Todaies rider vehicles are more crashworthy than minimal crash trial demand, particularly in frontal clangs. As occupant protection in frontal clangs improves, the comparative importance of protection in side impacts besides increases. Harmonizing to Insurance Institute for Highway Safety ( IIHS ) from the early 1980s until 2000, driver decease rates per million autos registered reduced 47 % . For frontal clangs, driver decease rates decreased 52 % . In contrast, the lessening in side impacts was merely 24 % .

In clangs with another rider vehicle during 2000 to 2001, 51 per centum of driver deceases in side impacts in recent theoretical account autos, up from 31 % in 1980 to 1981. During the same clip, the Numberss of deceases in frontal impacts lessening from 61 % to 43 % .

There are 2 factors that contribute to these effects. The first factor is important betterments in frontal clang protection like criterion airbags, improved structural designs, and higher belt usage rates, for illustration. At the same clip, turning gross revenues of sport public-service corporation vehicles ( SUV ) and pickups at United States ( US ) have cause height mismatches among rider vehicles, thereby increasing the hazards to residents of many vehicles struck in the side. In clangs between autos and other rider vehicles during 2000 to 2001, about 60 % of the driver deceases in the autos struck on the driver side were hit by athletics public-service corporation vehicles ( SUV ) or pickups, increase about 30 % during 1980 to 1981.

In order to acquire better protection in side impact clang, most automotive companies implement simulation trial on their auto. Simulation has become common pattern in automotive developments because it speeds up the development rhythm and decreases costs. Usually simulation gives 70 % truth from existent impact trial.

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1.2 Aim

The aims of the survey are:

To look into harm on a front door due to side impact.

To find an optimum design for the front door.


Side impact clang is more unsafe than frontal impact since there is less crumple zone on auto ‘s side. For simulation intent, we need to understand about side impact clang trial. A simple theoretical account of front door must be design for simulation intent.


Develop a finite component theoretical account for the front door.

Simple impact experiment on an aluminium sheet to verify the package.

Perform side impact analysis utilizing package to obtain the harm behaviour on the front door.

Chapter II


There are assorted criterions in side impact clang trial. Each criterion has different demand. The general criterion utilizations by auto maker are European New Car Assessment Programme ( Euro NCAP ) , Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard ( FMVSS ) and Insurance Institute for Highway Safety ( IIHS ) . Other side impact clang trial criterions are Australasian New Car Assessment Program ( ANCAP ) , Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil-Club ( ADAC ) in Germany, Japan New Car Assessment Program ( JNCAP ) , and China New Car Assessment Program ( C-NCAP ) .


European authoritiess through European Experimental Vehicle Committee ( EEVC ) had been working to develop processs and equipment for rating assorted facets of auto secondary factor from 1970s. Full graduated table clang trial has been developing in early 1990 for protection of auto residents in frontal and side impact, and a component trial process for prosaic protection appraisal. For early period, merely full breadth stiff block impact required for full graduated table clang trial.

At that clip no dummy trial has been used. Requirement for side impact and prosaic protection do non be yet at that clip. This trial merely wants to command maneuvering column invasion. Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil-Club ( ADAC ) , a German motor nine with Auto Motor und Sport magazine start to present countervail stiff wall frontal clang trial. The consequences are published in magazine as consumer information. EEVC offset deformable frontal impact trial is used as a individual series of frontal trial. United Kingdom ( UK ) Departments of Transport and International Testing besides jointly funded this trial.

Figure 2.1.1: Euro NCAP

( Beginning: )

2.1.1 Proposal

At foremost many auto makers do non hold with this statute law since it can impact their vehicle gross revenues. On June 1994, Transport Research Laboratory ( TRL ) proposed to United Kingdom ( UK ) Department of Transport to present New Car Assessment Programme ( NCAP ) in United Kingdom ( UK ) . Then the NCAP would be presenting in other Europe states. The United Kingdom ( UK ) Department of Transport approved this proposal. The proposal province benefits of the plans, proposed this plan to be more comprehensive and it should be based on EEVC ‘s trial processs.

