An Example from section SSL 28(3) of the criminal investigation act (Criminal Investigation Act, 2006 , peg 19>128). Police may arrest a person for a non serious offence in order to obtain their basic information this information acquired would enable police to asses a person in relation to the policy. 4. 0 Advantages An advantage of the curfew is its ability to be used in the short term “for spots that become too hot in an attempt to bring the situation under control. (Adams, 2003 page).
Whilst engaging long term solutions the project coordinator describes as “the back end of the People in Northerners Project, 2011, peg) It is as Canteen suggests these “developmental accompaniments, rather than the coercive aspects of curfews, that contribute to the success of such polices” ( Canteen, 2007, Peggy). An advantage of the policy is the ability to “identify and engage young people who are vulnerable,”(Young People in Northerners Project, 2011, peg) which the project coordinator cites as his main objective.
Rayon claims certain groups are more likely o be on the street, due to reasons such as, “homelessness, violence, racially different parenting practices, or Just a greater degree of freedom. (Rayon, 2003, peg 1). The policy provides stakeholders not Just an opportunity to engage people individually but to gather data on these causes, so that larger issues can be addressed as appropriate.
Unlike a situation where young persons are arrested for no other crime than being out after curfew which the centre on Juvenile and criminal Justice warns us could “lead to antagonism between non-criminal youth and law enforcement”( The Impact of Juvenile Curfew Laws in California, 1998, peg). The policy is an opportunity for stakeholders to build relationships and build rapport with young persons while they assess their situation. 5. 0 Disadvantages and criticism 5. 1 Displacement A major concern of the policy is that of displacement.
Adams, suggests “delinquents may shift their activities to times of day when the curfew is not in effect. They might also relocate their delinquent activities to nearby towns or areas” (Adams, 2003, peg) Police acting assistant commissioner Lawrence Panic agrees stating, “the problem of children roaming the streets at night and Juvenile crime and anti-social behavior as been “transferred or displaced” to other areas. “(Strut, 2013). These statements tend to be in regard to delinquency, but it presents an obvious concern over child welfare.
As well as outdoor alternatives there is also Adams concern with the assumption “that children have a safe and secure place to live and that a child is better off at home than on the streets. “(Adams, 2003, peg) 5. 2 Integrity of Data. While stakeholders and critics both quote statistics, Pissing suggests, “reports indicating curfews are effective frequently lack scientific rigor. ” (Pissing, 2011, peg 1) Displacement makes it hard to measure the success of the policy in terms of child welfare and delinquency.
Pissing states in relation to curfews, “success figures cited from some communities do not reflect community-wide declines in all types of crime. ” (Pissing, 2011, peg 1) Rayon gives us an example of a possible anomaly in the research suggesting seasonal trends (Rayon, 2003, page), and it has been difficult to discover the methods or baselines stakeholders use for their statistics. Due to a lack of data and a variety of variables, success can only be applied to a small area or to tarots and business owners who perceived young people as the issue. 5. 3 Legality and Discrimination.
Legality and age has been discussed and Rayon “admits child protection is usually an exception” to age discrimination. (Rayon, 2003, peg 1). Rayon, suggests that the ‘Curfew’ may be indirectly discriminatory’, she states “The greatest single group apprehended are very young (ii 10–14 year old) Aboriginal girls. “(Rayon, 2003, peg 11). This can be shown by the correlation with, Cordon’s’ findings that in regards sexual or domestic violence rates of offending against Aboriginal girls is much higher Han for either non-Aboriginal girls or Aboriginal or non-Aboriginal boys. Gordon, 2002, page ) Another racial or cultural argument is that while Adam suggests a curfew may “reinforce parental responsibility,” (Adams, 2003, peg) “racially different parenting practices”, (Rayon, 2003, peg 1) need to be considered. On racism versus welfare, along with previous arguments that child safety can triumph discriminatory issues, Gordon listed “The perceived threat of the Welfare’ removing children” as a possible barrier to the success of initiatives by the stakeholders involved in this policy.
Gordon, 2002, Peggy) Finally while Rayon agrees, the disproportionate statistics “may be that police are merely acting in response to the proportion of Aboriginal young people” (Rayon, 2003, peg 1) Sock warns, Aboriginal youth do not go unnoticed. Due to systemic racism in our society’ (Sock, 2003, peg). 6. 0 Conclusion. It is concluded that there are to many issues with the data relating to the policy to judge its success in Northerners and certainly the Perth community as a whole.
Regarding issues of discrimination, it is accepted that welfare triumphs ageism as it applies to young persons described in category one of the policy. The policy does not appear to be directly racist, where it may be indirectly racist is a larger issue that has to be given consideration in all policies and legislation but cannot block welfare where it is needed. When considered as a whole the policy could provide solutions to other “trouble spots”. 7. Recommendations As it applies to areas outside of the Northerners -Policy should be used as a short term operation, to focus stakeholders on a troubled area and to avoid the issue of displacement. -The curfew aspect of the policy, must be seen as an initial tool to identify rather than prosecute young persons at risk, so s to identify underlying issues and provide long term solutions. – Care must be taken that young persons 15-18 who are not behaving in a delinquent manner as described by category 2 of the policy are afforded their civil liberties.