The first hypothesis (H0) is when we are looking at one possible scenario and then comparing it with another (H1). This is what is known as hypothesis testing. Where, we are comparing one hypothesis against the other.
Once this takes place, we will be able to make accurate inferences about what could be the long-term effects. Listed below are the hypotheses that will be examined throughout the process of conducting this research.
H1: The recent policy changes and new programs that have been developed will dramatically reduce the overall amounts of corruption. As these reforms, will set a new standard that was often lacking in government and civil servants.
H2: The overall amounts of corruption will more than likely continue, because it is so engrained in the government from: top officials all the way down. As there are no prosecutions or investigations into passport corruption. This will create a disconnect in society. Where, the people will see the government, as no better than their predecessors, which will lead to political instability.
This research study will seek to determine the effect of anti-corruption efforts in the passport agency and if they are addressing the problems or making the situation worse.
Aims and Objectives of the Research
To effectively focus the research, various aims and objectives will be examined as part of the study. Given the fact that corruption is such an ongoing problem in the passport agencies, means that the various aims / objectives must concentrate on how it is making the situation worse. To focus the research on what specific factors need to be addressed the following aim / objectives will be examined to include:
The underlying effects that passport corruption is having on society.
The different ways criminal organizations are using the underlying amounts of corruption, to create a secondary black market of illegal passports.
The effect that the passport issues are having on the economy.
The possibilities that terrorists could exploit this problem to establish a second safe haven.
Areas that have been taken by the government to address the underlying problem.
The effects of the different anti-corruption efforts.
Once these different aims and objectives have been answered, we will be able to determine what specific problems are affecting the various passport agencies. This will allow us to make predictions about what possible situations could be coming down the road from the various action or lack of action taken.
To improve concentration on the different aims / objectives there will be a number of research questions that will be asked as part of the objectives. The idea is that these different questions will help to provide insights about: what issues could be affecting people who are trying to obtain their passport and the underlying amounts of corruption during the process. We could then take the different responses and make possible inferences about what could be occurring. The different research questions that will be asked include:
What are the overall amounts of corruption that must be dealt with when trying to obtain a passport?
How does this influence the economic and social mobility of individuals / families?
What is the impact of various anti-corruption efforts in addressing the problem?
Will the amounts of corruption have an impact on the political and economic stability of the country going forward?
Is there a possibility that terrorists could use this issue to change identities?
Are anti-corruption efforts working?
Once these different questions have been answered, we can be able to compare them with aims / objectives that were outlined earlier. This will help to provide more accuracy in the seeing the overall scope of the problem and its affect on the country. Once this occurs, we can be able to draw possible inferences about how passport corruption could affect Lesotho in the future.
To determine the underlying problems surrounding corruption and the delivery of passports in Lesotho, we must conduct a literature review and a survey. Where, we will be using qualitative analysis to examine the problem. Qualitative analysis is when you are looking at a variety of social, political and historical factors, to determine how it is affecting different groups of people. (Types of Research Studies n.d.) the literature review will provide a basic foundation, as to overall scope of the problem and what steps the government has taken to address the situation. At the same time, we will look at possible strategies that have been used by other countries to address smellier challenges. Once this is complete we will conduct a survey sample, through questioners and interviews. This will allow the study to focus on what specific factors are contributing to the problem.
In order for the sample population of the survey to be accurate, we must be able to compare the different respondents with an independent variable. This means that two groups must be established as a part of the study. Where, the independent variable would represent a group of ordinary citizens, while the dependent variable would be sampling the views of those who are trying to receive their passports. The independent variable would represent the average citizen on the street. The dependent variable would highlight those people, who are dealing with the underlying amounts of corruption. Once this takes place, researchers will begin comparing the results with each other through a process known as correlation research. This is where you are seeking to corroborate the findings of the dependent variable and independent variable with each other. (Types of Research Studies n.d.) to ensure that the sample maintains its objectivity, multiple choice questions will be asked. Those who do not want to provide personal information (such as their age or the ethnic group) can continue with the survey as this will not be a major factor. The only parts that will be essential are the answers to the questions, on the underlying levels of corruption in: the passport agencies and if someone currently has a passport.
Data Collection Methods
The overall questions of the surveys are focused on the underlying amounts of corruption that could be occurring in the various passport agencies. Where, we will be examining how the levels of corruption are contributing to: the general mood of the people, its impact on political / economic stability, the overall levels of faith in government ministries and what could be the possible effects of such incidents if they continue into the future. Some of the possible questions of respondents would include:
Do you think various efforts to stop corruption in obtaining a passport are working?
Do you think that corruption has become a part of business as usual when it comes to obtaining a passport?
Do you believe that various criminal elements are able to pay bribes and kickbacks to government officials to receive a Lesotho passport quickly?
Do you think that the amounts of corruption involved when obtaining a passport are a problem of society itself?
What is the likelihood that passport corruption issues will lead to political instability in the future (i.e. coups, military juntas)?
Do you need your passport to be able to make a living?
Do you think that the difficulty in obtaining a passport is contributing to the anger many people have towards government officials?
Do you think that South Africa plays a role in help to rectify the situation?
How frequently do you use your passport to travel?
Do you think the issue surrounding passports is making Lesotho look bad outside of Africa (i.e. The EU)?
How frequently do think corruption occurs in the passport agencies?
Do you think various leaders who are promising to clean up the backlog of passports have the publics’ interests in mind?
Has this negatively influenced you opinion about the government in the future?
If you could pay a bribe to obtain your passport would you?
Do you know of others who faced extreme amounts of corruption when obtaining their passport?
Do you think that paying bribes to government officials is morally wrong?
Do you believe that paying bribes to government officials is a necessary evil?
Do you think that the amounts of corruption in obtaining a passport will allow terrorists to use Lesotho as a safe haven?
Do you think that paying bribes to government officials makes the country less stable?
Do you believe that corruption and the issue of passports is part of the larger scope of corruption in the Lesotho?
Would you favor a government that is less corrupt and has less personal freedoms than the current government?
Do you think the government should implement a new passport program?
Do you think the government should re implement the policy of not having a passport to cross the border?
To answer these questions we will be utilizing a multiple choice format ranging from 1 to 10. One would represent the answer of strongly disagree, while a response of 10 would indicate if someone strong believes that something is occurring. The reason why this format was…