Travel experience is, restrictedly, perceived as seeking relaxation including Sun, beaches, shopping and freedom. However, volunteering could really be happened during a holiday or go the chief ground of the trip which extremely involved in the local civilization ( Maureen, 2006 ) .
Harmonizing to the Tourism 2020 Vision study made by the United Nation World Tourism Organization, which usually abbreviated as UNWTO, international touristry will perchance meet a 4.1 % increase of one-year growing rate on norm from 1995 to 2020 significance to around 1.56 billion visitants. However, travel promotes non merely universe peace and friendly relationship, but economic inequalities, cultural and environmental impairments ( Poelzl, 2002 ) .
Figure 1: Conceptual map of alternate touristry ( Mieczkowski, 1995, p459 )
Mass touristry chiefly consists of buying standardised merchandises and sing those prevailed and well-developed touristry finishs ( Robinson & A ; Novelli, 2005 ) . Having more leisure clip and higher buying power triggered the desire to hold different experiences ( Hall & A ; Weiler, 1992 ) . Nowadays people are looking for unique, novel and meaningful travel experience to fulfill themselves ( Robinson & A ; Novelli, 2005 ) .
Due to globalisation, states become closer neighbors, and unveiling each other ‘s jobs. Closeness helps the less fortunate and raises the environmental consciousness ( Uriely, Reichel & A ; Ron, 2003 ) . It gives rise of alternate touristry, which including a diverseness of touristry signifiers into niche markets such as nature and particular involvement touristry which is abbreviated as SIT. SIT offers customized leisure and travel experience harmonizing to increasing demands from the persons ( Derrett, 2001 ) . For case, several undertakings related to volunteer touristry and ecotourism have been actively promoted chiefly in developing states while preservation undertakings have been executed in developed states ( Britton, 1977 ; Saglio, 1979 ; Wearing, 2001 ) .
SIT travelers involve in cultural and leisure activities developing their particular involvements, gained penetrations and satisfied themselves by carry throughing the higher degree of demands viz. self-esteem, belonging and self-actualization ( Neulinger, 1982 ; Henderson, 1984 ; Hall & A ; Weiler, 1992 ; Wearing, 2001, 2004 ) . Volunteer touristry is a possible profitable market as the bulk of this section are higher educated and more sensitive to the environmental and societal costs they brought ( Hall & A ; Weiler, 1992 ; Lynne, 1993 ) .
Volunteer touristry and ecotourism both offer an alternate touristry experience and their implicit in focal point is sustainability in order to guarantee the impacts on finish are minimized ( Sofield, 1991, Wearing, 2001 ) . Both signifiers are taking to equilibrate development to run into present demands without compromising the ability to run into the demands of future coevals ( Mieczkowski, 1995 ; Wearing, 2001 ) . This can be found by the fact that volunteer touristry pays particular attending to the environmental and societal carrying capacity, co-occuring with the purposes of sustainability ( Colton, 1987 ; Wearing, 2001 ) .
1.2 The Global Development of Volunteer Tourism
Since 1915, the phenomenon of abroad traveling of international voluntaries, existed and is supported by a scope of organisations and groups around the Earth ( Gillette, 1968 ; Clark, 1978 ; Beigbeder, 1991 ; Wearing, 2004 ) . However, it was non being regarded as a touristry signifier.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, which is abbreviated as OECD, estimated over 33,000 abroad voluntaries engaged during 1990 ( Beigbeder, 1991 ; Wearing, 2001, 2004 ) . Furthermore, the celebrated guidebook, Mcmlillon, noted there were 75 organisations in 1987 ( Campbell, 1999 ) , with contrast to 275 in 2003. In add-on, there are other beginnings besides proposing the important growing in volunteer-based organisations ( Holder, 2002 ; Brown & A ; Morrison, 2003 ; Brown, 2005 ) . Based on a study of over 300 unpaid touristry organisations worldwide, it is estimated overall market has grown to 1.6 million voluntary tourers a twelvemonth, with a entire market value of between GBP 832 million and GBP 1.3 billion ( Association for Tourism & A ; Leisure Education, 2008 ) . The most significant growing in the sector has taken topographic point since 1990 ( Association for Tourism & A ; Leisure Education, 2008 ) . These figures show a rapid growing in voluntary touristry.
The popularity of alternate touristry has increased significantly such as voluntary touristry and ecotourism ( Wearing, 2001, 2002 ; Mustonen, 2005 ) . This is further witnessed by leisure travelers wanting to link with locals and their civilization in order to excite and carry through their demand of cultural submergence by uniting travel, escapade and service ( Brown & A ; Morrison, 2003 ; Hall & A ; Raymond, 2008 ) . Several studies indicated 77 % of organisations are non-government such as Youth Challenge International and Earth-watch, while 13 % are commercial such as i-to-i, 5 % are authorities ran such as Volunteer Service Aboard New Zealand, and 3 % are operated by universities like University of California ‘s University Research Expeditions Programme ( Ellis, 2003 ; Board, 2003 ; Coghlam, 2008 ) .
