The issue of parking has started deriving greater importance with addition in consumer demand for new autos and with deficiency of sufficient substructure for parking in the metropoliss. Illegal parking in several streets have led to congestion in traffic that have made authorities/ academicians / militants organize workshops and believe on steps to be taken to better the parking system all through the metropoliss. The Mumbai Transformation Support Unit in Mumbai has conducted a workshop on parking and they have come out with suggestions associating to pricing for parking on streets along with method of geting at these monetary values. These relate to the metropolis as a whole which includes both commercial and residential musca volitanss. However, this survey aims at analysing the issue of parking and pricing merely at residential vicinities. As such to get down with, the survey takes up a instance of Kole-Kalyan small town by appraising the streets of this country for the strength in parking. Using these strengths and the parking monetary values suggested in the Mumbai Transformation Support Unit ‘s workshop, the survey calculates the possible gross that the authorities organic structure could acquire. These show, that the authorities could gain every bit much as Rs 3.24 crores a twelvemonth for a little small town of around an approximative 1.5 hundred thousand as population and an approximative country of 4 square kilometer. Thus it is suggested that there is an pressing demand for specific parking policies in residential countries such that the job of parking could be eased at the same clip gross besides could be earned.
Parking as an issue, has started deriving greater importance with addition in consumer demand for new autos and with deficiency of sufficient substructure for parking in the metropoliss. The congestion in traffic due to illegal parking in several streets/ roads have made authorities/ academicians / militants, form workshops and believe on steps to be taken to better the parking system all through the metropoliss. One such workshop1 organized by the Mumbai Transformation Support Unit2 -MTSU ( 2008 ) in Mumbai has come out with suggestions associating to pricing for parking on streets/ roads along with method of geting at these monetary values. All these have been related to the metropolis as whole i.e. both commercial and residential countries. In other words it relates to a general metropolis degree parking. The 36 ( 3 ) of the Development Control ( DC ) Rules3 Mumbai clearly specifies that parking could be in cellars, piles, land or upper floors. Added to this it is besides clear that visitants ‘ autos should be within the society ‘s compound. Though Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Development Authority seems to hold parking policy related to substructure, like truck terminuss etc. , the parking issues related to roads i.e. on street, away street parking tonss, residential lanes etc. , are managed, by the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai ( MCGM ) . The MCGM is seen supervising parking in topographic points which are really extremely crowded both commercial and residential countries for e.g. : – Dadar, Matunga, Vile-Parle etc. However there are residential vicinities, which face the pinch of parking but have no solution to the same. One such vicinity is the Kole- Kalyan4 small town of Andheri taluka. This survey aims at analysing the issue of parking and pricing at the above small town by appraising the streets of this country for the strength in parking. Using these strengths and the parking monetary values suggested in the Mumbai Transformation Support Unit ‘s workshop, the possible gross that the authorities organic structure could acquire has been calculated. These show that the authorities could gain every bit much as Rs 3.24 crores a twelvemonth for a little small town of around an approximate5 1.5 hundred thousand as population and an approximative country of 4 square kilometer. Thus it is suggested that there is pressing demand for specific parking policies in residential countries such that the job of parking could be eased at the same clip gross besides could be earned.
The paper is divided into eight parts wherein subdivision 1 and 8 are Introduction and Conclusion severally. Section 2 trades with reappraisal of literature, subdivision 3 brings out the types of streets/ roads & A ; classs of parking, subdivision 4 negotiations on the economic sciences of pricing parking, subdivision 5 describes the instance of Kole-Kalyan small town, subdivision 6 and 7 are informations base & A ; accommodations and analysis severally.
2. Review of literature
As mentioned earlier the workshop conducted by the MTSU, seems to be the lone work in this country. This workshop discussed several issues on parking and besides pricing. Some of these said that
1 ) parking should be audited in bing edifices,
2 ) long term parking should be discouraged
3 ) it should be made compulsory for co-operative lodging societies to suit visitant ‘s autos in their several society ‘s compound if non pay compensation to municipality
4 ) higher parking fees to be charged to those who park out on the streets.