TRL start to develop a new auto appraisal plan in 1995. At the same clip, interested parties met and discourse at European Commission how to implement the plan in Europe. All testing and appraisal were guaranting to establish on scientific method. To derive experience from other parties, TRL had visited other assessment plans in the universe. For the first stage of trials, 7 supermini sized autos were used all information about the autos were given from makers. In 1996, Swedish National Road Administration ( SNRA ) , Federation Internationale de Automobile ( FIA ) and international testing articulation this plan and Euro NCAP was formed. In 1998, Euro NCAP became an Internal Association under Belgian jurisprudence.

The first consequences were presented to media at a imperativeness conference and exhibition at TRL. The consequences were presented as Euro NCAP evaluations. On first consequence, there is no auto that achieves 4 stars. In 1997, Volvo S40 go the first auto achieves 4 star for occupant protection. In 2001, Renault Laguna became the first auto to accomplish 5 star for occupant protection. In 2004, Renault Modus go the first compact auto to derive 5 stars, although some people feel that the demand is excessively rigorous for compact auto.

2.1.2 Side Impact Test

Car to auto side impact protection is the 2nd most of import clang constellation. To imitate side impact clang, Euro NCAP has traveling deformable barrier ( MDB ) to impact the driver ‘s door at 50 kilometers per hours. From side impact clang trial, auto side ‘s invasion can be controlled. To acquire better evaluation, most of latest auto semen with side impact airbags.


Figure Side impact barrier trial assesses protection

( Beginning: )


The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ( NHTSA ) has mandate to organize Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards ( FMVSS ) as standard ordinance for all vehicles in United States. FMVSS 209 ( Seat Belt Assemblies ) is the first criterion to go effectual on 1st March, 1967. FMVSS is ordinance written in footings of minimal safety public presentation demands for motor vehicles or points of motor vehicle equipment.

Figure 2.2.1 NHTSA ‘s Logo

( Beginning: )

Harmonizing to Kahane ( 2007 ) , these demands and criterions are specified to do certain that the populace is protected against unreasonable hazard of clangs happening as a consequence of the design, building, or public presentation of motor vehicles and is besides protected against unreasonable hazard of decease or hurt in the event clangs do occur.

2.2.1 Side Impact Test

FMVSS Standard No. 214, Side Impact Protection was introduced to guarantee occupant protection in a dynamic trial that simulates a sever right-angle hit. Statistic shows that side impacts accounted for 6922 of rider auto resident ‘s human deaths ( Bostrom et al. 2003 ) . Car ‘s side is the 2nd most frequent impact location in clangs, after frontal impact.

For FMVSS, a 3000 lb traveling deformable barrier ( MDB ) traveling 30 miles per hour or 52 kilometers per hours and hit at a right angle to the vehicle ‘s door. Unlike other side impact clang trial criterion, the MDB travel at an angle of 63 grades with the longitudinal center line of a stationary trial vehicle. The MDB ‘s wheels are locked 27 grades toward rear of the trial vehicle to acquire a right-angle contact.

Traveling Deformable Barrier ( MDB )

Traveling Deformable Barrier ( MDB )

Figure MDB angle at center line

( Beginning: )

2.3 IIHS

The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety ( IIHS ) is a non-profit-making research and communications organisation funded by car insurance companies. For many old ages IIHS has been done many researchs and trials to cut down motor vehicle clangs in the first topographic point and cut down hurts in the vehicle clangs that still occur. IIHS ‘s research focuses on three factors in motor vehicle clangs which are human, vehicle, and environmental. It besides study any intercessions that can happen before, during, and after clangs to cut down losingss. In 1992 the Vehicle Research Center ( VRC ) was opened. This centre has many sophisticated and latest equipment for clang trial. Each auto that had been tested in IIHS would acquire evaluation from Good, Acceptable, Margin and Poor.

Before 1960s, the chief manner to cut down vehicle clang is to alter driver attitude. Car manufacturers said that chief cause of vehicle clang is driving behavior, non the auto ‘s feature. However in late sixtiess, scientific attack becomes more concern since United States ( US ) authorities introduce vehicle safety criterion for all new vehicles. United States US car insurance companies besides interested to fall in the safety criterion. In 1969, Dr. William Haddon becomes president of IIHS.

