Academic Scientific Psychology or Akademiko-siyentipikal na Sikolohiya: Western Tradition: This follows the tradition of Wilhelm Wundt in 1876 and is basically the American-oriented Western psychological science being studied in the Philippines. Academic Philosophic Psychology or Akademiko-pilosopiya na Sikolohiya: Western Tradition: This was started by priest-professors at the University of Santo Tomas. This tradition is chiefly focused on what is called ‘Rational psychology’ . Cultural Psychology or Taal na Sikolohiya: This is the tradition on which Philippine psychological science is chiefly based.
This refers to the autochthonal constructs that are studied utilizing autochthonal psychological orientation and methodological analysiss. Psycho-medical Religious Psychology or Sikolohiyang Siko-medikal: The tradition that fuses native mending techniques and explains it in an autochthonal spiritual context. By Noeco C. Marquino. BS. Psychology UNO-R. Core value or Kapwa Kapwa. intending ‘togetherness’ . is the nucleus concept of Filipino Psychology. Kapwa refers to community ; non making things entirely. Kapwa has two classs. Ibang Tao ( other people ) and Hindi Ibang Tao ( non other people ) .
Ibang Tao ( “outsider” ) There are five spheres in this concept: Pakikitungo: civility Pakikisalamuha: act of blending Pakikilahok: act of fall ining Pakikibagay: conformance Pakikisama: being united with the group. Hindi Ibang Tao ( “one-of-us” ) There are three spheres in this concept: Pakikipagpalagayang-loob: act of common trust Pakikisangkot: act of fall ining others Pakikipagkaisa: being one with others Pivotal interpersonal value Pakiramdam: Shared interior perceptual experiences. Filipinos use damdam. or the interior perceptual experience of others’ emotions. as a basic tool to steer his traffics with other people. Associating socio-personal value Kagandahang-Loob: Shared humanity.
This refers to being able to assist other people in desperate demand due to a perceptual experience of being together as a portion of one Filipino humanity. Accommodating surface values Hiya: Loosely translated as ‘shame’ by most Western psychologists. Hiya is really ‘sense of propriety’ . Utang na Loob: Norm of reciprocality. Filipinos are expected by their neighbours to return favors-—whether these were asked for or not—-when it is needed or wanted. Pakikisama and Pakikipagkapwa: Smooth Interpersonal Relationship. or SIR. as coined by Lynch ( 1961 and 1973 ) . This attitude is chiefly guided by conformance with the bulk.
Confrontative surface values Bahala Na: This attitude. slackly translated into English as ‘fatalistic passiveness’ . really describes the Filipino manner of life. in which. he is determined to make his best. hence the term bahala sodium. which really came from the phrase bathalan na. intending ‘I will make all my best. allow God take attention of the rest’ . Lakas ng Loob: This attitude is characterized by being brave in the thick of jobs and uncertainnesss. Pakikibaka: Literally in English. it means coincident clangs. It refers to the ability of the Filipino to set about revolutions and rebellions against a common enemy.
Social values Karangalan: Loosely translated to self-respect. this really refers to what other people see in a individual and how they use that information to do a base or justice about his/her worth. Puri: the external facet of self-respect. May refer to how other people judge a individual of his/her worth. Dangal: the internal facet of self-respect. May refer to how a individual Judgess his ain worth. Katarungan: Loosely translated to justness. this really refers to equity in giving wagess to a individual. Kalayaan: Freedom and mobility. Ironically. this may collide with the less of import value of pakikisama or pakikibagay ( conformance ) .
Approachs and methods Approaches. or lapit. and methods. or pamamaraan. in Filipino Psychology are different from that of Western Psychology. In Filipino Psychology. the topics. or participants. called kalahok. are considered as equal in position to the research worker. The participants are included in the research as a group. and non as persons – hence. an umpukan. or natural bunch. is required to function as the participants. per Se. The research worker is introduced to a natural bunch by a tulay ( span ) . who is a portion of the umpukan and is a well-respected adult male in the community.
Some of the many attacks and methods used in Filipino Psychology are: Pakikipagkuwentuhan: In this method. the research worker engages in a story-telling with an umpukan. The research worker simply serves as the facilitator. while the kalahok or participants are the 1 who are to speak. The term kwento. from the Spanish word cuento. literally means ‘to state a story’ . Panunuluyan: In this method. the research worker stays in the place of his kalahok or participant while he conducts the research with consent by the host household. whose caput serves as the tulay to an umpukan.