5 ) there was a demand for development of a parking policy for Mumbai, based on land usage strength of development and degrees of congestion
6 ) the MCGM a participant in this workshop proposed to put up an Integrated Parking Authority and in conclusion,
7 ) there were suggestions on the method of ciphering the parking fees.
Besides this workshop, there barely seems to be surveies in the Indian context on parking and pricing. However, since parking jobs are major issues in developed states there have been figure of theoretical every bit good as practical documents on parking policy. Though there are figure of plants on route pricing e.g. Kenneth ( 2004 ) , there are others who deal with optimum pricing for parking. While Calthrop et.al ( 2000 ) use a simulation theoretical account of an urban conveyance market and seek to analyze the efficiency additions from assorted parking policies with and without simple cordon system, Shoup ( 2004 ) trades with the possibilities of metropoliss extinguishing cruising when they are charged with market uncluttering monetary values for kerb parking infinites. He has besides tried to demo that 5 to 8 per centum of entire land rent in metropolis could be collected by such market priced kerb parking. Covering with the pricing of parking, Anderson and Palma ( 2004 ) , use a basic theoretical account to demo that by pricing parking there is decrease in congestion. In two independent documents, Calthrop and Proost ( 2006 ) and Arnott and Inci ( 2006 ) , trade with on street parking. While the former uses a theoretical account to analyze an optimum authorities ordinance of the on street parking, the latter besides uses mathematical theoretical account to get at optimum parking rates on, on street parking.
3. Types of streets/roads & A ; classs of parking
Municipal roads particularly in the suburbs, are streets/ roads where populace are non restricted to utilize either to walk, run, sit, thrust or even park. Generally these are public belongings that can be used by anybody. Not merely that, such public belongings when available free of cost, it encourages peddling, procrastinating, every bit good as parking which are major hurdlings to motions of traffic related to vehicles and walkers. Residential vicinities have figure of such municipal streets/ roads. These streets/ roads based on their location could be divided into: –
streets/ roads where markets are located
streets/ roads which are close to the market topographic point and
Interior streets/ roads.
Where of all time these streets/ roads exist they are non exempted from parking. Therefore parking no thirster is an issue of commercial composites but a characteristic of residential vicinities excessively.
These parking are of several sorts or they belong to different classs. These are: –
Car proprietors who come to market to purchase veggies and food market.
Others are some who drive to the topographic point of office e.g. : Bankss or little private offices or store proprietors.
Yet others are those vehicle proprietors who are unable to park them in their residential compounds.
The ‘C ‘ class can be farther divided into those proprietors: –
1 ) who have no parking infinite in their residential compound
2 ) who are non allowed to suit their visitants autos in their residential compounds and
3 ) vehicle proprietors holding conveyance concern like giving autos on hire or mini lorries used for the intent of lading and droping of goods from one topographic point to another.
The terminal consequence is that there is parking everyplace whether it is a busy street or a by lane doing incommodiousnesss to the occupants and walkers around and a possible loss of gross to the authorities.
4. Economicss of Pricing Parking
As pointed out by Anderson and Palma ( 2004 ) , if there is no monetary value for parking so these streets/ roads are common belongings resource that are being over exploited in a free entry equilibrium. The optimum pricing, for these parking, would affect a just computation of all economic costs every bit good as societal cost as these involve the people and the society at big. By economic costs we mean the different resource cost every bit good as the other outwardnesss or fringy cost, which add up to this entire economic cost. Costss are incurred by both the authorities, society and the vehicle proprietors who park their vehicles.
4a. Government and Society ‘s point of position
Analyzing these costs one, by one we see that
1 ) The streets/ roads are developed on land which has a monetary value.
2 ) The building of these streets/ roads involves a cost.
3 ) The street visible radiations in these streets/ roads have a monetary value.
4 ) The pigments used for taging infinites besides involve a cost.