Figure 2.3.1: Logo of IIHS

( Beginning: )

2.3.1 Side Impact Protection

For side impact clang trial, 1500 kilogram MDB with impact speed of 50 kilometers per hours strikes the vehicle on driver ‘s side at a 90 grade angle. The longitudinal impact point of the barrier on the side of trial vehicle depends on vehicle ‘s wheelbase. It is called Impact Reference Distance ( IRD ) or distance rearward from trial vehicle ‘s front axle to the closest border of the MDB when it foremost contacts the vehicle.

Table Formula for IRD

IRD computation:

If wheelbase & lt ; 250 centimeter

IRD = 61 centimeter

If 250 centimeter & lt ; wheelbase & lt ; 290 centimeter

IRD = ( wheelbase ? 2 ) – 64 centimeter

If wheelbase & gt ; 290 centimeter

IRD = 81 centimeter

The MDB is accelerated until 50 kilometers per hours by the propulsion system 25 centimeter before impact point with trial vehicle. The impact point tolerance is + 2.5 centimeter of mark in perpendicular and horizontal axes. The impact velocity tolerance is 50 + 1 kilometers per hour. The MDB braking system is activated 1 2nd after it is released from propulsion system. Brake on vehicle trial is non activate during crash trial.

Crash cart on IIHS ‘s criterion is similar with the one usage in FMVSS but it has several alterations to copy impact of athletics public-service corporation vehicle ( SUV ) and pickup truck. 25 % of new autos sold in US are autumn in this class. For IIHS, front aluminium mounting home base is raised 100 millimeter higher from land and taller than 200 millimeters than FMVSS criterion. To increase mass of cart, steel home bases are added. The MDB component is 1676 millimeter broad, 759 millimeter tallness and 379 millimeter land clearance.


Figure MDB with trial vehicle

( Beginning: )


Figure 2.3.2: IIHS MDB component

( Beginning: )

2.3.2 Traveling Deformable Barrier ( MDB ) Specification Version 4 General Description

The side impact traveling deformable barrier has two chief parts which are a chief honeycomb block and a bumper consisting of three honeycomb elements. Both honeycomb beds are covered with aluminum sheets and adhesively bonded to each other. The dimensions of the traveling deformable barrier are shown in Figure 1. All dimensions allow a tolerance of A± 2.5 millimeter and A± 0.5 grades unless otherwise specified.

Figure General Assembly of MDB Version 4

( Beginning: ( 2007 ) ) Main Honeycomb Block Material

The chief honeycomb block is manufactured from aluminium 5052, with has 9.5 millimeter cell size, 25.6 kg/m3 A± 4 kg/m3 denseness, and a crush strength of 310 kPa A± 17 kPa, measured in conformity with the enfranchisement process described in United States ( US ) Department of Transportation, NHTSA, Lab Test Procedure for FMVSS No. 214 “ Dynamic ” Side Impact Protection, TP214D Appendix C TP214D-07 C-1 ( Hirth et al. 2004 ) . The chief honeycomb block is cut or shaped from one honeycomb block to exhibit the length, breadth, tallness, and cant dimensions, with the foil thread running parallel to the length dimension and the cell axis running parallel to the height dimension.

Figure Main Honeycomb Block

( Beginning: ( 2007 ) ) Bumper Element Honeycomb Material

The bumper component honeycomb is manufactured from aluminium 3003, with 6.35 millimeters cell size, 83.0 kg/m3 A± 4 kg/m3 denseness, and 1690 kPa A± 103 kPa crush strength, measured in conformity with the enfranchisement process described in US Department of Transportation, NHTSA, Lab Test Procedure for FMVSS No. 214 “ Dynamic ” Side Impact Protection, TP214D Appendix C TP214D-07 C-1. The bumper subdivision contains of three single honeycomb elements that are cut from one honeycomb block to exhibit the length, breadth, tallness, cant, and contour dimensions, with the foil thread running parallel to the width dimension and the cell axis running parallel to the height dimension.

