Elementss combine together to organize different minerals and minerals combine to organize stones. There are 92 of course happening elements and with exclusion of a few inert elements like Gold. Platinum etc. . they combine together to organize every bit many as 4000 minerals. Out of this big figure of minerals merely about two tonss are common ( constitutes ~ 99 % of Earth crust ) and these are composed of about a twelve elements. These stone organizing elements can be classified in five groups – silicates. carbonates. oxides and sulphates. In following subdivisions we will briefly depict these minerals. their formation and use.

Silicates: Silicon is the 2nd most abundant component next to oxygen on the Earth crust. It combines with O to organize a tetragonal compound. SiO2. which combines together to organize a big tetragonal construction. Besides. SiO2 combines with other metal oxides. to organize their silicates. Some illustrations of common silicates are Olivine. Pyroxene. Amphibole. Micas. Feldspar etc. Carbonates: Carbonates CO32- are additive molecules dwelling of C and O. These ions are arranged in the signifier of sheet in minerals like Calcite and Dolomite. Oxides: Metallic elements react with O to organize their oxides.

Some of import oxide minerals are Hematite ( Fe2O3 ) . Magnetite ( Fe3O4 ) . Chromite ( Cr2O3 ) . Cassiterite ( SnO2 ) etc. Sulfides: These are metal-sulfur compounds. Some of import sulphide compounds are known as Pyritess like Chalcopyrite. Fools Gold etc. These minerals have metallic lustre. Sulfates: These are composed of metal ions and sulfate ions ( SO42- ) . These minerals have practically no ore value to the day of the month. However. these are used as compounds. One of import sulfate mineral is Gypsum ( CaSO4. 2H2O ) . Mineral Formation: Minerals form by crystallisation and growing in a liquid.

The liquid can be either a liquefied stone or an aqueous solution. When temperature of a liquefied stone or magma falls below stop deading point of a mineral. the mineral crystallizes. Minerals do non hold a crisp freezing point ; alternatively they solidify over a scope. depending on their composing. The first to solidify is the one holding highest hardening point and this is Quartz. later other metal silicates solidify. Minerals solidifying towards the terminal have lowest hardening point. Besides. minerals crystallize in aqueous solution every bit good.

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This happens when an aqueous solution holding minerals at some temperature. becomes supersaturated due to alter in temperature ( by and large chilling. but sometimes warming as good ) . In instance of mineral precipitation from an aqueous solution. what is of import is solubility and non the runing point of the mineral Properties of Mineral: Minerals are characterized by some of their alone belongingss like Crystal signifier. Hardness. Cleavage and Fracture. Color. Specific Gravity etc. crystal signifier of a mineral depends on the internal agreement of the component atoms / ions.

This leads to well developed faces of the crystal and is a really of import hint of crystal designation. Hardness of a mineral depends on the bond strength of the component atoms / ions. It is measured on Mohs graduated table ( 1 to 10 ) . Higher Mohs value implies higher hardness ; 10 is for diamond and 1 for talc. Color: Color of a mineral depends on its chemical composing. construction and besides on dross content. This is besides an of import hint for mineral designation. Specific Gravity: This is a really of import belongings of minerals and difference in specific gravitation is utilized for mineral separation.

Uses of Mineral: We use minerals in many different ways. These are used as such for illustration. sand as building stuff. Limestone for doing cement. Gypsum for doing Plaster of Paris etc. Besides. metals. the anchor of today’s civilisation. are extracted from their several minerals. Some illustrations are Iron from hematite / magnetic iron-ore. Copper from copper pyrites. Uranium from uranite etc. Thus we can reason that minerals are priceless to us. Chapter 26: Rocks Rocks are the edifice block of the Earth crust. Therefore. we encounter stones everyplace.

The survey of stones is of import as they give us hint of the geological yesteryear of the Earth. besides they contain in them minerals. which have great value for us. The Earth can be viewed as the churning land for stones. where stones maintain forming and altering their signifiers. Based on beginning. stones are classified in three classs – Igneous. Sedimentary and Metamorphic. In subsequent paragraphs we will discourse briefly about these stones. Igneous Rock: These are formed by hardening of magma. Magma is liquefied stone. which comes out from within the Earth crust during volcanic eruptions.

It is utile to cognize formation of magma. As we go down the Earth Crust. its temperature rises at a rate of ~ 30 oC per kilometre. Therefore at a sufficient deepness. temperature of the stone is good above their thaw point. but the stone is still solid due to the overhead force per unit area by the stones above it. But due to tectonic motions. sometimes a hot solid stone moves up where force per unit area is less that needed to maintain it solid. and so it melts and the liquefied magma rises above through clefts. The lifting magma farther reduces the force per unit area on it and causes formation of more magma.

Besides. sometimes. H2O comes in contact with hot stone through some clefts and H2O being foreign organic structure or dross. reduces runing point of the stone. which thaws and therefore magma is produced. The magma rises up through clefts and heats and run the stones in the manner and therefore creates more magma. The lifting magma cools and solidifies and therefore pyrogenic stones are formed. If the magma comes out of Earth’s surface ( it is known as Lava ) and solidifies so what is formed is Extrusive Rock. an of import illustration is Basalt. which is low silicon oxide fast traveling magma.

If the magma solidifies within the land itself. so what forms is Intrusive Rock or Plutons. an illustration is a Dike. Sedimentary Rocks: Weathering of stones leads to formation of smaller fragments of stones. This procedure can be either mechanical or chemical. The weather-beaten stones erode i. e. they are transported off to a new location by bearer agents like fluxing H2O and air current. During transit besides. these fragments collide with each other and gets smoothened. When the transporting ability of these agents weakens. these fragments settle at those locations. The procedure continues and new ballads maintain depositing.