5 ) The obstructor due to parking on the street/ roads reduces the breadth of the route and lead to traffic congestion. This has a wider intension i.e. the implied effects of congestion are decrease in velocity of vehicles, wear and rupture due to utilize of brakes and altering of cogwheels invariably, excess usage of fuel, release of C into the air – environmental pollution and human emphasis. This calls for traffic monitoring ; as such there is cost on traffic congestion.
6 ) The parking besides leads to hideouts for anti societal elements like concatenation snatchers, robbers who take advantage of the state of affairs. Though this leads to societal costs, it besides has economic cost deductions i.e. demand for excess constabulary patrolling.
7 ) The pollution besides leads to wellness jobs to local occupants and passers by, finally taking to expenditure on physicians. This once more is a societal cost, but it is the responsibility of the municipality to keep the ecology taking to expenditure on trees and workss etc. which is an economic cost
8 ) The lavation of these parked autos on a day-to-day footing on the roads lead to soiling the roads. Dirtying of roads by citizens is being fined by MCGM ‘s clean up Mumbai run. News study says that under the above run, killing Marshals on the topographic point all right citizens for soiling the roads of the metropolis. Therefore, this involves both societal and economic costs.
9 ) There are other societal costs like those which occur due to resound pollution during reversing of vehicles, usage of larceny free instruments by the parking autos etc. This besides becomes an economic cost for these are besides being monitored in zero noise zones or soundless zones ( Close to Schools Hospitals etc ) . Last,
10 ) the work force required for manning the parking besides has a cost.
Therefore, it is found that there are figure of costs involved in parking of vehicles in residential vicinities where most of these are economic costs either direct or indirect. There are other indirect costs but are non straight related to parking, as such non considered in this paper. An collection of these could give way for the computation of a just sum monetary value for parking.
4b. Vehicle proprietors point of position
We have so far seen the pricing of parking by sing merely the proprietors of the resource and the environing vicinity affecting the society. However, when looked at the angle of the vehicle proprietors one has to take into consideration, why do they affect in such parking. This requires the analysis of different classs of Parkers which we have already seen. Of these Parkers, the vehicle proprietors who use the vehicle for bringing veggies and food market are the 1s who park around the market topographic point whether it is the market street/ route or the by lane near to the market.
By and large, these people live close by with a upper limit of one kilometre travel to their abode. Here, the inquiry arises as to should they truly use their autos to travel for such a short distance. If, the reply is no so the option is to either walk or engage a public vehicle like an car. With more and more of tight agendas in competitory life, walking to the market becomes a hard undertaking. Next is the usage of an car to go to the market topographic point. Auto it is by and large observed is non inclined to take clients for short distance. An single it is said, sometimes spend more than 45 proceedingss to acquire an car holding to take you to the market topographic point. Almost, the same clip is involved in acquiring one to travel back. Therefore, this involves wastage of time/ energy in either ways. Besides, by and large their shopping in the market country takes an norm of 20 proceedingss. During this period they would non wish to maintain the car waiting nor would the car delay till their shopping in the market is over. All these involve economic costs i.e. going by public conveyance, waiting for public conveyance or even the energy spent on walking to the market. As such looking into such jobs driving by auto to a close by market and passing a meagre sum on gasoline becomes a executable cheaper and comfy solution for these Parkers.
The 2nd set of Parkers, are those who drive to the topographic point of work. The above job of wastage of clip and energy applies to some of these people excessively but the others by and large, come from distances of five to eight kilometres. However, they are few in figure, because residential vicinities have really few offices and by and large tradesmans are local occupants remaining near to the stores. But, unlike the Parkers coming for shopping or selling, these few people park their vehicles for the whole twenty-four hours of approximately eight to ten hours. The 1s coming from five to eight kilometres should non happen it hard to acquire a public conveyance like cars or taxis but the few who stay near by would happen it executable to drive their ain auto to topographic point of work. Since the cost on utilizing their ( single ) vehicle turns out to be cheaper and comfy, Parkers prefer to drive and park in a stopping point by location of work topographic point.