1.3 The development of SIT and volunteer touristry in Hong Kong
SIT is still developing in its babyhood phase in Hong Kong. Despite the fact that small Hong Kong occupants exhaustively know about SIT, a figure of volunteer travel service providers do be in Hong Kong. For-profit circuit operators such as Hong Kong Study Tours Centre ( Hong Kong Study Tours Centre, 2007 ) form preservation voluntary Tourss to Australis and New Zealand for pupils. Other voluntary travel chances are normally provided by non-profit organisations. For case, International Youth Culture Exchange Association ( H.K. ) Ltd. on occasion provides voluntary Tourss for secondary pupils and undergraduates. These voluntaries will normally be involved in learning English and simple hygiene cognition in China ( International Youth Cultural Exchange Association ( H.K. ) Ltd. , 2007 ) . Global Neighbor Network is dedicated to advancing unpaid touristry in Hong Kong by forming voluntary Tourss on a regular basis to different destitute communities such as Sri Lanka, Kenya and Jordan ( Global Neighbour Network, 2006 ) . It has besides worked with local universities such as medical pupils from The University of Hong Kong to supply basic medical attention and intervention for patients in Indonesia. Besides, voluntaries in Global Neighbour Network will spouse with international voluntaries in Global Hope Network to take part in different voluntary Tourss. Other non-profit organisations involved in unpaid touristry include Yellow House, Volunteer Space and LoveFaithHope Charitable Foundation.
Due to deficient consciousness of the general populace, volunteer touristry is still non really well-known in Hong Kong and the figure of participants is limited, yet it has been deriving popularity in these few old ages. Both secondary school and undergraduate pupils are given more chances to give back to the needy community in China, although they may merely make voluntary work for one or two yearss of the full circuit and engage in cultural exchange activities for the remainder of the circuit. In add-on to pupils, spiritual groups make up most of the voluntary travelers in Hong Kong. They will see assorted destitute topographic points on mission travel, with some of the clip spent on volunteering. In general, they will supply instruction and development assistance in the destitute communities.
1.4 Problem Statement
Volunteer touristry is a comparatively recent phenomenon around the universe. Though there has been increasing research on the motivational factors of voluntary tourers, small of such research has been done in the Asia-Pacific context, allow entirely within the Hong Kong context. It is of paramount importance to understand the travel motive of voluntary tourers because it is the driving force behind their behaviours ( Schiffan, Bednall, O’Cass, Paladino & A ; Kanuk, 2005 ) . In add-on, analyzing their sensed value of the voluntary trips will assist to find their purposes to urge and buy back the voluntary travel chances ( Petrick, 2004a ; 2004b ) . This research is designed to research why Hong Kong occupants take part in voluntary Tourss, what motivates them and what their sensed values towards their voluntary trips are. With a better apprehension of the aforesaid issues, touristry sellers and professionals and possible service suppliers such as travel bureaus will be able to place if there is any market potency to form more voluntary Tourss and diversify the touristry merchandises in Hong Kong. The consequences of this survey will assist non-profit organisations to better understand why people choose to volunteer overseas, so they will be able to section and aim the markets, create bespoke voluntary Tourss to enroll more warm-hearted people to go voluntaries, every bit good as develop appropriate selling schemes to advance unpaid touristry in Hong Kong.
– To analyze the motivational factors behind Hong Kong occupants towards volunteer travel.
– To analyze the sensed restraints of repeat engagement among unpaid touristry among participants.
– To analyze the influence of a unpaid touristry experience on future leisure travel determinations.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
This chapter offers a reappraisal of the literature with mention to the subject and research intents of this survey. There are four subdivisions in this chapter. The first subdivision will specify volunteering and voluntary touristry. Second, touristry motive, development of motivational theories and voluntary motive is reviewed, followed by a sum-up of old related research on voluntary touristry. The construct of perceived value an single holds when measuring travel experience is so discussed. The drumhead subdivision will supply a decision of this chapter.
2.1 Volunteering vs. Volunteer Tourism
Volunteer touristry, or besides known as “ Voluntourism ” or volunteer holiday, really combined two major elements which evidently are volunteering and going. More accurately, it contains the motives of both volunteering and going sides and shows how they pertain to and interplay with each other.
Volunteering is widely perceived and defined as freely chosen and by and large supplying AIDSs and services for the host community at the same time without any inducement to derive any fiscal wagess from them ( Beighbeder, 1991 ; Van Til, 1979 cited in Stebbins, 1982 ) . Purportedly volunteering or voluntary service is both good to the community and the wellbeing of the voluntaries ( Cnaan et al. , 1996 ; Stebbins, 1982 ) since it could construct up a societal web and develop a common apprehension, friendly relationship and venturesomeness between each other ( Gillette, 1968 ; Wearing, 2001, 2004 ) . Volunteering may profit voluntaries in geting accomplishments such as communicating accomplishments, teamwork and interpersonal accomplishments which would perfectly be utile for their calling ( Broad, 2003 ; Brown & A ; Lehto, 2005 ) . It provokes participants ‘ contemplation, encourages their concerns for others, offers them with an chance to develop an involvement and creates a sense of deep personal fulfilment ( Stebbins & A ; Graham, 2004 ) . Stebbins ( 1992 ) besides suggests that volunteering may accomplish voluntaries ‘ self-actualization, diversion or reclamation of ego and feelings of achievement. The voluntary is the 1 who additions common acquisition, friendly relationship and escapade ( Gillette, 1968 ) . Volunteers from all age groups will most likely feel happier and less down. Neulinger ( 1982 ) and Henderson ( 1984 ) both noted that volunteerism and leisure fulfil higher degree demands such as self-esteem, belonging and self-actualization.
