One of the most revolutionary periods in music history was the
early baroque period
The early baroque was characterized by
homophonic texture
The middle baroque was characterized by
diffusion of the style into every corner of Europe
A popular keyboard instrument in which sound was produced by means of brass blades
clavichord
Affections in baroque usage refers to
emotional states or moods of music
The most characteristic feature of baroque music is the
basso continuo
Terraced dynamics refers to
a sudden change between loud and soft
In the baroque period, the ordinary citizen’s opportunities for hearing music usually came from the
church
In Italy, music schools were often connected with
orphanages
The music director of a court in the baroque period
supervised and directed the musical performances, composed much of the music required for performances, and was responsible for the upkeep of the instruments and music library
An important form of orchestral music in the late Baroque period was the
concerto grosso
An alternation between tutti and solo sections, known as ritornello form, provides
fresh melodic ideas
A unique feature of Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No, 5 is that this was the first time
that the harpsichord has been used as a solo instrument in a concerto grosso
The main theme of a fugue is called a
subject
When another voice presents the main theme of the fugue in the dominant key, this is called
the answer
When the main theme of a fugue is presented backward, it is called
retrograde
Opera began in Italy around
1600
In an opera, characters and plot are revealed through
song, rather than speech
The text of an opera is called the
libretto
An operatic female role that demands grace and charm would most likely be sung by a
lyric soprano
The main attraction for many opera fans is a song for solo voice, known as the
aria
The orchestral prelude that opens the opera is also called the
overture
Most early baroque operas were based on Greek mythology and
ancient history
Members of the Camerata wanted to create a new vocal style based on the
music of the ancient Greek tragedies
A typical baroque operatic form was the da capo aria in ABA form in which the singer
was expected to embellish the returning melody with ornamental tones
The first opera house in Europe to offer entry to anyone with the price of admission opened in 1637 in
Venice
The members of the Camerata wanted the vocal line of their music to follow
the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech
Speech like melody accompanied only by a basso continuo is called
secco recitative
Monteverdi spent the greater part of his career in the most important church post in Italy, that of
St. Mark’s, Venice
To achieve intensity of expression, Monteverdi used ____ with unprecedented freedom and daring.
dissonance
In Monteverdi’s opera, Orfeo, Orpheus goes to Hades in the hope of bringing _____ back to life.
Eurydice
True or False? All twelve of Monteverdi’s operas are regularly performed in Europe and America.
False?
To evoke angry or warlike feelings in some of his texts, Monteverdi introduced new orchestral effects, including pizzicato and
tremolo
Monteverdi’s vocal music was ordinarily supported by a ____ and other instruments
basso continuo
A common variation form in the baroque is the
ground bass or basso ostinato
Dido and Aeneas, which many people consider the finest opera ever written to an English text, was inspired by
Virgil’s epic poem the Aeneid
Some indication of the acclaim and respect given Purcell by his contemporaries in England can be seen from the fact that he is buried in
Westminster Abbey
Baroque trio sonatas usually involve _____ performers.
four
The sonata in the baroque period was a composition in several movements for
one to eight instruments
Which Baroque sonata was intended for performance in church?
sonata da chiesa
Corelli’s Trio Sonata in A Minor, Op. 3, No. 10, is scored for
two violins and basso continuo
Characteristics of baroque trio sonatas, the second movement of Corelli’s Trio Sonata in A Minor, Op. 3, No. 10, is
fuguelike
Corelli was unique among Italian Baroque composers in that he wrote
only instrumental music
Vivaldi is closely identified with the musical life of
Venice
Vivaldi wrote approximately ______ concertos.
450
Vivaldi wrote concertos
for a great variety of instruments
Vivaldi was famous and influential as a virtuoso
violinist
Vivaldi’s La Primavera mmusically depicts
spring
Bach achieves unity of mood in his compositions by using
an insistent rhythmic drive
Of Bach’s twenty children, ______ went on to become well-known composers.
four
Bach created masterpieces in every baroque form except the
opera
Bach’s personal music style was drawn from
Italian concertos, French dance pieces, and German church music
Bach was recognized as the most eminent _____ of his day
organist
At the end of his compositions, Bach wrote these initials—S.D.G.—which translate as:
“to God alone the glory”
The Well-Tempered Clavier features preludes and fugues
written in all 24 major and minor keys
Bach probably wrote his B minor mass for what reason?
to show what he could do with this form
Baroque suites frequently begin with a
French overture
Although all movements of a baroque suite are written in the same key, they differ in
meter, national origin, and tempo
Which of the following is not a part of the baroque suite?
waltz
The various dances of the baroque suite are usually
in AABB form
The French overture has
two sections: slow-fast
The ____ is an instrumental composition based on a chorale.
chorale prelude
In Bach’s day, the Lutheran church service lasted about ___ hour(s).
four
The ____ is a Lutheran congregational hymn tune.
chorale
In their use of aria, duet, and recitative, Bach’s cantatas closely resembled the ___ of the time.
operas
A sung piece, or choral work with or without vocal soloists, usually with orchestral accompaniment, is the
cantata
Oratorios first appeared in
Italy
The first oratorios were based on
stories from the Bible
Oratorio differs from opera in that it has no
acting, scenery, or costumes
In oratorio, the story is carried forward by the
narrator’s recitatives
An element of the oratorio that is especially important and serves to comment on participate in the drama is the
chorus
George Frideric Handel was born in 1685, the same year as
Johann Sebastian Bach
Although Handel wrote a great deal of instrumental music, the core of his huge output consists of English oratorios and Italian
operas
Handel’s oratorios are usually based on
the Old Testament
In addition to being a composer and opera impresario, Handel was a virtuoso
organist
Handel’s Messiah is an example of
an oratorio
Handel spent the major portion of his life in
England
Which of the following oratorios is not by Handel?