The 3rd class of Parkers are seen on all streets/ roads ( the roads where market is located, the by lane near the market and the interior route ) depending on the topographic point they live and the handiness of easy parking installation. Those who have one or two excess vehicle park near to their abode but the 1s who have a fleet of autos to be given on hire, park it on some chief roads where the vicinity make non be a irritation. Since the regulation of suiting all parking ( inclusive of invitees parking ) is barely implemented these Parkers have their ain manner and park outside their compound.
On the other sides, it is non easy to implement the regulation of suiting visitants parking in the society ‘s compound, because, most of the concerted societies are in being for more than three to four decennaries and besides have a limited secret plan country. To make parking infinite they will hold to reconstruct their constructions and have piles in these new constructions. But if the building is new so their municipal revenue enhancements besides rise enormously on the way of rateable value in the country. This is non traveling to be profitable to bing societies. Possibilities are seen in the instance of slum renovation or instances where most of the occupants of a society have sold their premises to a builder and the builder is to redevelop the secret plan. Therefore there are enlistments to parking within the society ‘s compound.
This analysis indicates pricing parking should be such that it is greater than the cost that these Parkers otherwise spend on to drive to the market and the cost that they could incur if they used public conveyance or walk down to the market. This is because the Parkers will ever compare the fringy cost that they could incur to the fringy benefit that they derive by driving their vehicle.
5. The instance survey of Kole-Kalyan small town
As already mentioned in footer 4, Kole-Kalyan small town is in Santacruz E and is a portion of Andheri taluka of the Mumbai Suburban territory. The chief roads where markets are located are two: –
1 ) the Jawharlal Nerhu route and
2 ) the Kalina Kurla route.
Two other chief roads in this vicinity are
3 ) the Central Salsette Track ( CST ) route and
4 ) the Hans Bhugra route.
All these four roads have heavy flow of traffic all through the twenty-four hours and they invariably experience congestion during the peak hours i.e. between 9 a.m. and 12.30 p.m. in the forenoon hours and 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. in the eventide hours. The congestion in the first two roads is aggravated by the location of market in these roads. The markets in these roads are located at Vakola in the first route and at Kalina in the 2nd route. Both these topographic points have a municipal market located in a separate edifice but the vegetable sellers in both these topographic points spill outside these markets for a well big country outside the chief market. These spill overs, are on the pes waies which are truly for prosaic to walk and some on the chief traffic route at that place by interrupting the free flow of traffic.
Added to these are the Parkers who park their vehicle while they purchase vegetables/ fish and other necessary edible points for their house. By and large, these Parkers park for a short period of approximately 15 to 20 proceedingss but no earlier one clears the topographic point, some how there is another taking his topographic point. As such the obstructor continues for hushing a considerable clip period i.e. all through the peak hr haste.
The CST route though does non hold a market, for a long stretch it has office composites. This adds to the list of Parkers who drive to the topographic point of work. The route has Parkers of the 2nd and 3rd classs and one finds vehicles parked wholly along this route. The Hans Bhugra route is no exclusion to this scene. This route besides the other residential premises has the forensic research lab, the constabulary preparation Centre, the fire station and a seven star Hotel, on one side of it. The other side of the route is the University of Mumbai. That side of the route which has the Mumbai University is full of hutments. A fleet of private autos are invariably seen parked along this side of the route. This is once more the 3rd class Parkers.
Apart from these four chief roads, the Kole-Kalyan small town has smaller roads which have bus paths go throughing through them. These are: –
1 ) the roads from Vidyanagari campus Kalina to Santacruz via Kadamwadi,
2 ) the Santacruz to Datta Mandir Vakola and
3 ) Santacruz to Kunchi Karve ( Makad wala compound ) in Kalina.
All these roads besides experience heavy parking. Besides these roads with bus path, there are internal roads within Sundernagar Kalina, with in Vakola on either sides of the chief route which besides experience parking. Therefore parking has become a necessary characteristic of all the roads in Kole-Kalyan merely the strength differs.
