Project Question: What are the best techniques for enhancing performance in the hospitality/fitness industry today? Strong performance in an organization is critical. Performance occurs not only at the firm-level, but at the individual-level as well. The most fundamental of the two levels is the individual-level, which comes from the performance of the employee. While individual-level performance is critical, the ultimate goal is to improve firm- level performance.
Firm-level performance is vital for the long-term continuation off business and generates profits, as well as determines a company’s stock price. This paper will examine a few of the top techniques that can be used for enhancing performance in the hospitality and fitness industries today. In order to attain firm-level performance it is critical to first ensure that individual- level performance is being achieved, and motivation is the key component. According to the text Human Resource Management by Angelo S. Denis and Risky W. Griffin, motivation determines how a person will exert his or her effort.
A high level of motivation will result in a more productive and dedicated employee, while a low level of motivation in an employee will often yield the bare minimum in terms of efficiency and productivity. Motivation at work is a critical determinant of what will occur on the Job (Denis 424). The text focuses on various types of theories that are seen to motivate employees. These theories consist of need-based theories, process theories, such as expectancy, reinforcement, and equity, and a goal theory. One of the most basic and well-known theories of motivation is Mascots Hierarchy of Needs.
This model specifies five levels of needs that are capable of motivating behavior. The most basic of these needs would be physiological and then security, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization. As an employee would go through these needs, they are most motivated when they reach the self-actualization needs, which is the equivalency of reaching your personal potential. What gets tricky with this theory is that all individuals require different fulfillments in order to reach the level of motivation in self-actualization.
For some individuals it may be achieving a goal, for some a new office, and for some a raise and/or promotion. This makes it a difficult theory to practice in the hospitality and fitness industry, since it is very time consuming to figure out what each employee’s motivating factor would be in order to enhance performance. Unlike need-based motivation that focuses on what makes a person perform a certain way, process theories of motivation are concerned with how a person becomes motivated to perform a particular way.
The reinforcement theory is very effective in motivating employees, which in turn enhances performance at the individual-level. The theory is based off of a stimulus, a response, and an outcome. For example, IT ten stimulus Is an employee works late or goes above Ana Deanna what is asked of them, it would be considered a desirable behavior. In order to enhance performance, managers and supervisors have to make sure to give appropriate responses that will motivate employees to continue to repeat that desirable behavior.
If the manager praises the employee it is most likely the behavior will be repeated, where if the manager ignores the behavior, it is less likely to be repeated. If the manager tells the employee that they must stay or must do tasks that are beyond their Job and pay scale, the behavior is likely to be not repeated. Positive reinforcement, extinction, and punishment are the components used to motivate employees to modify their behaviors to be desirable ones. Another technique for enhancing performance is with use of the expectancy theory to motivate employees.
The expectancy theory consists of a linkage between effort, performance, and outcomes. In the link between effort and performance, an employee will anticipate that in the probability that they put an increase in effort, it will result in an increase in performance. The second link is between performance and outcome. This deals with the employee’s view that if they improve their performance it will lead to positive outcomes. The valence is the attractiveness or unattractiveness an outcome has for a person.
If a hospitality or fitness industry organization is reputable for giving good outcomes, such as a promotion or a raise, then the employees are more likely to enhance performance because they will be motivated to put in the extra effort, in hopes of receiving the attractive outcome. The equity theory of motivation is an additional method of enhancing performance on the individual level. The equity theory is based off of the fact that all individuals in the workforce calculate the ratio of inputs to outcomes; in a similar manner an individual would consider the return on an investment before making one.
If an individual feels they should be receiving higher pay and that they aren’t be compensated fairly, they are less likely to be motivated to put in inputs until they receive a better outcome, which in this case would be a fair compensation in pay. When an employee in the hospitality and fitness industry feel they are being treated fairly and equally they are much more likely to be motivated, and hence, more likely to perform at a higher level. The final theory of motivation that will be discussed in this paper is the goal theory.
This theory is one of the simplest concepts out of the various theories. It is based off f the premise that employees work harder when they have a goal to work towards and reach then when they do not. By giving employees specific, tangible goals, performance is very likely to be enhanced because the employees will be motivated to reach these goals. It is crucial with this theory of motivation that the goals are attainable by the employees. If they are not they are likely to get discouraged and give up which would completely go against enhancing performance.