2.1.2 Volunteer Tourism
Volunteer touristry is somewhat like an enlargement of volunteering. Undoubtedly it includes the motive of volunteering and, meanwhile, involves desires or inducements of travel. The term “ unpaid touristry ” intends to the tourers who organize to supply voluntary service during their holidaies which is described by Wearing ( 2001 ) :
“ aiding or relieving the material poorness of some groups in society, the Restoration of certain environments, or research into facets of society or environment ”
In fact, the definition of voluntary touristry has become bit by bit equivocal since a big figure of persons, who are willing to pass most of the clip during holiday on volunteering, may non comprehend themselves as voluntary tourers. However, there is a conceptual model of voluntary touristry developed to sort voluntary tourers into different categories ( Callanan & A ; Thomas, 2005 ) . The model was drawn on another model related to ecology ( Sylvan, 1985 cited in Callanan & A ; Thomas, 2005, pp. 196-197 ) . It chiefly divided voluntary tourers into “ shallow ” , “ intermediate ” and “ deep ” category based on the continuance of their trips, their needed accomplishments or makings, grade of both inactive and active engagement, degree of part to the host communities and focal point of the experience.
Another manner to sort the voluntary tourers fundamentally depends on their mentalities. Volunteer tourers should be farther divided into two types. Some of them may be willing to pass most of or even all of their vacations on volunteering, they, hence, are identified as “ volunteer-minded ” tourers. The other type of voluntary tourers are identified as “ vacation-minded ” tourers who will perchance merely dainty volunteering as a short-run, may be merely a half-day or up to three yearss out of a trip, activity during their holiday. ( Brown & A ; Morrison, 2003 ; Brown & A ; Lehto, 2005, p. 480 ) .
As motive is a really important variable in the part of explicating people ‘s travel behaviour, this subdivision aims at supplying a comprehensive literature reappraisal on touristry motive and voluntary motive. The definitions of motive and touristry motive will foremost be given, followed by a description of the development of motivational theories.
2.2.1 Travel Motivation
To understand travel motive, a assortment of graduated tables and theories have been proposed and through empirical observation tested in the touristry literature. Many research workers have used motivational theory to seek to construe the motives of tourers. Wahab ( 1975 ) argued that travel motive is so basic, indispensable and cardinal while making touristry surveies or touristry development. Generally, motive is normally defined as the drive force behind all actions ( Crompton, 1979 ; Fodness, 1994 ) . At the interim, motive would be a cardinal factor act uponing one ‘s travel determinations and be closely related to their psychological demands to research something they have ne’er met in their place states. Travel motives will likely be affected by any alterations occurred in one ‘s life phases. However, travelers may normally be influenced by a certain figure of incentives other than merely one. ( Swarbrooke and Horner, 2003 ) .
2.2.2 Tourism Motivation Theories
A few definitions have been developed for touristry motive. Dann ( 1981 cited in Snepenger et al. , 2006, p.140 ) stated that touristry motive is:
“ a meaningful province of head which adequately disposes an histrion or a group of histrions to go, and which is later explainable by others as a valid account for such a determination ”
Crompton and McKay ( 1997 ) built their definition of touristry motive on those suggested by Crompton ( 1979 ) and Iso-Ahola ( 1989 cited in Crompton & A ; McKay, 1997 ) . Crompton and McKay ( 1997, p.427 ) which included the construct of optimum arousal degree. For illustration, homeostasis ( Snepenger et al. , 2006 ) helped depict touristry motive as:
“ a dynamic procedure of internal psychological factors that generate a province of tenseness or disequilibrium within persons ” .
Furthermore, Fodness ( 1994 ) and Crompton ( 1979 ) agreed and suggested that more cognition of touristry motive were necessary to help touristry sellers in understanding persons ‘ travel forms so that they could develop and advance touristry merchandises harmonizing to clients ‘ demands and wants.
Over the old ages, a myriad of touristry motivational theories have been developed. There are some outstanding theories which contribute to a better apprehension of why persons choose to go.
2.2.3 Motivation Theory – Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs
When discoursing motive theory, Maslow ‘s five-stage hierarchy of demands ought to be of the extreme importance. It emphazizes human demands could be differentiated into five different degrees from extrinsic to intrinsic demands. These five degrees are besides in hierarchal order of increasing motivational importance. From the least to the most importance, they are physiological, safety, societal, self-esteem and self-actualization demand ( Maslow, 1970 ) . This hierarchy could be extremely related to the travel industry since it mentioned persons will less probably be interested in high-ranking demands if they can non run into their physiological and safety demands. It implies the persons will less probably be interested in travel. Additionally, Self-actualization could be considered the terminal or end of leisure ( Mill & A ; Morrison, 2002 ) . Analyzing all five phases can deduce some possible intimations and hints to assist understand the motive of voluntary touristry.
