I. Liszt and his Old ages of Pilgrimage
“Western composers-Mendelssohn and Schumann. for example-wrote plants utilizing national colour features of assorted states. In so making they came to manufacture some fanciful national ambiance. as in the making-believe Hungarian and Spanish music of Liszt. Brahms. Bizet. But above all. new national manners of their ain developed in the assorted states of East every bit good as West Europe” . The Old ages of Pilgrimage is a aggregation of Liszt’s trip. During the old ages of going public presentations in assorted states. Liszt composed a set of big serenade which depicts the artist’s lifestyle traveling. Among these melodies many are derived from the old ages Liszt spent with his lover Marie d’Agoult in Switzerland and Italy. These poetic melodies are based on the composer’s feeling and perceptual experience of natural landscape.
Old ages of Pilgrimage ( Annees de pelerinage ) includes three suites in entire. Liszt started the composing in 1835 and finished its concluding alteration in 1877. and the composing of this work was under building throughout most of his calling as a piano player and a composer. The first two suites are “First Year: Switzerland” and “Second Year: Italy” . which are packages of the piano pieces Liszt composed during his going public presentations in Europe. During the composing. the composer kept acquiring rid of everything that is non in conformity with the subject of the music. and kept internalising the nonsubjective external universe into personal emotions. The 3rd suite was finished in Rome and therefore it is normally called “Rome” . This paper introduces the 2nd suite “Italy” with a tabular array: Second suite “Italy”|
From the tabular array it is explicitly that in the 2nd suite Liszt chiefly focuses on the word pictures of Italian humanistic disciplines and literatures. Compared to “Switzerland” . “Italy” pays more attending to the music. During his stay in Milan in 1837. Liszt got his inspiration from the artistic plants of the Renaissance. particularly from poesies. pictures. sculptures and literatures. As a consequence the composing emphasizes peculiarly on the retrospect of humanistic disciplines and history. “Petrarch Sonnet 104” is a classical combination of poesies and music. This work differs a batch from people’s common perceptual experience of Liszt’s works since this work creates an atmosphere mixed of peace. speculation. boom. desperation and tenderness. Piano pieces such as this one reveal many facets of Liszt’s multiple beds of his personality and demo the universe his colorful. philosophical and poetic manner of thought.
Sonnet is one of the signifiers of European poesy. and it is normally written in three traditional formats. These formats include Italian. Spenserian and English. “Italy” is composed in the format of an Italian sonnet. “The sonnet has a good claim to be one of the oldest and most utile poetry signifiers in English. Like the engraving or the twine four it provides simple yet flexible agencies to a authoritative artistic terminal: the look of every bit much gravitation. substance and lyrical beauty as a deceivingly modest signifier can bear” . Sonnets in this class typically have a general tone that is comparatively romantic and have a subject based on love.
Petrarchan is the earliest noteworthy sonnet author ; hence “Italian sonnet” is besides called “Petrarchan sonnet” . “Petrarchan sonnet which is the legitimate signifier. for it entirely recognizes that curious instability of parts which is its outstanding characteristic” . Using musical linguistic communication. Liszt conveys his personal feelings through the word picture of natural landscape with the fundamental of Petrarchan. “Petrarch Sonnet 104” by Liszt wholly grasps the emotional deduction of the texture. and Liszt did non compose it in the righteous order of the verse form. With a deep comprehension of the context of the verse form. Liszt composed his work with a macroscopical skyline. Consequently. performing artists can construe this composing in a manner as if they have read the poesy works by Petrarch. This composing is an outstanding representative of the plants in the late period of Romantic epoch as it efficaciously combines music with literature. The followers is the verse form of “Petrarch Sonnet 104” : I find no peace. but for war am non inclined ;
I fear. yet hope ; I burn. yet am turned to ice ;
I soar in the celestial spheres. but lie upon the land ;
I hold nil. though I embrace the whole universe.
Love has me in a prison which he neither clears nor shuts fast ; he neither claims me for his ain nor loosens my hackamore ;
he neither slays nor unshackles me ;
he would non hold me unrecorded. yet leaves me with my torture.
Eyeless I gaze. and tongueless I cry out ;
I long to die. yet plead for relief ;
I hate myself. but love another.
I feed on heartache. yet crying. laugh ;
decease and life likewise drive me ;
and to this province I am come. my lady. because of you.
III. Historical Background
The 19th century is a clip when Romantic instrumentalists can to the full show their personal features. As an advocator and innovator of plan music in that epoch. Liszt refers to the rubric in the plan music as a headline which points out the true purpose and the most of import constructs of the mark. Composers exploit the usage of the rubric in order to forestall the audience from misinterpreting their plants.
1. Introduction of Franz Liszt
“Born in Raiding. Hungary. Franz Liszt is a worldwide renowned Hungarian composer. piano player. music director and great maestro of Romanticism” . Liszt created orchestra sound effects on piano and developed the piano technique to such a degree that it enhances the artistic look of piano. As an influential figure in the country of musical aesthetics. Liszt associated assorted signifiers of humanistic disciplines with music and made an attempt to advance the development of plan music. Under the influences of Berlioz. Hugo and Byron. Liszt besides intended to research and experiment on the composing of his piano pieces. As Paul Henry provinces in “Music in Western Civilization” . “Liszt’s great invention and accomplishment consisted in turn outing that it was possible to make a all-around and logically organized piece of music without coercing the thoughts into the established frames of traditional signifiers. This he achieved by following a plan. hence the popular term ‘program music’” .
