Persuasion Theories in Advertisement
O’Malley gives four frameworks, which advertising appeal can be designed. They include persuasion oriented, sales oriented, salience oriented, and involvement oriented similar to Halls framework. The framework starts with brand awareness by customers, to make them recognize or recall a brand to keep them aware (Knowledge Marketing, 2012, p 100). Salience involves differentiation of the brand with others; then the product trial is promoted by encouraging consumers to start using the brand. To achieve a relative positioning against the competition within a category, competitive brands are compared to their brand. The consumer negative perceptions are then changed in brand re-evaluation. Informal content is then provided to eliminate perceived risk of purchase. At this point, the target audience is encouraged to participate and engage in the advertising activities (Blythe and Zimmerman, 2005, p 223). When the audience is encouraged, appealing, and transformational needs is communicated to reach the emotional needs of the target audience. Flexibility is the last stage where the advertising content is varied without changing the consistence of the message (Dahlen, 2010, p 300; Weitz and Vensley, 2002, p 299).
O’Malley argues that transparency is essential to a client but sometimes it may not be sufficient. At times, a client’s interest may lie on seeing a fact, or a set of facts. He argues that where a client’s culpability is low the best strategy can be the path of accuracy, truth, integrity and honesty. He also argues that one should be selective in the information to be given to the public; there should be selective presentation of information and practice secrecy to further the clients’ interests (Marlin, 2002, p 187). During the persuasion stage, people develop negative or positive attitudes. This comes from having the mental knowledge and trying to apply to situations. It is a thought process people go through, and it helps them in formulating perception of the innovation, or it is like trying the innovation. Once people have knowledge of innovation and have developed an attitude towards it, they are in a decision-making position of using it or not. This stage people engage in activities that adopt or reject the innovation, and this is similar to trans- theoretical model. If trial results are positive, it means innovation will be integrated into the individual’s lifestyle (Bly, 1998, p 8).
Hall (1992) suggests four frameworks that can be used in advertising. Persuasion is one of the frameworks which aim at moving buyers through a sequence of steps. It involves sales which pass messages of the shift of product and makes the consumers respond directly to the advertisement. The framework also involves salience and involvement, where they are involved in an emotional response and salience where there is a conspicuous presentation. The heightened appreciation model helps to determine an advertising strategy, and suggests that by using consumer research to identify key products and link them to a brand. The consumer is able to associate with attributes of the brand similar to O’Malley theory (Wood, 2006, p 6). Prue’s model suggests that advertising from a consumer’s perception helps in customer appreciation. The theory suggests that Interest is stimulated by brand recognition, and persuasive communication makes an impact that eventually changes the customer perceptions of the brand, and attributes are also changed.
Hovland Janis and Kelly, have a theory called cognitive responses, with the notion that persuasion is dependent on the extent to which message recipients learn. They also believe that the level of persuasion depends on ideas conveyed and beliefs about the ideas. This view is rejected by information-processing perspective spawned theory. Cognitive response theory is the process where people relate message content to other material and compare through a cognitive response. This theory helps us to understand the process through which we can mediate persuasion. It also helps us to see why sometimes people are persuaded without any relevant message content.
Resource matching theory considers both a supply of cognitive resources that a message requires for it to be thoroughly processed. The theory implies that persuasion is a function of commensurability between supply and demand for cognitive resources. Beisecker and Person (1972) view persuasion as an attitude change, they say that persuasion is the modification of ones attitude through exposure to information (Meyer and Malaviya, 2006, p 45).…