2.2.4 Motivation Theory – Travel Career Ladder ( TCL )
TCL is really partially based on the Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of demands. Harmonizing to TCL, tourers who own more experience would more likely seek satisfaction of higher demands ( Pearce, 1991 ; Ryan, 1998 ) . It reflects travel motivations are altering harmonizing to life span and accumulated travel experience ( Ryan, 1998 ; Schewe, 1988 ) and describes travelers ‘ motive as consisting of five different degrees, severally they are relaxation, safety or security, relationship, self-esteem and development and self-actualization or fulfillment demand. Normally travellers are non dominated by merely a degree of demand but a set of demands. They will non ever remain in the same phase and will likely fall every bit good as ascend on the ladder.
2.2.5 Push and Pull Factors
Except the two hierarchal demands of homo mentioned above, there is a two-tiered strategy of motivational factors, “ push ” and “ pull ” factors. Several theories besides refer to these two factors to transport out, for illustration, Iso-Ahola personal interpersonal motivations. Push factors mean all social-psychological motivations which push persons to travel going. They are intangible and more like intrinsic desires of persons, for case, relaxation and geographic expedition. On the other manus, pull factors mean those external forces which affect or attract persons to go to carry through their identified wants. Any touchable things including the architectures, historical resources and the intangible elements including local civilization, the attraction of the finish itself can besides elicit travelers ‘ involvement ( Andreu, Bigne & A ; Copper, 2000 ) . However, a travel is usually occurred based on the ground why persons would wish to go forth their place state instead than the entreaty of the finish which lure the travelers to see. Travellers ‘ motivations and behaviour are markedly self-oriented ( Witt & A ; Wright, 1992 ) . Obviously, the “ push ” and “ pull ” factors may non be perceived appropriate to understand the motive of voluntary touristry because
2.2.6 Motivation of voluntaries being engaged in voluntary services
Altruism ( Bussell & A ; Forbes, 2002 ; Callanan & A ; Thomas, 2005 ) and making something meaningful ( Cnaan & A ; Goldberg-Glen, 1991 cited in Ryan, Kaplan & A ; Grese, 2001 ) are believed to be the cardinal motivations for persons to take part in voluntary work. Persons who desire to help others are more likely to go voluntaries. However, egoism may likely be included in the motive of voluntaries as good ( Bussell & A ; Forbes, 2002 ; Ryan, Kaplan & A ; Grese, 2001 ) . Participating in voluntary work can really supply persons with alteration to fulfill their societal and psychological demands ( Cnaan & A ; Goldberg-Glen, 1991 cited in Bussell & A ; Forbes, 2002 ) . The first self-interested motive is ‘social ‘ which involves volunteering together with one ‘s household members and old friends to beef up affinity and friendly relationship ( Bruyere & A ; Rappe, 2007 ; Ryan, Kaplan & A ; Grese, 2001 ) every bit good as run intoing new people with similar involvements.
The following motive is ‘learning and calling ‘ . Volunteers may larn deeper about the natural environment ( Bruyere & A ; Rappe, 2007 ) ; develop new accomplishments and abilities which may be utile with one ‘s calling ( Broad, 2003 ) ; obtain job-related experience and research calling chances which may help future employment or calling promotion ( Bruyere & A ; Rappe, 2007 ; Riecken, Babakus & A ; Yavas, 1994 cited in Bussell & A ; Forbes, 2002 )
Another outstanding motive of voluntary is ‘values and esteem ‘ . Volunteers can portion their nucleus values and ideas with other people ( Bruyere & A ; Rappe, 2007 ; Clary & A ; Snyder, 1999 ) ; derive a sense of dignity every bit good as hiking self-pride ( Bruyere & A ; Rappe, 2007 ; Bussell & A ; Forbes, 2002 ) .
Some of the less obvious grounds for people to volunteer may include a desire to have on uniforms which symbolize authorization, blending with famous persons, travel chances ( Wilson & A ; Pimm, 1996 ) and spiritual engagement ( Mattis et al. , 2000 ) .
2.3 Previous Related Research on Volunteer Tourism
Having looked at travel motive and voluntary motive separately, it is necessary to reexamine the old surveies on voluntary touristry. A really similar research on the motivations and benefits of voluntary vacationists in the United States was done by Brown and Lehto ( 2005 ) . They employed focal point group and in-depth personal interviews as their informations aggregation methods to derive a deeper apprehension of this seldom researched phenomenon. The consequences showed that there were four chief motivations of why people volunteer while taking a leisure trip. First, travelers were motivated to volunteer because they would hold cherished chances to interact with local people and plunge oneself in the local civilization and community ( Brown & A ; Lehto, 2005, p.487 ) Second, volunteer touristry was seen as a manner to give back and do a difference in others ‘ lives, particularly the less unfortunate. Third, travelers sought chumminess on voluntary holiday trips. They were motivated by the fact that they would be able to do friends with people with common involvements, values and heads. Fourth, volunteer touristry was perceived as an educational chance for kids. It was believed that the voluntary experience would instil the value of giving to the younger coevals in their lives. Another related motivation was the chance to construct a better bonding between parents and kids.
The major benefits of take parting in voluntary touristry found in this research were greater satisfaction with the overall travel experience, self-fulfilment, chances to straight interact with the local community, the meaningful experience and fantastic memories, personal growing and sweetening of household relationships, Among the aforesaid benefits, self-fulfilment and personal growing were believed to hold an digesting consequence on persons after the voluntary holiday trips.