2. Romantic Music and Program Music
Romantic music refers to a manner of Western classical music in the late 18th to early nineteenth century. during which artists intend to enrich their composings with their personal emotions and stress on their subjective sentiments in the music. Romantic music inherits some of the traditions from Classical music. and innovates on the footing of the cardinal methods of composing. “Program music aimed to absorb and transform the imagined capable entirely into the music in such a manner that the ensuing composing. while it includes the ‘program’ however transcends it and is in a certain sense independent of it” . As a romantic instrumentalist and advocator for Program music. Liszt referenced from actual plants to put up the model and composed his plants based on his inspirations. By making so. Liszt combined reason and esthesia into his music and managed to impact the audience in a sensitive and elusive manner with the usage of rubric in Program music. Consequently. his audience is more able to acknowledge the significance of his music.
“Music embodies experiencing without coercing it – as it is forced in its other manifestations. in most humanistic disciplines and particularly in the art of words – to postulate and unite with thought” . The existent purpose behind Liszt’s publicity of Program music is to present assorted grades of passion and esthesis through music. as he realized that no other signifier of humanistic disciplines than music is capable of showing abstractive feelings. For this ground Liszt used poesy as rubrics in Program music so as to province the restriction of art of words and that music is capable of bring outing some peculiar and unaccountable provinces of head. “Music on the other manus. nowadayss at one and the same clip the strength and look of feeling ; it is the embodies and apprehensible kernel of feeling ; capable of being apprehended by our senses. it permeates them like a dart. like a beam. like a dew. like a spirit. and fills our soul” .
Liszt believed that the poetic significance of Program music is the kernel. and such poetic significance is the result of the interaction between the music and the poesy. Further. such poetic significance can be amplified through the presentation of music. On the other manus. musical presentations without any poetic significance can be vague and obscure. In other words. Liszt considered that he grasped the thought of “poetic meaning” in literatures through his composing of plan music.
3. Interpretation of “Petrarch Sonnet 104”
Liszt’s music grew under the influence of Romantic music. Liszt incorporated poetic descriptions into some of his plants. which endowed his piano pieces with alone demeanours. Three piano pieces “Petrarch Sonnet” are inspired by Petrarch’s rhythmic sonnet. Among them “Petrarch Sonnet 104” gained the most appraises. It presents the desire and the desperation of love. Liszt’s elegant and sophisticated piano pieces combine music with poesy. In this manner they musicalize literature every bit good as poetize music.
IV. Music Style of “Petrarch Sonnet 104”
“The piano was invented ‘to obviate the bad wont of the cembalo which could non show colourising at all. or expressed it in overdone contrasts by it stops” . Because of the alteration of the piano. the composers can get down to make more composings those are infective. expressive and vocal.
1. Poetic Get downing – Recitation of Recitative
Liszt’s music displays the mixture of his poetic imaginativeness and his enthusiasm ; as a consequence the music is full of tones resembling passionate recitation. as if it were an exciting soliloquy of the poet. For case. in steps 1-4. Liszt uses the recitation of recitative to heighten the look of life. and to accommodate the music to the conformity of poetic rubric. This phrase imitates the speaking manner. as the staccato chords resemble a boom from the underside of one’s bosom. The emotions of the line “I fright. yet hope ; I burn. yet am turned to ice” are precisely expressed through Liszt’s music. as the music reflects the poet’s limitless aspire for love along with his anguished head.
“Harmonic characteristics of last period include parallel chords. parallel back-to-back 5ths ; functional and non-functional usage of the augmented three. the lessened 7th chord and the 6/4 chord” . “Also found are many secondary 7ths. dominant 9th chords. secondary 9ths and sometimes chord of the 11th and 13th. Ironss and sequences of unusual chords are common” . Liszt composes the beginning through his harmonic characteristics of last period – parallel chords. by utilizing colourful dominant 7th chord that proceed to the lessened 7th chord. The tune in soprano and alto makes a series of half-note sequences advancement. These two relationships of harmoniousness are both really raspy. but they play an of import function in steps 1-4. First. Liszt makes the words like bird in the tune in order to show his exhilaration but is besides full of contradiction. Second. he desires to indue the music with more symphonic. it can do the verse form has a stronger dramatic consequence.
2. Poetic cadenza
Another particular characteristic of this composing is that Liszt creates five cadenzas in this composing which is full of depression and weakness. Cadenza is one of the techniques that are ever used by romantic composers. In this composing. cadenza is non merely a consummate type of processing. but besides an of import technique in versing music. The first cadenza appears between the fluctuation 1 and fluctuation 2. The concomitant of bass moves by arpeggio of three-base hits. With the crescendo. this cadenza is merely like the texture “he would non hold me unrecorded. yet leaves me with my torment” in the verse form. It is a readying for the expansive fluctuation 2.
