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One Event which led up the Indian War of 1862-1868 was Little Crow’s
War (1862). This began when the Dakota Sioux was offered $1.4 million
and Provisions if they moved onto the smaller and more harsh
reservations which were created by the White Settlers. The cause of
this offer was from the Fort Laramie treaty but this treaty could not
be understood by the Indians and was signed forcefully by the white
Settlers. The Dakota Sioux moved onto the Reservations but began to
starve due to Corrupt Agents of The White Settelers Very own Division
for the Indians and would not get the money promised until the
Indians paid their debt owed for the land. As A Result, This money
was not paid. Stavation was an issue as the land which The American
Settlers gave to the Indians in reservations was considered
unsuitible land for farming and couldn’t produce enough food for
the whole of the Dakota Sioux. The Agents from the Americans Division
for Indian Affairs would often charge the Indians a substantial
ammount of money for Inedible food. As a result of this, The Warrior
Brotherhood would steal food from the Agents Hut and would often
bring trouble to the Cheifs and the Indians as a whole.

In 1858, the US Government reduced the land of the Plains Indians by
50% in order to pay The Indians Debt. This lead to the Dakota Sioux
becoming Desperate in August 1862. The consequences behind the
Indians Desperation was that the Nation was Starving due to crop
failiure and the scarsity of money. The agents of the Division of
Indian Affairs had food in the Huts but refused to assist the Indians
during this period of time.

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During this period, The American Civil War was underway which meant
that the US Soldiers would be occupied fighting the War and Little
Crow saw this as an opputunity. He began to fight back by taking all
the food and other provisions from the Agency and burnt down all
Agency Buildings on the reservation before attacking the White
Settlers. This is known as the ‘Death Toll’ which was the
murdering of 600 settlers including women and children. The reason
this number was so high was due to the fustration caused by the
constant breaking of promises and the lack of trust in cheifs. The
‘Death Toll’ ended after the Dakota Sioux was forced to flee and
400 indians were arrested. The punishment for the ‘Death Toll’
was a death sentence but Abraham Lincoln decided that only 38 indians
were to be sentenced to death. The rest of the Tribe were moved onto
a more harsh Reservation which lead to mass starvation and Little
Crow was Shot, Scalped and Beheaded.

Another Event which lead up to Indian War of 1862-1868 was the Sand
Creek Massacre of 1864. This began in 1851 when the Fort Laramie
Treaty was signed. The Treaty guaranteed The Indians Land which was
smaller but was Safe from the American Settlers. An issue caused by
the Gold Rush was that in order for Gold Prospectors to get to the
claims, they would cut through the Indian’s Land. This was allowed
by the US Government who had complety ignored the Treaty.

In 1861, The Treaty of Fort Wise was signed in which the Cheyenne
agreed to move to a new reservation which was further away from white
settlers. However, The Dog Soldiers and Warrior Brotherhood rejected
the treaty and stated on the land. This resulted in the Dog Soldiers
raiding and attacking White Settlers. The Fort Wise Treaty’s
Governer John Evans Appointed a war hero and tasked them with the
Murder and Destruction of the Indians.

On the 29th November 1864, Colonel Chivington took 700
Cavalry to the Indian Reservation in Sand Creek where a slaughter of
130 men, women, children and babies took place. The Cavlary took body
parts of the Indians as Taxidermy to be mounted on walls. The
Response from the Dog Soldiers was to never trust the US Government
again and began to fight and kill in Retaliation.

In 1865, A new, large and safe reservation was promised to the Native
Americans aswell as Compensation for the Massacre. Instead, The
reservation was more harsh than before and the compensation promised
was not paid. After this there was another Massacre which murdered
many men, women, children and infants.

A Third Event which led up to the Indian War of 1862-1868 was Red
Cloud’s War, a war which was lead by War chief and warrior Red
Cloud of the Lakota Sioux. The first event which aggrevated the
Lakota Sioux was the Bozeman Trail which was a shortcut to the gold
claims. The Bozeman Trail cut straight through the Sioux’s Hunting
Ground. The Trail was used by over 2000 American Settlers.

In 1866, The US Government issue another Treaty which forced the
indians to pay the Indians Money for the use of the trail without
being attacked. The Government never intended to pay the Indians any
money but instead planned an army to fight them. Red Cloud Decided to
Fight The US army after seeing the Events of the Sand Creek Massacre
(1864) and Little Crow’s War (1862) and came to the conclusion that
The Lakota Sioux would need help to fight the White Settlers.

Red Cloud enlisted the aid of ‘Sitting Bull’ and ‘Crazy Horse’
who bought with them 3000 warriors which outnumbered the US Army of

The US Army used a tactic called the Fetterman Trap which resulted in
two scouts which were to be discovered by the Indians who would lead
the Indians to a place of ambush. This tactic was very successful and
was used multiple times severly damaging Indian Numbers.


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