A instance survey conducted by Broad ( 2003 ) investigated the relationship between voluntaries, their volunteering and the results and impacts at the Gibbon Rehabilitation Project ( GRP ) in Phuket. Four classs of motive were identified in this survey utilizing qualitative method. Volunteers participated in the GRP because they wanted to go to a different state and larn something about the state. They would wish to obtain experience with mention to their surveies and future calling programs and they support preservation based on selflessness. ( Broad, 2003, pp.66-67 ) . Their self-interested motive was related to run intoing like-minded people or developing their personalities. Her findings supported Gazley ‘s ( 2001, cited in Broad, 2003 ) claim that both volunteer motive and touristry motive may use to volunteer touristry.
Similarly, it was found in Broad ‘s ( 2003 ) survey that the voluntary travel experience had inspired some alterations in the participants and their life. The experience was a life turning point for some of the voluntaries, for case, happening a calling way or come ining into relationships with the locals. Other voluntaries indicated that they had gained more assurance, cognition and accomplishments, and learned more about themselves. They had besides developed a different position of life and the universe.
2.4 Chapter Summary
Chapter 3 Methodology
The intent of this research is to research the motives, restraints and how unpaid travel experiences influence travel determination among unpaid travelers. Since small academic research had been conducted in this country, particularly in the Asia-Pacific context, no confirmed theories or methods were available to be adopted for this survey ( Brown & A ; Lehto, 2005 ) . An exploratory survey thereby seems appropriate to offer a better apprehension of this research subject. The methodological issues were discussed in four subdivisions: ( 1 ) research design, ( 2 ) information aggregation, ( 3 ) information analysis and, ( 4 ) restrictions.
3.1 Research Design
This is an exploratory research which is inductive in nature. The survey used a qualitative attack with in-depth interviews ( Brown & A ; Lehto, 2005 ) . Qualitative research attack helped to derive more cognition as to how persons gave intending to their voluntary holiday experiences ( Halpenny & A ; Caisse, 2003 ) . Simultaneously in-depth interviews provoked interviewees to show their ideas which were neglected by sellers before so they can really provide to the possible demands. ( Patton, 1990 ; Jenning, 2001 ) . The information gathered were helpful to uncover the “ what ” . “ how ” and, more significantly, explore the “ why ” for persons to take part in voluntary travel ( Saunders, Lewis & A ; Thornhill, 2007 ) . The value of the cognition is mostly based on the context and the usage of the cognition. ( Steinar, 1996 ) It can, for illustration, be used to analyze travelers ‘ attitude towards volunteer travel, and the cognition gained used to actuate leisure travelers to fall in volunteer travel.
In add-on, the interviews embraced different sorts of interview inquiries so as to deeply examine why possible travelers in Hong Kong are motivated to fall in the voluntary travel. Introducing inquiries were used since such open-ended inquiries may
3.2 Data aggregation
Since it was unlikely to place and interview all voluntary travelers in Hong Kong, the interviewees were chosen from a population of Hong Kong occupants who had participated in any voluntary travel before. Snowball trying technique was used to roll up the information until the needed sample size was reached ( Jenning, 2001 ) . There were 8 desirable interviewees invited to take part in the person interview which fitted the needed sample size determined by theoretical trying rule ( Glaser, 1992 ) . Furthermore, the interview procedure lasted till the theoretical impregnation, where no new thoughts or subjects could be developed.
3.3 Data Analysis
The personal interviews were transcribed word for word instantly. Owing to the clip bound, the research worker translated the Cantonese treatments straight into written English. The transcripts
Basically people, clip and topographic point would be the major restriction of the research. Finding appropriate interviewees was the first to be concerned so the research worker kept inquiring referrals from friends. After happening the right people, the research worker needed to do several assignments with all interviewees in footings of
Secondary informations were so limited that could non sufficiently cater to the demands of this research, elaborate and in-depth informations and descriptions were hence required ( Geertz, 1973 ; Jenning, 2001 ) . However, secondary informations sourced from newspapers, academic diaries, web sites and books were so utile to supply apprehensions of initial constructs.
Chapter 4 Research Findingss
Development of voluntary touristry in Hong Kong is still in its babyhood at this phase. Hence, the purposes of this chapter are to look into and have a better apprehension of the motive and restraints of repetition voluntary travelers. In add-on to researching how the experience influence their leisure travel determinations. Findingss of aforesaid eight in-depth interviews were concluded in footings of three research aims. Original statements of the interviewees were used as grounds to back up each construct.
4.1 Motivations of perennial engagement in voluntary travel
All of the interviewees showed that they are really likely to go to voluntary travel once more. There were six major motivational factors found which can be dissected by and extremely related to Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs ( Maslow, 1970 ) . Altruism and broadening personal skylines can be defined as self-actualization, which is of the highest degree of the hierarchy. Furthermore, alterations of self-image can be defined as self-pride, which is positioned in the 2nd highest degree whilst desire for get awaying from day-to-day hustling life and sweetening of societal life belong to belongingness and love, which is of the in-between degree of the hierarchy. Apart from those could be analysed by the Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs, old experience can either be one of the motivations for taking voluntary travel once more.
Personal selfless desire for supplying others with aid and understanding was stated by the interviewees as an of import factor actuating them to partake in voluntary travel. Five interviewees considered it their first precedence whilst other three interviewees considered it the 2nd motive. They volunteered, for illustration, to learn the local pupils, to supply necessities, to take attention of the aged and kids, to convey felicity, to demo love, and to promote people to populate under a austere environment. Three interviewees shared that it helped the organisation to further understand the echt needs amongst the locals, so more effectual aid could be provided in the hereafter.