The 2nd cadenza turns up in fluctuation 2. The concomitant of bass moves by arpeggio of three-base hits and it leads to the cadenza. By utilizing dominant 9th chord it makes this phrase full of tenseness. as if the agony from love matter in the verse form.
In the 3rd cadenza Liszt once more uses extremely frequent harmoniousness to make a flood tide of the poetic emotions. Double-notes move down through a series of half-tone sequences. and later. the same double-notes with shake form are being played with both custodies. This cadenza presents the contrast between one’s longings and weakness for love.
In the 4th cadenza. Liszt expresses the painful and conflicting emotions with regard to love matter through music. and from the line “I long to die. yet plead for relief ; I hate myself. but love another” . the poet shows the struggles between his laden emotions and passionate love.
The last cadenza enters before the finale. Leading the way of the narrative into the ultimate peace and alleviation. the right manus dramas through 6th chords with scale form. and the pacing slows down.
3. Poetic Ending
The stoping tune of this piece fluctuates three times that all begin the battles and terminal with inevitable failures. Surely music can non be composed in the exact order of poesy. yet music could construe the emotions and melodies of the poesy in a different manner. In kernel these looks of music are similar to that of poesy.
In Liszt’s poetic music. the connexions between music and poesy can be seen in every item. The displacement between emotions and the word picture of sentiments are expressed of course in his music. This is besides the really first common feature of the piano composers in the epoch of Romanic music. They incline to pull inspiration from different kinds of humanistic disciplines and make an advanced feel with the hit of different elements.
A+E Television Networks. LLC. “Franz Liszt. ” A+E Networks. 2012. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. life. com/people/franz-liszt-9383467. Fuller. John. The Sonnet: Italian Sonnet. 1. London: Methuen & A ; Co. 1972. Grout. Donald
Jay. A History of Western Music: The Nineteenth Century: Romanticism ; Vocal music. 660. New York: Norton. 1988. Hamilton. Kenneth. The Cambridge Companion to Liszt. 135 – 137. Edited by Kenneth Hamilton. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2004. Lang. Paul Henry. Music in Western Civilization: From Romanticism to Realism. 867-68. New York: W. W. Norton & A ; Company. Inc. 1941. Liszt. Franz. and Wittgenstein. Princess Caroline von. Berlioz and his “Harold” Symphony. 849. Translated in SR. 1855. Liszt. Franz. “Second Year: Italy. ” Sect. 2 in Annees de Pelerinage. New York: Dover. 1988. Liszt. Franz. “Petrarch Sonnet 104. ” Edited by Jose Vianna da Motta. Accessed December 5. 2012. hypertext transfer protocol: //conquest. imslp. info/files/imglnks/usimg/e/ee/IMSLP04070-Ann__esDeP__lerinageDeuxi__meAnn__e_Italie_S161. pdf Petrarca. Francesco. “I Find No Peace. ” Last modified September 2003. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. recmusic. org/lieder/get_text. hypertext markup language? TextId=12658.
Sachs. Curt. The history of musical instruments: Romanticism: The Piano. 391. New York: W. W. Norton & A ; Company. Inc. 1940. Watson. Derek. Liszt: Music Language: Technique and Transformation. 191-92. New York: Schirmer Books. 1989. Wiora. Walter. The Four Ages of Music: Preparation of the Fourth Age. 140. New York: W. W. Norton. 1965.
[ 1 ] . . Walter Wiora. The Four Ages of Music: Preparation of the Fourth Age ( New York: W. W. Norton. 1965 ) . 140. [ 2 ] . . Franz Liszt. Annees de Pelerinage: Second Year: Italy ( New York: Dover. 1988 ) . catalog. [ 3 ] . . John Fuller. The Sonnet: Italian Sonnet ( London: Methuen & A ; Co. 1972 ) . 1. [ 4 ] . . Ibid.
[ 5 ] . . Francesco Petrarca. “I Find No Peace. ” last modified September 2003. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. recmusic. org/lieder/get_text. hypertext markup language? TextId=12658. [ 6 ] . . A+E Television Networks. LLC. “Franz Liszt. ” 2012. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. life. com/people/franz-liszt-9383467. [ 7 ] . . Paul Henry Lang. Music in Western Civilization: From Romanticism to Realism ( New York: W. W. Norton & A ; Company. Inc. 1941 ) . 867-68. [ 8 ] . . Donald Jay Grout. A History of Western Music: The Nineteenth Century: Romanticism ; Vocal music
( New York: Norton. 1988 ) . 660. [ 9 ] . . Franz Liszt and Princess Caroline von Wittgenstein. Berlioz and his “Harold” Symphony. Translated in SR ( 1855 ) . 849. [ 10 ] . . Ibid.
[ 11 ] . . Curt Sachs. The history of musical instruments: Romanticism: The Piano ( New York: W. W. Norton & A ; Company. Inc. 1940 ) . 391. [ 12 ] . . Derek Watson. Liszt: Music Language: Technique and Transformation ( New York: Schirmer Books. 1989 ) . 191. [ 13 ] . . Ibid. . 192.