The term tuloy. which is the root word of the term panunuluyan. literally means ‘to travel in’ . Pagdadalaw-dalaw: In this method. the research worker on occasion visits the house of his host or tulay. as opposed to remaining in the house. The term dalaw literally means ‘visit’ . Pagtatanung-tanong: In this method. the research worker undergoes a sort of oppugning session with his kalahok or participants. In this method. nevertheless. ‘lead questions’ ( those inquiries which straight refer to the subject being studied ) are non supposed to be asked. alternatively the inquiries to be asked are supposed to hold been derived from the kalahok’s answers themselves.
The word tanong literally means ‘question’ . Pakikiramdam: In this attack. the research worker uses wholly his/her ain feelings or emotions to warrant if his participants or kalahok are ready to be portion of his research or non. The term damdam literally means ‘inner perceptual experience of emotions’ . Pakapa-kapa: In this attack. the research worker uses ‘groping’ . or a mixture of feelings every bit good as fortunes. to warrant his invasion into the life of his/her participants or kalahok. The term kapa literally means ‘to grope in the dark’ . Psychopathology.
Filipino abnormal psychology. or sikopatolohiya in Filipino. from Spanish psicopatologia. is the survey of unnatural psychological science in the Filipino context. Several ‘mental’ upsets have been identified that can be found merely in the Philippines or in other states with which Filipinos portion racial connexions. Examples of such are: Amok: Malaysian temper upset. more competently called ‘Austronesian Mood Disorder’ . in which a individual all of a sudden loses control of himself and goes into a violent death craze. after which he/she hallucinates and falls into a enchantment.
After he/she wakes up. he has perfectly no memory of the event. Bangungot: A comparatively common happening in which a individual all of a sudden loses control of his respiration and digestion. and falls into a coma and finally to decease. The individual is believed to dream of falling into a deep abysm at the oncoming of his decease. This syndrome has been repeatedly linked to Thailand’s Brugada syndrome and to the consumption of rice. However. no such medical ties have been proven. Filipino abnormal psychology besides refers to the different manifestations of mental upsets in Filipino people.
One illustration of such is the manifestation of depression and schizophrenic disorder in Filipinos. which are for the most portion. less violent. Psycho-medicine See besides: Philippine Mythology Filipino psychomedicine. or sikomedikal na sikolohiya in Filipino. is the application of basic psychological science to native healing patterns slackly considered as ‘medicine’ . These patterns are closely tied to the religion therapists. every bit good as to the native heathen priestesses like the babaylan or katalonan. who were suppressed by the Spaniards during their colonisation of the Philippines. Examples of such patterns include:
Hilot: The usage of massage to help a pregnant female parent in the bringing of her kid. Kulam: Hex or enchantment. Lihi: An intense craving for something or person during gestation. Faith therapists or manghihilot testify that if the craving is non satisfied. abnormalcy of the kid may ensue. Pasma: A construct that explains how init ( heat ) and lamig ( cold ) together can ensue in unwellness. particularly rheumatism. Susto: Soul-flight. Derived from Latin American traditions. Pagtatawas: A method of naming illness wherein alum ( called tawas ) is ritualistically used by the albularyo or medical specialty adult male for diagnosing of a assortment of wellness conditions.
The tawas is used to ‘cross’ ( mark of the cross ) the brow and other leery or ailing parts of the organic structure as supplications are being whispered ( bulong or oracion ) . It is so placed on glowing coals. removed when it starts to check. so transferred to a little receptacle of H2O. As it cools. its softened signifier spreads on the H2O surface and assumes a form that may propose the cause of the unwellness. frequently one of several autochthonal forces: midget. Satans or other evil liquors ( na-nuno. na-kulam. na-demonyo ) .
The H2O in the vehicle is so used to anoint the ailing portion or parts of the organic structure to antagonize the evil forces or unwellness. The tawas is so discarded and thrown due west. sooner into the scene Sun. Usog: A construct that explains how a babe who has been greeted by a alien acquires a cryptic unwellness. Apparently derived from the Spanish tradition of Mal de Ojo. Gaba or gabaa: The Cebuano construct of negative Karma. hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Filipino_psychology History of Sikolohiyang Pilipino. or the “Psychology of. about. and for the Filipinos” .
Psychology as an academic subject in the Philippines started in the early 1900s when the U. S. colonized the state. Scientifically. it was by and large viewed as a continuance of the development of psychological science in the West. In the early 1970s. nevertheless. there came a turning point in the lives of Filipinos. It was a period marked by a high grade of patriotism. brought about by the declaration of the Martial Law. It was dry that the male parent of Philippine Psychology was. at that clip. a recent Ph. D. alumnus of Northwestern University in the U. S. More on this subject.