“ I can assist others or convey them ( the local ) lovingness and felicity to them. ” ( Interviewee F )
“ Most of their parents left them ( local kids ) and work in other states, come back merely one or two a twelvemonth merely. They ‘re deficiency of parental love. ” ( Interviewee A )
One of the interviewee was eager to raise public consciousness of the poorness spread between Mainland China communities and Hong Kong people.
“ the figure of participant is merely 30, but if I spread the thought and my experience it would be many times than the figure of participants. Possibly, they know more after hearing from me, they are more interested in, and know the agony of others in the universe. Because I have my personal experience, it is more persuasive than the related Television episodes. ” ( Interviewee E )
“ So one think the kids populating in Hong Kong are holding luxury lives. ” ( Interviewee D )
Similar constructs shared by all interviewees were meaningful because they felt happy with lending to assist and therefore enhanced their sense of complacency and achievement. The word “ meaningful ” was mentioned at least one time by each interviewee and three of them even emphasized this word for up to five times. It showed that participants looked for a meaningful experience in voluntary travel.
“ I feel I bit by bit go kinder after volunteering every clip as I am willing to assist others even though I may non hold contributed to the society a batch. Anyway, I learnt how to return the society instead than taking advantages from it. ” ( Interviewee A )
“ You can experience more satisfied with partaking in a voluntary trip and profit much more from it than from ordinary travel. “ , “ I think it is really meaningful at all. It made me experience so fulfilling and happy with holding these trips. ” ( Interviewee E )
4.1.2 Broadening skyline
All interviewees desire to broaden their skyline by fall ining voluntary travel. Four interviewees mentioned that it was their first motive, while the others ranked it as their 2nd motive. The interviewees indicated they desired to widen their skyline because they knew excessively small about other parts of the universe. The freshness shared by three interviewees expressed they were motivated by seeking new experiences and challenges from researching untasted and unfamiliar topographic points they have ne’er been earlier. Particularly to understand the local civilization such as Tibet, Dun-Huang, India, and Cambodia by making volunteering. While some were interested in making volunteering in other facets like preservation of nature and heritage.
“ I would wish to take part in nature preservation volunteering. Such as traveling to Australia to make preservation. ” “ I did n’t hold that sort of voluntary travel experience before, and I want to undergo itaˆ¦I favor to travel to India, Cambodia those topographic points to experienceaˆ¦volunteering in a place of orphans. I think it must be really joyful and meaningful. ” ( Interviewee B )
“ I want to travel for new topographic point to make new things and have new experience. ” ( Interviewee E )
They believed it was a better experience than ordinary travelling, in term of civilization, because they by cognizing echt local civilization because volunteering and interaction with local for several yearss.
All interviewees told they desired to understand the local civilization better by sing the local life and cultural submergence. But two of them expressed that a longer continuance in functioning the locals would fulfill their motive next clip. Because it allowed understand of the local civilization better. They revealed it was really meaningful as they learnt many things which they did non read in books.
“ possibly by this chance, cultural interchanging between us. ” ( Interviewee A )
“ There are many topographic points on this planet you have ne’er seen earlier. Possibly from the trip, you can larn many things. ” ( Interviewee E )
“ There is difference between making volunteering abroad and at place ; it enabled a opportunity to cognize more about other civilization ” ( Interviewee D )
“ I feel it can broaden my skylines. Not merely to cognize what ‘s go oning in Hong Kong ” , “ That ‘s beyond of your imaginativeness, if you have non seen or felt it by yourself. ” ( Interviewee B )
“ If they have longer clip, so I would love to fall in once more. ” ( Interviewee F )
“ I felt I learnt a batch by ( voluntary trip ) experience. Thus I thought it is deserving fall ining. ” ( Interviewee A )
4.1.3 Changes of self-image
Six interviewees expressed take parting in voluntary trip granted them a positive image when they shared it with others. They perceived themselves as more lovingness, sort, brave, and perseverant by passing money and set attempt in going to supply voluntary aid in unfamiliar, distant topographic points.
One mentioned her engagement was to maintain her promise to the organisers ; being a responsible individual even when her friends all of a sudden all quit.
“ I think they ( her friends ) would believe I am a good miss, willing to make volunteering. Indeed, when they heard about “ voluntary ” this term, they would believe you are good, docile, and well behaved and sort than others. ” ( Interviewee E )
“ some asked me why I travelled to those ( unfamiliar ) topographic points, rarely been travelled. While some ( friends ) praised me and surprised that I can do it through ( in rough conditions ) . ” ( Interviewee G )
4.1.4 Escaping from day-to-day life
Five interviewees commented that the trip provided them the chance of holding an unforgettable and loosen uping vacation to get away from day-to-day busy and nerve-racking life in Hong Kong, such as remind them their happy childhood.
