficiency of low-cost recognition. unequal research- extension-farmer linkages and demand-driven research. Low research precedence and decreased budgetary allotments has every bit contributed to the current state of affairs. Destruction of supports among pastoralists due to insecurity. alteration in climatic conditions and drouth. 2. 7 Policy Recommendations
Review and harmonise the legal. regulative and institutional model and guarantee stable and just macroeconomic and trade policies that level the playing field in the agricultural sector. Supply critical support that will assist raise the productiveness of smallholder husbandmans and promote private sector participation/investment in nutrient security. Improve bringing of research and information sharing. extension and consultative support services. and better capacities. peculiarly of agricultural professionals and technicians working in the countries of research. production. extension service proviso. nutrition and agricultural selling. Enhance the capacity of small-scale manufacturers and exporters particularly with respect to ways of value add-on. publicity of engineering and handiness to suitable recognition installations. Continuously better on the surveillance of migratory plagues and coaction with regional and international bureaus back uping plague control and nutrient nutrition.
Enhance the construct of concern incubation centres as an attack to ease entree to agro- processing equipment and engineerings. productiveness of smallholder husbandmans and promote private sector participation/investment in nutrient security. Improve bringing of research and information sharing. extension and consultative support services. and better capacities. peculiarly of agricultural professionals and technicians working in the countries of research. production. extension service proviso. nutrition and agricultural selling. Enhance the capacity of small-scale manufacturers and exporters particularly with respect to ways of value add-on. publicity of engineering and handiness to suitable recognition installations. Continuously better on the surveillance of migratory plagues and coaction with regional and international bureaus back uping plague control and nutrient nutrition. Enhance the construct of concern incubation centres as an attack to ease entree to agro- processing equipment and engineerings. Increase entree to fiscal services and recognition.
Take steps to better entree to quality farm inputs and markets and apologize revenue enhancement in the agricultural sector. Implement the Micro and Small Scale Enterprises strategy. and specifically back up a recognition warrant strategy to move as a mitigating mechanism in loaning by commercial Bankss. Development of an incorporate system of instruction that will supply appropriate linkages between preparation establishments and the labour market. Legislative reform to implement the proposed 10 % awarding of Government stamps and contracts to youth owned endeavors. Legislative reform and increased bilateral agreements between Kenya and major finish states for migratory labor in order to ease more of immature individuals obtain foreign
Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education
The mark of this end is to guarantee that. by 2015. kids everyplace. male childs and misss. will be able to finish a full class of primary schooling. Indexs for Monitoring Progress of this end include: 1 ) Net registration in primary instruction
Registration of students in primary schools has continued to increase since the debut of Free Primary Education ( FPE ) by Government in 2003. The Gross Enrolment Ratio ( GER ) at primary degree increased from 93 % in 2002 to 107. 6 % in 2007.
2 ) Proportion of students get downing grade 1 who reach last class of instruction The FPE has been exercising force per unit area on registration in secondary school. This has led to an addition in passage rate from primary to secondary from 46. 5 % in 2003 to 60 % in 2007. Gross registration at secondary degree is targeted at 70 % in 2008. a mark that is likely to be achieved following the debut of Free Day Secondary Education ( FDSE ) by the Government. This will further heighten entree. equity and quality in all public secondary schools. Entire registration in public Technical. Industrial. Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training ( TIVET ) establishments increased from 52. 254 in 2002 to 70. 516 in 2007. with female registration representing 49 % of the sum. Registration in universities increased from 82. 257 pupils in 2003/04 to 118. 239 pupils ( 47. 464 females and 70. 775 males ) in 2007/08 out of which 21. 132 ( 10. 861 females and 10. 271 males ) are in private universities.
3 ) Literacy rates of 15-24 year-olds. adult females and work forces The 2006 national grownup literacy rate was 61. 5 % and the numeracy rate was 64. 6 % . The male population recorded a higher literacy rate than the female population at 64. 2 % and 58. 9 % . severally. Similarly. the male numeracy rate was higher at 67. 9 % as compared to that of females at 61. 4 % . These consequences imply that 38. 5 % of the Kenyan population is illiterate and therefore. more appropriate intercessions must be put in topographic point to fit them with the desirable literacy accomplishments.
Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
The Target of this was to extinguish gender disparity in primary and secondary instruction. sooner by 2005. and in all degrees of instruction no subsequently than 2015. It`s success is indicated by the followers:
1 ) Ratio of misss to boys in primary. secondary and third instruction At the national degree. Gross Enrolment Ratio at the secondary school degree showed a little betterment from 27. 4 % in 2003 to 32. 2 % in 2006 and 36. 8 % in 2007.
2 ) Share of adult females in pay employment in the nonagricultural sector Women’s labor has non been adequately captured in the appraisal of the country’s National Accounts. On mean male labour force engagement rates in the modern sector have remained higher than those for females and the spread has non changed much over the old ages. Women constitute about 30 % of the modern sector labor force and has remained so for the last five old ages. and merely showed a fringy addition in 2006 and 2007.