Figure Bumper Element Honeycomb Blocks

( Beginning: ( 2007 ) ) Main Honeycomb Base Plate

The backup sheet has 860 millimeter A± 1.0 millimeter tallness and 1676 millimeter width A± 1.0 millimeter. The chief honeycomb endorsing sheet is manufactured from aluminium 5251 H22 or 5052 H34, with 0.8 millimeters A± 0.05mm thickness.

Figure Base Plate

( Beginning: ( 2007 ) ) Main Honeycomb Top Cladding

The cladding sheet covers the top and front face of the chief honeycomb block. The cladding sheet space is cut to the dimensions and so flex along the indicated folding lines to achieve a folded form that matches the top and front surfaces of the chief honeycomb block. The chief honeycomb cladding sheet is manufactured from aluminium 5251 H24 or 5052 H34, with 0.7 millimeters A± 0.04 millimeter thickness.

Figure Main Honeycomb Top Cladding

( Beginning: ( 2007 ) )

Figure Main Honeycomb Top Cladding ( Folded )

( Beginning: ( 2007 ) ) Main Honeycomb Upper Corner Plate

The top corner home base covers the intersection of the top and front face of the chief honeycomb. The top corner home base space is cut to the dimensions and so flex along the indicated folding lines to achieve the contoured form. The top corner home base is manufactured from aluminium 5251 H24 or 5052 H34, with 1.6 millimeters A± 0.07 millimeter thickness.

Figure Upper Corner Plate

( Beginning: ( 2007 ) )

Figure Upper Corner Plate ( Folded )

( Beginning: ( 2007 ) ) Bumper Element Base Plate

The bumper component endorsing sheet space has 203 millimeter A± 1.0 millimeter tallness and is dead set to the dimensions, fiting the concluding form of the front surface of the chief honeycomb cladding sheet after this cladding sheet has been bonded to the chief honeycomb block. The bumper component endorsing sheet is manufactured from aluminium 5251 H22 or 5052 H34, with 3.0 millimeters A± 0.07 millimeter thickness.

Figure Bumper Base Plate ( Folded )

( Beginning: ( 2007 ) ) Bumper Element Profile Sheet

The bumper component cladding sheet space has 159 millimeter A± 1.0 millimeter tallness and shall be dead set to the dimensions. The bumper component endorsing sheet is manufactured from aluminium 5251 H22 or 5052 H34, with 3.0 millimeters A± 0.07 millimeter thickness. Bonding Strength Trials

To mensurate bond strength of adhesive harmonizing to ASTM C 297, flatwise tensile testing is used ( Bostrom et al. 2003 ) . The trial pieces should be 100 mm A-100 millimeter, and 15mm deep, bonded to a sample of the back home base stuff. The honeycomb used should be representative of that in the impactor. The minimal bonding strength shall be 0.6 MPa ( 87 pounds per square inch ) . The adhesive is merely applied to the aluminium sheet surfaces when adhering aluminum sheets to honeycomb surfaces. A upper limit of 0.5 kg/m2 must be applied equally over the surface, giving a maximal movie thickness of 0.5 millimeter.


Harmonizing to Kahane ( 2007 ) , from 1975 until 2004 figure of human deaths in US is same while vehicle stat mis of travel ( VMT ) addition more than double. Figure 2.4.1 show human deaths in light trucks and new waves ( LTV ) addition with the increasing of LTV to autos ratio. However, side impact on LTV is underrated because it is less vulnerable in side impact. Fatalities in rider autos get downing to worsen from 8000 to 7000 in 1996-2004. The diminution could be cause by better side impact protection in rider auto in recent old ages.


Figure 2.4.1: Car and LTV Occupant Fatalities in All side Impacts, 1975-2004

( Beginning: Kahane, ( 2007 ) )


One of earliest engineering in side impact protection is embroidering. Installing embroidering on auto doors can cut down chance of occupant hurt since the door construction has contact with resident. Padding is thick plastic froth to absorb important energy at force-deflection rate safe for residents. Embroidering avoid more stiff constituents have contact with resident. Padding is located in the door at points where hip or thorax contacts are extremely hazard.

Other engineering that contributes in side impact protection is construction alterations. Alteration that been made includes strengthening side door beams and pillars, Sillss, roof tracks, seats or cross-members of a auto. Manufacturers able to place the weakest points in the construction of autos by trial process on side impact clang trial.