The implicit in bed is compressed by the top beds and densifies and therefore is formed a superimposed Rock construction. known as sedimentary stone. If the deposits are composed of little stone fragments. this is called Clastic. while those formed by chemical precipitation are called chemical deposits. Clastic sedimentary stones are classified harmonizing to their constitutional atom sizes. All right seiments are clay. silt and sand and they form stones like Mudstone Shale. Siltstone and Sandstone severally. Coarse deposits are pebble. cobble and bowlder and they form Pudding stones.

Chemical sedimentary stones are formed by precipitation from supersaturated aqueous solutions. Some illustrations of chemical sedimentary stones are Limestone. Dolomite. and halites ; rock salts are formed by vaporization of lakes or saltwater. Many dodos are preserved in the sedimentary stones and they give hints to the life in past. Metamorphic stones When a stone mass – pyrogenic every bit good as sedimentary. is brought in a part ( by natural procedure ) where temperature and or force per unit area is excessively high for being of the stone. so is alterations its signifier and the procedure is termed metamorphism ( alteration in form ) and the ensuing stone is metamorphous stone.

The metamorphism can be brought about by recrystallization or mechanical distortion. Some illustrations of metamorphous stones are Granite ( from lime rock ) . Diamond ( from coal or black lead ) . etc. Rock rhythm refers to a rhythm through which these stones – pyrogenic. sedimentary and metamorphous. maintain altering into each other by the different forces of Nature. Chapter 28: Happening and Movement of Water Life evolved on the Earth in H2O ( oceans ) and H2O is indispensable for life. More than 70 % of Earth’s surface is covered with H2O.

Therefore. it is of import to understand about this cherished stuff and its rhythm. Hydrological rhythm refers to the concatenation of procedures through which H2O moves from different signifiers ( ice. H2O and H2O vapour ) and different reservoirs ( oceans. rivers. glaciers ) etc. . while its sum remains more or less changeless between different signifiers and reservoirs. About 97 % of Earth’s H2O is in Oceans which covers more than 70 % of Earths surface. About 2 % is locked in polar ice caps and glaciers and staying less than 1 % is distributed between H2O bluess. land H2O. rivers and lakes.

The procedure of vaporization moves H2O from oceans into the ambiance as H2O vapour. about 75 % of which rains back into the oceans and therefore hydrological H2O rhythm is complete for the 75 % of the H2O bluess. Staying 25 % rains on the land and therefore the H2O rhythm gets is prolonged. Because. the H2O falling on land is distributed among ground H2O. river H2O. glaciers. lakes etc. In subsequent paragraphs we will discourse briefly about these reservoirs. Ground Water About 98. 5 % of fresh Waterss stay beneath the land in the pores. in the signifier of Ground H2O and dirt wet.

Beneath the land. there is a part where all the pores are filled wholly with H2O. This part is called concentrated zone. Above this zone and up to the Earth’s surface at that place exists unsaturated zone or a zone where the pores are partly filled with H2O and air. The sum of rainwater that can be absorbed as land H2O depends on the nature of the dirt i. e. how porous or dense it is. While porous dirt absorbs more of rainwater. the dense stones and dirt absorb less of it and allow staying flux as rivers. The H2O tabular array refers to the degree which demarcates the concentrated and unsaturated zones.

The H2O tabular array is non holding a level profile instead it is holding a profile of its ain. Therefore. H2O is non stationery in concentrated zone ; instead it flows under force per unit area caput. The H2O bearing belowground parts where H2O can flux is known as Aquifers. The flow rate of H2O through an Aquifer depends on hydraulic conduction of the aquifer and the hydraulic caput. The aquifers are of two types – unconstrained and constrained. In unconstrained aquifer. the deposit over the H2O tabular array is permeable and allows recharge of aquifer. In confined aquifer. the aquifer is confined between impermeable stones.

In such aquifers recharge is non from straight above instead the recharge zone is in the unconfined part at a higher lift. In such aquifers. we have Artesian Wellss and Artesian springs. Streams are fluxing surface H2O like rivers. They receive H2O from rains every bit good as from runing of glacier and transport the same into oceans or sometimes into big lakes. The watercourse velocity depends on stream gradient. watercourse discharge and channel geometry. The watercourse gradient is largest near the caput and here the channel form is by and large V-shaped and watercourse velocity is really high.

As the watercourse returns towards moth. the watercourse gradient lessenings and hence. watercourse velocity besides decreases and the channel geometry becomes broad and shallow. Drainage basin refers to a web of watercourse which receives all the rain H2O in that geographical part and carries it to the oceans. Glaciers are big multitudes of ice. which move under their ain weight due to fictile distortion every bit good as thaw of ice under force per unit area. A glacier accumulates during winter and it ablates into H2O by traveling down to warmer lifts. where it melts.

Glaciers are the beginning of the celebrated river basins which have H2O through out the twelvemonth. The oceans are the largest H2O mass holding more than 97 % of H2O on the Earth. The mean deepness of oceans is 3800 metres much larger than the mean tallness of the mainland ( ~800 ) above the average sea degree. The boundary between the continents and the oceans is called Continental border. This consists of Continental shelf ( the submerged part of the border ) and Continental incline and a Continental rise. Waves are produced in oceans due to the air current and these moving ridges superimpose with each other and create different forms.


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