6. Data base and Adjustments
Primary information is used to happen the strength of parking infinite occupied on public streets/ roads in Kole-Kalyan. To roll up this information a pilot6 study was conducted during extremum hours to acquire an thought of parking of different vehicles in different roads of this small town. Using the study figures, the country occupied by these vehicles were calculated on the footing of size of parking infinite measures7 given by the Development Control ( DC ) Rules Mumbai. Though this regulation provides steps specifically for Motor Vehicles, Transport Vehicle Scooters/ motor rhythm and bike ; our informations had different types of vehicles like coachs, lorries, landrovers, autos, and cars besides the motor rhythms. Therefore, here it was assumed that the lorries and coachs would be calculated as per size of parking infinite steps of conveyance vehicles given by Development Control ( DC ) Rules Mumbai, landrovers and autos as per size of parking infinite steps of motor vehicles given by DC Rules Mumbai motor vehicles and cars and motor rhythms as per size of parking infinite steps of motor rhythms given by the DC regulations Mumbai.
The step given by the DC regulations are in square metres. After ciphering the country in square metres they were converted to square pess utilizing transition tabular arraies. This is because the Annexure 2 of the workshop8 uses this step and monetary values for parking are given on a rate per square pess. Therefore these countries occupied are presented in square pess in the tabular array. Again the rate given in the Annexure 2 is for a auto of country 100 square pess. In order to do affairs simple, we assume that all the vehicles are autos and demo the tenancy of autos in the different roads of Kole-Kalyan. Based on this and the rate of Rs 10 per hr for a auto of 100 square pess the gross per hr is calculated.
While appraising, it was observed that chief roads particularly CST route and the Jawharlal Nerhu route, have garages like mending musca volitanss, where autos cars are being repaired and these besides have vehicles parked on the route. The Table below gives a just thought on the extent of strength of parking in these different roads in Kole-Kalyan. All the chief roads are seen to hold heavy parking. Among the interior roads, the Kunchi Karve route Kalina has a high grade of parking. This route has two schools – the St Mary ‘s and Mary Immaculate High Schools on either sides of the route. The roads from St Charles to St Anthony School besides experience a heavy parking on either sides of the route. Though by regulation, parking in school premises are non allowed, here it seems to hold been ignored. The Sunder Nagar Roads 1 & A ; 2, Pascal Square to CST route and the Kadamwadi route Kalina – Vakola besides has comparatively high parking. All these are entire residential countries.
Assuming that the infinite is occupied merely during peak hours i.e. six hr a twenty-four hours and so traveling by the rate, steps given in this Annexure 2 of the workshop proceedings i.e. Rs 10 per hr per 100 sq foot, we have estimated the extent of minimal gross that the authorities sector could perchance gain from one small town of a taluka in an of import territory for six hours in a twenty-four hours. The computations in the tabular array show the gross for one hr in each route. But as we have said that this parking is seen during peak hours both forenoon and eventide, we calculate the same for six hours in a twenty-four hours.
This shows that in six hours of a twenty-four hours, the authorities can gain at least Rs.90415 by bear downing a monetary value for parking on these roads. This amounts to about 27 hundred thousands a month and 3.24 crores per annum. Even if 50 % is used for outgo on all related affairs there could be a economy of 1.5 crores which could be used for purchase of secret plans in vicinities near to the market that could be converted into parking slots. Slums near to the route besides could be redeveloped by supplying houses merely to the slum people and the remainder of the land to be converted into parking tonss.
The method given in the Annexure 2 of the proceedings of the workshop is extremely appealing for gaining gross on the land where the route is located. As this land belongs to the Municipality, the gross would travel to the authorities sector. However, in the sentiment of the writer this may non halt parking wholly. If parking has to be stopped and congestion has to be reduced so the charges have to include other cost discussed in this paper. Here once more harmonizing to the writer the Parkers would compare the fringy cost and benefit and so make up one’s mind on their act of parking. As such parking could merely be reduced but non wholly stopped.