In 1990s, makers and providers start to develop torso air bags that deploy from place or door. Torso airbags act same thing like embroidering. The airbags is used as shock absorber to absorb energy between the resident ‘s trunk and side construction of the vehicle during side impact. But torso airbags absorb more energy than embroidering. Another type of airbag that provide protection during side impact clang is head-protection airbag. Head-protection airbag can cut down trunk and caput hurts. Head injuries history for 37 % to 54 % of life endangering hurts in side impact clang ( Bastrom et al. 2003 ) .

There are presently 2 types of head-protection airbags:

“ Curtains ” or “ tubings ” that deploy down from roof tail into the side-window country. These types of head-protection airbags normally portion constituents such as detectors and control faculty but separate from trunk airbags. It besides better Thoracic Trauma Index for silent person or TTI ( vitamin D ) .

“ Torso/head combination airbags ” that deploy from place. It can protect trunk and widen upward to protect caput around side window.

Figure 2.5.1: Torso airbag

( Beginning: )

Figure 2.5.2: Head airbags

( Beginning: )


Harmonizing to Kahane ( 2007 ) , NHTSA has conduct trial to measure betterment in certain vehicle. To acquire betterment consequence in bing vehicle, each exist-model ‘s TTI ( vitamin D ) consequences and side-structure are tracked, and groups of make-models that well improved their TTI ( vitamin D ) without side air bags and received major structural ascents at some point are identified. These are the theoretical accounts that have best opportunity of detecting a statistically important decrease of side-impact human deaths after TTI ( vitamin D ) was improved. Likewise, other make-models whose TTI ( vitamin D ) has non changed over clip are identified. They may function as a control in some of the analyses. Table 2.6.1 show betterment in each tried auto theoretical account. Most of the betterment contributes by structural supports in the organic structure side construction and endoergic froth in the door panels.

Table 2.6.1: Improvement in TTD ( I ) without side airbag

Make-Model ( s )

MY of TTI ( vitamin D ) Improvement




Vehicle Changes

Dodge Intrepid /Concorde/Vision ( 4 door )





Major Structure

Ford Mustang ( 2 door )






Ford Taurus/Mercury Sable ( 4 door )





Major Structure + Pad

Chevrolet Corvette ( 2 door )






Chevrolet Cavalier/Pontiac Sunfire ( 2 door )





Pad + Minimum Strucure

Chevrolet Monte Carlo ( 2 door )






Pontiac Grand Am/Achieva/Skylark 2 door






Nissan Sentra 4 door





Major Structure + Pad

Honda Civic 2 door





Major Structure

Honda Accord 2 door






Honda Accord 4 door





Major Structure

Subaru Legacy 4 door






Subaru Impreza 4 door






Toyota Corrola/Geo Prizm ( 4 door )





Major Structure + Pad

Mitsubishi Eclipse 2 door






Chapter III




Literature reappraisal

Variable side impact clang trial criterions survey

Problem analysis

Modeling front door by utilizing Abaqus package

Roll uping natural informations from books, diary and online beginnings









Experiment behavior

Experiment analysis

Set up experiment




Software proof

Validation and coverage



Literature reappraisal is a mention papers which focuses on specific aims and subjects. In literature reappraisal, all diaries, articles, and books sing with side impact clang trial are searched. All of these beginnings can be found from the library and cyberspace. After treatments with supervisor, the best beginnings are taking as chief contents in literature reappraisal. All findings, research and treatment from old trial that have been done by all of the organisations are luxuriant in this study. From these beginnings, information about front door design, human deaths on resident and engineering to cut down human deaths in side impact can be found.


There are many organisations that carry out side impact clang trial. Each organisation has their ain method and demand depends on status and safety regulations in that part. For illustration, MDB for IIHS side impact trial has 300 millimeter more ground clearance comparison to MDB for FMVSS side impact trial since IIHS attempt to imitate SUV and truck pickup status. To simplify this undertaking, several criterions from this full criterion are choose as chief survey.