“ Indeed 50 % of my motive is taking a interruption, for comfort, to loosen up, non 100 % for assisting others. ” ( Interviewee F )
“ I think it is loosen uping, because the life in HK is so hustle and bustle, the gait is excessively fast, so it offered me to hold a interruption, even the trip is tough. But the tough and ambitious makes me happy, one time it is non the emphasis from analyzing, analyzing and making assignments in Hong Kong. ” ( Interviewee E )
“ It brings me back to my childhood, as I used to populate in those small towns when I was immature. ” ( Interviewee A )
4.1.5 Colorizing personal societal life
22.214.171.124 Consolidate affinity and friendly relationship
Three interviewees indicated they wished to heighten friendly relationship by take parting together to hold an unforgettable experience. Geting to cognize each other better through team-work instead than hanging out holding amusement less meaningful in ordinary trips.
“ Possibly having to my group of friends who are fall ining, as a group to fall in, therefore we all joined. ” ( Interviewee A )
“ It enriched out friendly relationship, as we engaged in the same experience together at that clip, to assist people together instead than we go out for holding merriment, as there was more teamwork. ” ( Interview C )
126.96.36.199 Meeting others
Three interviewees expressed they desired to run into people with common involvement and likewise aged, this allowed for better communication and making voluntary work in future together.
“ I think those who join this sort of activity are supposed they have the purpose and involvement to assist people. If I know them through these sorts of activities, I can make voluntary work with them in future, as we have common involvements. ”
4.1.6 Past experience
Two interviewees had participated in a voluntary trip before, and this gave them assurance to re-participation. While three interviewees do voluntary work on a regular basis. Both experience of holding similar trip antecedently and being voluntary work on a regular basis, it revealed that past experience was one of the motives.
4.2 Constraints to re-participate in a voluntary trip
All interviewees indicated they would take part in voluntary trip in future. However there were 10 restraints that would suppress their engagement once more. The restraints include clip, energy, household duty, money, sentiment of others, safety, assurance toward organisation, chance, age, and entree to needy community. These restraints will be discussed in the undermentioned subdivision.
Time appeared to be the outstanding restraints. Six interviewees regarded clip as the most of import factor, while one interviewee ranked it as 3rd in prioritization. They said that full-time perusal provided them with more trim clip to take part than work, because of the long vacations such as semester interruptions. It had less impact on their surveies, still there were options inhibit take parting such as traveling abroad exchange, holding internship. They revealed that holding a full-time occupation inhibited engagement, since it provides fewer vacations and sometimes being requested to work excess during busy occasions. They indicated that the duty to the company and the trouble in bespeaking personal leave for engagement.
“ It is non like holding semester interruptions in school-life, and holding an month long vacation. Since I have been working. I merely have 10 or 20 vacations a twelvemonth. ” ( Interviewee B )
“ possibly when I have my occupation, I must be responsible and it is non easy to hold free clip for making volunteering. ” ( Interviewee D )
“ If I participate in it ( unpaid touristry ) , it indicated I have to bespeak personal leave, but you know during Christmas, it is no manner to acquire the leave, I should state it is impossible. ” ( Interviewee E )
Interviewees told they were exhausted and would wish to rest and prosecute in personal life such as meeting friends, playing musical instruments. Besides, voluntary trip was physical demanding to local life and functioning needy.
“ learning them ( local kids ) was truly draining, you taught in forenoon, afternoon, it was whole-day long and the trip last for 3 yearss. ” ( Interviewee C )
“ As now merely hold few vacations, I would set making personal things prior to assisting needy. Probably, due to long on the job hours, I want to take remainder in vacations. “ , “ less clip for rehearsing piano, it takes me more clip to pick up once more. ” ( Interviewee B )
“ most of clip ( vacations ) is resting among many hongkongers. They wondered why assisting people in vacation ” ( Interviewee D )
“ I do n’t hold clip to being with my fellow and friends assemblages. ” ( Interviewee E )
4.2.3 Family duty
Four interviewees regarded it as the 2nd restraints while one considered it as the 4th. Duty and concerns of their household go more after married in future, engagement may depends on the sentiments of household member such as partner, childs.
“ I am still immature now. I do n’t hold my ain household I mean I am still individual, so I have nil to worry. ” ( Interviewee E )
“ If I am a female parent, I have to take duty to my household, so I may non traveling abroad for yearss making volunteering. ” ( Interviewee D )
“ possibly in future when I have my ain household, likely it depends on my hubby willing. ” ( Interviewee F )
Six interviewees conceived money as restraints, two ranked it as 2nd restraints, while the others ranked it as the last restraint. It is apprehensible money was a restraint, as with any luxury goods, although little sum was subsidized, participants had to pay for their ain adjustments, repasts and assorted. They expressed it did non be much and it was worthy to salvage up for holding a meaningful trip in daily-life.
“ It does n’t be you much and there is funding but it is merely a little sum, but I think it is really meaningful. ” ( Interviewee F )
“ we can salvage money to fall in and it does non be excessively much. ” ( Interviewee B )
4.2.5 Opinion of others
But the values among public paying for ordinary pleasance trip is more deserving to voluntary trip, which is more value for money for pleasance amusement instead than voluntary trip. Because they conceive it is non worthy for holding voluntary trip. It may deter participants for re-participation.