Elijah
The focus of a Handel oratorio is usually the
chorus
Emotional states like joy, grief, and agitation represented in baroque music through specific musical languages.
affections
Abrupt alternation between loud and soft dynamic levels; characteristic of baroque music
terraced dynamics
Baroque keyboard instrument in which sound is produced by means of brass blades striking strings, capable of making gradual dynamic changes, but within a narrow volume range
clavichord
Baroque accompaniment made up of a bass part usually played by two instruments: a keyboard plus a low melodic instrument
basso continuo
Bass part of a baroque accompaniment with figures (numbers) above it indicating the chords to be played
figured bass
Piece that sounds fairly complete and independent but is part of a larger composition
movement
In Italian, all; the full orchestra, or a large group of musicians contrasted with a smaller group; often heard in baroque music
tutti
Compositional form usually employed in the baroque concerto grosso, in which the tutti plays a ritor- nello, or refrain, alternating with one or more soloists playing new material
ritornello form
In Italian, refrain; a repeated section of music usually played by the full orchestra, or tutti, in baroque compositions
ritornello
Theme of a fugue
subject
Second presentation of the subject in a fugue, usually in the dominant scale
answer
In a fugue, a melodic idea that accompanies the subject fairly constantly
countersubject
Transitional section in a fugue between presentations of the subject, which offers either new material or fragments of the subject or countersubject
episode
Compositional procedure used in fugues, in which a subject is imitated before it is completed; one voice tries to catch the other
stretto
Single tone, usually in the bass, which is held while the other voices produce a series of changing harmonies against it; often found in figures
pedal point (organ point)
Variation of a fugue subject in which each interval of the subject is reversed in direction
inversion
Variation of a fugue subject in which the subject is presented by beginning with its last note and proceeding backward to the first
retrograde
Variation of a fugue subject in which the original time values of the subject are lengthened
augmentation
Variation of a fugue subject in which the original time values of the subject are shortened
diminution
(1) Short piece usually serving to introduce a fugue or another composition; a short piece for piano.
prelude
Text of an opera
libretto
Dramatist who writes the libretto, or text, of an opera
librettist
Voice ranges which include coloratura soprano, lyric soprano, dramatic soprano, lyric tenor, dramatic tenor, basso buffo, and basso profundo, among others
voice categories of opera
Song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, usually expressing an emotional state through its outpouring of melody; found in operas, oratorios, and cantatas
aria
Vocal line in an opera, oratorio, or cantata that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech, often serving to lead into an aria
recitative
In opera, a piece performed by three or more solo singers
ensemble
(1) A group of singers performing together, generally with more than one to a part. (2) In jazz, a statement of the basic harmonic pattern or melody
chorus
Person who gives cues and reminds singers of their words pitches during an opera performance. The prompter is located in a box just over the edge of center stage, which conceals him or her from the audience
prompter
Short musical composition, purely orchestral, which opens an opera and sets the overall dramatic mood
overture (prelude)
Orchestral introductions to later acts of an opera are called
prelude
In Italian, fellowship or society; a group of nobles, poets, and composers who began to meet regularly in Florence around 1575 and whose musical discussions prepared the way for the beginning of opera
camerata
Male singer castrated before puberty to retain a high voice range; the most important category of vocal soloists in opera during the baroque period
castrato
Speechlike melody that is sung by a solo voice accompanied only by a basso continuo
secco recitative
Speechlike melody that is sung by a solo voice accompanied by the orchestra
accompanied recitative
Aria in A B A form; after the B section, the term da capo is written; this means from the beginning and indicates a repetition of the opening A section
da capo aria
From the beginning; an indication usually meaning that the opening section of a piece is to be repeated after the middle section
da capo
Variation form in which musical idea in the bass is repeated over and over while the melodies above it continually change common in baroque music
ground bass (basso ostinato)
Musical ornament consisting of the rapid alternation of two tones that are a whole or half step apart
trill
In baroque music, a set of dance-inspired movements all written in the same key but differing in tempo, meter, and character
suite
Common opening piece in baroque suites, oratorios, and operas; usually in two parts: the first slow, with characteristic dotted rhythms, full of dignity and grandeur; the second quick and lighter in mood, often starting like a fugue
French overture
Hymn tune sung to a German religious text
chorale
Short composition for organ, based on a hymn tune and often used to remind the congregation of the melody before the hymn is sung
choral prelude
Vocal solo more lyrical than a recitative and less elaborate than aria
arioso
The difference between an english opera and an italian opera was
special affects
Who’s in the orchestra ~ Purcell
strings & continuo
Sonata da chiesa =
church
Sonata da camera =
chamber
Corelli =
trio sonata
Recitative =
story
Aria =
emotion
Dido’s Lamont =
ground bass
Vivaldi was known for his hair color in which they called him
“the red priest”
This piece contained a solor and 2 choruses = ritornello
Primavera
Name the two wives of Bach
Maria ; Anna
How many kids altogether did Bach have?
20
Tone the piano equally out of tune so you can play in any key signature
well tempo
Monteverdi played performers/choir on opposite sides of the church. This was called
antiphonal
The common variation form in Baroque period was
ground bass/basso continuo
Abbreviation: OP, stands for ____ which means ____
Opus, work
The ____ is a lutheran hymn tune
chorale
Handle’s writing seems to be ____ than Bachs
less complex
What was the total number of dead people in the river?
6
What was the voice type of the boatmen ?
bass
What was the color of the stage when Eurydice died?
black/dark blue
Oratorio comments on the drama
chorus
The instrument that doubles the violin parts is the
oboe
x

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