Comparing these charges with other states ( see Shoup ( 2004 ) ) it is found that Rs. 10 per hr is less than half of the minimal rate charged by other states. This is because none of them are below 0.50 dollars per hr i.e. about Rs.22. Based on this Rs.10 per hr would be merely peanut for vehicle proprietors. However, with development and advancement one can non anticipate to halt parking, perchance it could be regulated and this would assist the authorities with gross and assist the people in the vicinity from jobs originating due to incorrect parking.
Parking has become a really of import issue in residential countries excessively and there is pressing demand to look into the affair. A serious attempt by authorities in the waies suggested in the paper would assist to happen solution to the parking job in residential countries would profit the occupants of the vicinity, the walkers and the authorities besides.
Table – Intensity of Parking in different roads of Kole-Kalyan Village
Location of Roads
No of Vehicles parked
Entire Area occupied in Sq foot
Car Area x rt of parking Rs10/hr
Entire Revenue in Rupees for one hr a twenty-four hours
The Jawharlal Nerhu route
The Kalina Kurla route
The CST road- from Metro to Hans Bhugra Rd Kalina
The CST road- from Hans Bhugra Rd to Kalina
The Hans Bhugra route
4 L, 2 B, 123 C
The Kadamwadi route Kalina – Vakola
34C, 6A, 10 Joule
Kunchi Karve route Kalina
10 L, 4B, 66 C
Vakola Bridge to Shivaji nagar
35C, 7MC, 12 Angstrom
Vakola Bridge to Dhobi Ghat
5C, 30 Angstrom
Vakola Bridge to Datta mandir
7 C, 10 Angstrom
Datta mandir to vakola pipe line
15C, 50 Angstrom
Datta mandir to Vakola market
10 C, 25 Angstrom
Kalorie small town to masjid
Rd frequency modulation St Charles to St Anthony School
Vakola Market route
Sunder Nagar Road no 1
Sunder Nagar Road no 2
Pascal Square to CST rd
Niobium: C refers to Cars, MC refers to drive rhythms, L refers to lorries, ML refers to tempos or mini lorries, B refers to Buss, A refers to cars and J refers to landrovers
Workshop on Parking Issues and Possible Solutions in Greater Mumbai ( 2008 ) , conducted by Mumbai Transformation Support Unit ( MTSU )
Mumbai Transformation Support Unit ( MTSU ) is an enterprise of the World Bank Cities Alliance, All India Institute of Local Self Government and Government of Maharashtra to help the Government in accomplishing the aim of transforming Mumbai into a universe category metropolis.
The Development Control Rules are regulations formed by the authorities of any province to see that development of parts under its legal power takes topographic point consistently as per the Act of the province.
Kole-Kalyan small town at Santacruz east is a suburb in the Andheri taluka of the territory Mumbai suburban.
The population nose count informations gives population for each ward of the MCGM. This small town Kole-Kalyan is a portion of H east ward of MCGM which has a population of 4, 75,994 with an extra drifting population of 1, 50,000. It covers an country of 13.53 sqkm covering Bandra ; Khar, Santacruz ; Vakola and Kalina. Since Kole-Kalyan screens Kalina ; Vakola and some part of Santacruz we have approximated the population and the country of Kole-Kalyan to be 1.5 hundred thousand and 4 sq kilometer severally.
Since this survey is about a pilot survey of a possible large undertaking the study was for merely one twenty-four hours in a peak hr in each route. A elaborate survey would anticipate a study of the same country on different yearss of a hebdomad every bit good as working yearss and vacations. The concluding informations would be an norm of these different clip period informations. These inside informations could non be incorporated in this survey. However, these demands would be taken attention of in a full fledged undertaking at a ulterior period.
Harmonizing to the Development Control ( DC ) Rules Mumbai the size of parking infinite are Motor Vehicle 2.5m x 5.5m Transport Vehicle 3.75m x 7.5m Scooters/ Motorcycles 3sqm and bikes 1.4sqm
Interested individuals could reach the writer for the method given in the Annexure 2 of the proceedings of the workshop