3 ) Proportion of seats held by adult females in national parliament Women’s engagement in leading and determination devising has made some advancement in the recent yesteryear although a batch still needs to be done. The figure of adult females Members of Parliament doubled from 9 in 1997 to 18 in the 2002 General Election. and went up farther to 19 after the 2007 General Election. Though lifting. adult females elected to Parliament still constitute merely 9 % of entire elective members of Parliament.
Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality
It was aimed at cut downing by two tierces. between 1990 and 2015. the under -five mortality rate. Indexs of advancement include:
1 ) Under-five mortality rate
2 ) Infant mortality rate
3 ) Proportion of 1-year old kids immunized against rubeolas
Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health
This had 2 marks
Target 1 Aimed at cut downing by three quarters. between 1990 and 2015. the maternal mortality ratio. Indexs for Monitoring Progress include:
1 ) Maternal mortality ratio
2 ) Proportion of births attended by skilled wellness forces Target 2: Achieve by 2015. cosmopolitan entree to reproductive wellness
Indexs for Monitoring Progress are:
1 ) Contraceptive prevalence rate
2 ) Adolescent birth rate
3 ) Antenatal attention coverage ( at least one visit and at least four visits ) 4 ) Unmet demand for household planning
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. Malaria and Other Diseases
This end had 3 marks and they include:
Target 1: Have halted by 2015 and begun to change by reversal the spread of HIv/Aids
Indexs of advancement include:
1 ) HIV prevalence among population aged 15-24 old ages
2 ) Condom usage at last bad sex
3 ) Proportion of population aged 15-24 old ages with comprehensive correct cognition of HIV/AIDS 4 ) Ratio of school attending of orphans to school attending of non-orphans aged 10-14 old ages Target 2: : Achieve by 2010. cosmopolitan entree to intervention for HIv/Aids for all those who need it Indicator for Monitoring Advancement:
1 ) Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with entree to antiretroviral drugs Target 3: Have halted by 2015 and begun to change by reversal the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Indexs for Monitoring Advancement:
1 ) Incidence and decease rates associated with malaria 2 ) Proportion of kids under fives kiping under insecticide-treated
bed cyberspaces ( ITN ) 3 ) Proportion of kids under 5 with febrility who are treated with appropriate anti-malaria drugs 4 ) Incidence. prevalence and decease rates associated with TB 5 ) Proportion of TB instances detected and cured under straight observed treatme
Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability
Has several marks and they are:
Target A: Integrate the rules of sustainable development into state policies and plans and change by reversal the loss of environmental resources Target B: Reduce biodiversity loss. accomplishing by 2010. a important decrease in the rate of loss Indexs for Monitoring Advancement:
1 ) Proportion of land country covered by wood
2 ) Carbon dioxide emanations. entire. per capita and per $ 1 GDP ( PPP ) 3 ) Consumption of ozone-depleting substances
4 ) Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological bounds 5 ) Proportion of entire H2O resources used
6 ) Proportion of tellurian and marine countries protected 7 ) Proportion of species threatened with extinction
Target C: Halve. by 2015. the proportion of people without sustainable entree to safe imbibing H2O and basic sanitation Indexs for Monitoring Advancement:
1 ) Proportion of population utilizing an improved imbibing H2O beginning • Proportion of population utilizing an improved sanitation installation Target D: By 2020. have achieved a important betterment in the lives of slum inhabitants while discouraging new slum formation Indicator for Monitoring Advancement:
1 ) • Proportion of urban population life in slums. represented by the urban population life in families with at least one of the features: deficiency of entree to improved H2O supply. deficiency of entree to improved sanitation. overcrowding ( 3 or more individuals per room ) . and homes made of non-durable stuffs. In the Kenya instance. the proportion of urban population without entree to procure term of office is besides used.
Goal 8: Develop Global Partnership for Development
Has 3 marks:
Target A: Develop further an unfastened. rule-based. predictable. non-discriminatory trading and fiscal system ( includes a committedness to good administration. development and poorness decrease – both nationally and internationally ) Indicator for Monitoring Advancement:
1 ) Proportion of entire developed state imports ( by value and excepting weaponries ) from Kenya admitted free of responsibility 2 ) Average duties imposed by developed states on agricultural merchandises. fabrics and vesture from developing states Target B: Deal comprehensively with the debt jobs of developing states through national and international steps in order to do debt sustainable in the long term Indicator for Monitoring Advancement:
1 ) Debt service as a per centum of exports of goods and services Target C: In cooperation with the private sector. do available the benefits of new engineerings particularly information and communicating Indexs for Monitoring Advancement:
1 ) Telephone lines per 100 population
2 ) Cellular endorsers per 100 population
3 ) Internet users per 100 population