“ They ( the populace ) wondered why assisting people in vacation or merely put attempts and hard-work on things did n’t hold a good return but hard-feeling alternatively. Because many times the environment is non good, we have to pay for the trip. ” ( Interviewee D )
“ They ( friends ) think it is excessively much and inquiring why you participated in those trips? ” ( Interviewee A )
188.8.131.52 External environment
Four interviewees thought safety could suppress their engagement, most of them ranked it 2nd last and last, and while one ranked it as 3rd. Furthermore, to guarantee their safety, they are unwilling to unsafe finishs. They were concerned about their safety with finish image, such as those ill-famed of hapless security degree, high offense rate, political instability, widespread of diseases, natural catastrophes. Interviewees would take part if they think finish is safe.
“ After the 5.12 Sichuan ( Richter scale 8 ) temblors, inquiring voluntaries to travel. It made me worry about my safety. ” ( Interviewee B )
“ No, if it is unsafe, I wo n’t fall in. It is a long journey in transit, every bit good the roads are non well-developed, it is likely excessively unsafe to travel. ” ( Interviewee G )
184.108.40.206 Intrinsic physical status and ability of version
Four interviewees ranked it was the 2nd last or last restraints. They shared that their physical status might suppress their engagement before puting off, while they worried about their version ability of life in rough environment and acquire ill owing to inability to acclimatise in local environment.
“ possibly the wellness job, whether my physical competence allows to making volunteering. ” ( Interviewee C )
“ I truly do n’t cognize whether I can do it through in those really, really hapless countries ” ( Interviewee F )
4.2.7 Confidence toward organisations
Two interviewees revealed their assurance towards organisations, they believed organisations were responsible and warrant for their safety. And the repute of organisations can heighten their assurance every bit good to minimise their and household concerns.
“ But I have the assurance and believe there are no any serious jobs, since they wo n’t put on the line your life and allow you decease by directing you to a unsafe topographic point. ” ( Interviewee E )
Four interviewees indicated that the chance of take parting in voluntary trip was limited. Furthermore, the frequence of forming trips and figure of participants was limited. Available seats normally were merely 10-30 per trip. The regular voluntaries decidedly had an advantage over the public to cognize the latest information. Furthermore the response of application was great, and some trips were even to the full booked on the first twenty-four hours of registration. One interviewee shared she could non happen any manner to voluntary instruction in China for longer continuance up to several months.
“ On the first twenty-four hours of registration, the response was truly good, it was full on that twenty-four hours. ” ( Interviewee A )
“ I think this is non easy to hold a opportunity ( to take part in a voluntary trip ) . ” ( Interviewee E )
One interviewee said that age would suppress engagement in future. As she knew there was age-limit for participants. The organisation would non accept from the applications aged 26 or supra. As this organisation prefers the young person to hold experience in it, because they believe the trip will hold more and great positives impact on their life afterwards.
“ they ( organisation ) had set an age group as one of the standards, those 26 or above will non be accepted for application. So I may non be able to take part after few old ages subsequently. ” ( Interviewee F )
4.2.10 Access to needy community
One concerned about the limited entree for alien assistance, since the local authoritiess non welcome any deliverance crew supplying aid in catastrophe country.
“ we ca n’t acquire entree to finishs because some developing states – like Myanmar, suffered from deluging late, do non welcome foreign assistance. ” ( Interviewee D )
4.3 Influence on participants by the experience
Seven major subjects of influences on participants were recognized: sweetening of doggedness, independency, ability of tolerance and acceptableness. These has strengthened their assurance and being more adventuresome, They were besides seeking freshness and altering the picks of finishs for leisure going in future.
4.3.1 Enhancement of doggedness
Five interviewees mentioned that their competences of doggedness, both spread outing their boundaries and finding were enhanced after the trip. Some commented they were inspirited by the felicity, doggedness among the locals populating in rough life conditions and hapless schooling installations. They realized doggedness was enriched after get the better ofing disputing state of affairss, jobs such as overcome psychological barriers and physical obtuseness during the trip.
“ my competence of doggedness was enriched, as learning them was truly wash uping. “ , “ learning them was truly draining, you taught in forenoon, afternoon, it was whole-day long and the trip last for 3 yearss. ” ( Interviewee C )
“ After completing all the activities, at dark, we had to go to the rating meeting after our bathing, and prepare of the stuffs for the following twenty-four hours. We were all exhausted, and merely slept 4 hours a twenty-four hours. ” ( Interviewee G )
“ it helped me to get the better of some fright of acrophobia. “ , “ I have some acrophobia, I ca n’t equilibrate really good, in day-to-day life when walking on comparatively consecutive and steep slopesaˆ¦ this clip when I know how fast the child walking, I have no alibi to walk easy or agitating my leg, I tried my best to walk, so I walk faster. ” ( Interviewee F )
“ they are truly the morale theoretical account for us to larn from, particularly their doggedness for larning for their volitions. We should larn from them. ” ( Interviewee A )
4.3.2 Strengthen independence
Six interviewees realized they could take attention of themselves and heighten their organisational abilities. Because they used to be dependent on household and close friends, such as maintaining personal paperss, hosting games, inaugural cognizing others by groups spliting during the briefing activities and the trip.
“ As my household is used to be really protective and take really good attention of me, but you merely ca n’t turn up ” , “ I think it ( the trip ) is a growing, therefore I think it is good for me. ” ( Interviewee D )
“ After the trip, I think it enhanced my ability to form and take attention of myself. I think I can do it through any bad conditions. ” ( Interviewee A )
4.3.3 Strengthen ability to tolerant and acceptance
Five interviewees commented that had experience of harsh