Problem analysis method is the method where the related inquiries and jobs are collected. All jobs sing with side impact are analyzed. All jobs that contribute to side impact hurt are determined. There are some jobs that had been found and will be analyzed:

Different standards in all side impact clang trial criterions

How to carry on an experiment that can formalize the Abacus package

Which is the best criterion to take in front door modeling

From the job, all solution for the jobs is examined such as new engineering on front door and latest design on front door.


Front door from first coevals of Perodua Kancil is selected since Perodua Kancil easy available in our route. Even many driving academy usage Perodua Kancil to develop new driver. All dimension and design in front door of Perodua Kancil are taken. Then the forepart door is modeled by utilizing computing machine aided design ( CAD ) package. In this undertaking, patterning on front door is done by utilizing CATIA package. The theoretical account will be use as finite component theoretical account. From the finite component theoretical account, side impact analysis will be executing by utilizing Abaqus package to obtain the harm behaviour on the front door. The analysis will be made in PSM 2.

Figure 3.5.1: Front Door CAD Model


Figure 3.5.2: Front door of Perodua Kancil


To formalize consequence from package simulation, impact experiment demand to be conducted. In this experiment, rod impact mild steel which has about 1.5 kilograms to 2 kilograms weight is smash on an aluminium sheet. The rod impact will be fall through PVC from certain tallness. 5 aluminium sheets will be used in this experiment and 5 readings will be taken. This experiment will be recorded by utilizing high velocity camera.

A gigue is needed to keep the aluminum sheet during the experiment. Since there is no gigue for the experiment, new gigue is design and built. After has some treatment with lector and technician, the gigue is wholly designed. Then the gigue starts to be built. The gigue is built form mild steel angle and home base.

Figure 3.6.1: Jig CAD theoretical account

After complete the gigue, rod impact is built. The rod needs to hold weight around 1.5 kilogram to 2 kilogram. The rod does n’t hold any specific length. During the experiment, the rod impact will fall through PVC pipe to cut down drag force from x-axis and y-axis so the rod will fall directly to the aluminium sheet. PVC pipe will be hold by utilizing rejoinder base.

Figure 3.6.2: Rod Impact CAD theoretical account

For aluminum sheet, 5 aluminium home bases which have 3 millimeter thickness will be cut into 250 millimeters x 250 mm size. Rod impact will fall on these home bases during experiment. 5 readings are taken from all 5 aluminium sheets. Reading is taken by step distortion of aluminum sheet in z-axis. All impact will be entering by utilizing high velocity camera.


The gigue is mounted by sleep togethering at 4 points on the tabular array to repair the place of the gigue. Aluminum sheet is screwed on the gigue to do certain the aluminium sheet in fix place. The rod impact will be hook on ceiling. To do certain the rod impact autumn straight on aluminium sheet, PVC pipe will be use so rod impact will fall through the PVC pipe. The PVC pipe is hold by utilizing rejoinder base. All impacts are recorded by utilizing high velocity camera. The experiment will be run in 5 times.

Figure 3.7.1: Impact experiment in CAD theoretical account


To compare the simulation consequence with experiment consequence, simulation trial will be done on aluminium sheet. Datas from experiment consequence will be used to formalize informations from simulation consequence. After informations from aluminum sheet simulation has been validate, the informations will be compare with simulation consequence for forepart door since there is no experiment for side impact on front door due to high cost. All the simulation and finite component analysis will be done by utilizing Abaqus package.

Chapter IV


From this undertaking, it shows that side impact trial is really important trial in automotive universe today. Percentage cause by side impact has been increase while per centum cause by front impact has decrease since more research and trial is more focal point on front impact. Rating system supply by assorted organisation for side impact clang trial presents can supply better protection on vehicle. Automotive consumers can acquire profit from this evaluation system since they can make up one’s mind which auto is the best in footings of side impact protection. More survey sing with side impact demand to be done so more alteration and betterment can be applied on front door.

In the hereafter, front door from other auto theoretical account can be study to differ side impact protection provided in Perodua Kancil with other auto theoretical account. Other than Abaqus package, finite component analysis can be conduct by utilizing Pastran, Nastran or other package to compare the simulation consequences. For simulation trial in this undertaking, front door design is simplify to acquire fast simulation consequence. In future finite component analysis can be done on more complex forepart door design to acquire more item consequence.


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