Aside from keeping employees motivated and engaged in their Job position, there are various other types of performance enhancement interventions. One of these methods is training and development. Employee training is one of the most elementary investments that an organization can put into its employees. It is executed with the ambition to improve an employee’s ability to make contributions that add to the firm’s overall success and value. Not only is initial training important for employees, but so is continuous, on-going training.
Continually training employees in efficiency moments AT tenet JODI wall ultimately make teen more productive. In regards to development, this is imperative for managers. “Rather than focusing on specific Job- elated skills, development is more generally aimed at helping managers better understand and solve problems, make decisions, and capitalize on opportunities” (Denis 453). Development programs can range in which topic they cover anywhere from time management to how to motivate employees.
By continuously providing employees with the resources and training necessary to be informed and efficient on the Job, as well as by providing managers with development training knowledge so they can better handle situations and overall management, an organization is taking a key and important step to enhancing reference. Another technique for enhancing performance is through Job redesign. With Job redesign, the goal is to change Jobs so that the work itself is what motivates employees. One method of Job redesign is through Job rotation. This consists of moving employees from one Job to another.
This meaner that each day of the week an employee may do something different. For example, at a private fitness club, on Monday an employee would work the front desk, Tuesday they would work the locker room, Wednesday they would work the pro shop, Thursday they would work in the cafe©, and so on so forth. The Jobs would always be the same, though so Job rotation is typically matched up with another form of motivation as well. While every day is not the exact same, eventually the employees will get sick of doing these same Jobs over and over again.
In order to effectively enhance performance, it would be necessary to implement in some form of motivation that is aforementioned in this paper for the individual. Another method of Job redesign that helps to enhance performance is Job enrichment. This not only increases the number of tasks an employee does, but also the control an employee has over their Job. Alternative work arrangements are another technique for enhancing performance. Alternative work arrangements can consist of alternate work schedules and alternate work sites.
As mentioned before, employees are most productive and perform at their best when they are motivated by their Job and highly engaged in what they do. “… If employees can work in ways that better suit their lifestyles, they will be less distracted and more likely to be productive” (Denis 458-459). One of these alternate work arrangements is the flexible work hour plan. In this system, an employee is still required to work a lull forty hours a week spread over five days, sometimes six, but instead of having to come in for a required nine to five shift, they are able to pick their start and end time.
Though, this method is typically hard to accomplish successfully when work is based off of teamwork. Another work arrangement is the compressed workweek which is when an employee works forty hours a week but in four or less days per week. Both of these programs have been seen to have positive results, with few negative ones. One of the final methods and most well known for enhancing performance is through incentives and performance-based rewards. Incentive compensation systems are among the oldest forms of performance-based rewards….
Some incentive plans are known to have been used over 100 years ago’ (Denis 463). One of these methods is through merit pay. Merit pay is based of the relative value of the employee’s contribution to the organization. With merit pay plans, at least a gallants portion AT compensation Is Dates on merit. Merit Is typically Dates OTTO both individual performance and overall contributions to the company. The other two major types of individual incentive plans are a base salary and bonus or through the method of sales commission.
Another level of performance that occurs is focused on the team-level, or the group-level of performance. A regularly used form of group incentive is shanghaiing. Shanghaiing is intended to share the cost saving from productivity improvements with employees. So for example, if by employee performance enhancement the cost of production went down $200,000, the company may disburse 25% of these savings amongst the employees, since without their efforts the savings would have not been possible. Another team incentive is profit sharing. In this system, a company puts a portion of their profits into a sharing pool.
At the end of the year, the money is either distributed amongst all of the employees at that point, or placed into an escrow account that each employee has and the payment is deferred and continuously collected yearly until the employee retires. Stock-option plans as well as stock purchase plans are two more common group-level rewards. Another type of stock related group-level performance enhancement plan is employee stock ownership plans, also knows as Seeps. With Seeps, employees are over time given more and more ownership of a corporation. Overall, there are many ways that performance can be enhanced.