Filipino Values – Indigenous Concepts in Filipino Psychology Cultural. Social Traditions Remain Integral Part of Philippines Skin Whitening and Dark Beauty in the Philippines It was exactly his Western instruction that made Sikolohiyang Pilipino laminitis Virgilio Enriquez recognize the demand to hold a psychological science based on the experience. thoughts. and orientation of the Filipinos. Together with three other colleagues—Prospero Covar ( anthropologist ) . and Zeus Salazar ( historian ) . and Alfredo Lagmay ( psychologist ) —they helped set up the foundation for a psychological science of and for the Filipinos.
Enriquez had been a professor of Psychology in the University of the Philippines in Diliman in 1963. but left in 1966 for the U. S. to prosecute a Ph. D. in Social Psychology. From at that place. he watched the disillusion of immature pupil militants in the Philippines over the deteriorating political and societal conditions of the state. When Enriquez returned to the Philippines in 1971. he embarked on a research survey with Lagmay into the historical and cultural roots of Philippine Psychology. which included placing autochthonal constructs and attacks. Four old ages subsequently. he chaired the first national conference on Filipino Psychology.
In this conference. the thoughts. constructs. and preparations of Sikolohiyang Pilipino were officially articulated. Sikolohiyang Pilipino in the University of the Philippines When Enriquez returned from the States. he and a few other co-workers translated foreign articles to Filipino. The pupils were besides strongly encouraged to compose their documents in this linguistic communication alternatively of in English. which had been ( and still is ) the medium of direction in the University. Gradually. more and more members of the module were convinced to utilize the Filipino linguistic communication in learning Introductory Psychology.
The chief jobs they encountered in the usage of Filipino in learning psychological science. particularly in its initial old ages. included the deficiency of stuffs written in Filipino and the deficiency of a proficient vocabulary. These challenges were solved by interlingual renditions. digests of local stuffs. and taking the appropriate words from the local idiom. There were times when the proficient term was retained when there was no equivalent in Filipino. This did non work out because Enriquez realized that the interlingual rendition failed to show a truly Filipino psychological science.
Other factors were the trouble of showing or explicating some Western constructs and theories in Filipino. the negative reactions of pupils who sometimes felt that their accomplishment in speech production and authorship in Filipino was unequal. and the students’ deficiency of eloquence in the linguistic communication. However. there were discernible benefits every bit good brought about by the usage of Filipino in learning psychological science. Among other things: It created better resonance between instructor and pupils There was a more relaxed ambiance in the schoolroom The students’ assurance grew in showing their sentiments. ideas. and existent experiences.
A different position. which was more Filipino. was introduced into the class Autochthonal constructs were discovered ; and The range of subjects discussed became broader with the add-on of information from local stuffs and experiences. Class treatments besides became more concrete in relation to Philippine world. Psychology became related closely and significantly to the mundane life of the people. Most significantly. with the birth of Sikolohiyang Pilipino. a psychological science with a Filipino orientation was developed. The Status of Sikolohiyang Pilipino Now.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino continues to boom. despite the decease of Enriquez in the early 90s. Its advocates continue to recommend for a psychological science that is genuinely antiphonal and brooding to the demands and the alone state of affairs of the Filipino people. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. stumbleupon. com/su/2DjFxC/www. suite101. com/content/sikolohiyang-pilipino–the-history-of-philippine-psychology-a316940/ Filipino Psychology or Sikolohiyang Pilipino has basic constructs based on autochthonal Filipino values. including hiya. bahala sodium. and utang na loob. Harmonizing to laminitis Virgilio Enriquez. Sikolohiyang Pilipino or Filipino.
Psychology is psychology in the Philippines. for and about the Filipinos. It has a figure of constructs unambiguously based on Filipino values. Filipino Values in Focus One of the major focal point of Sikolohiyang Pilipino are the values and constructs interpreted by foreign societal scientists. Bahala sodium had been compared to the American “fatalism. ” In Thomas Andres’s Dictionary of Filipino Culture and Values. it is defined as “the attitude that makes him accept agonies and jobs go forthing everything to God…this is a fatalistic surrender or backdown from an battle or crisis or a slacking from personal duty.
” For Filipino psychologists. nevertheless. bahala sodium is non “fatalism” but finding and risk-taking. Filipinos do non go forth their destiny to God when they say bahala na ; instead they are stating themselves that they are ready to confront the hard state of affairs before them and will make their best to accomplish their aims. It is a manner of pumping bravery into their system before a hard undertaking. Ads by Google Expat & A ; Local Counselling International squad of healers for childs. teens. grownups. & A ; twosomes www. thecounsellingplace. com Meditation – Free MP3s Above the clouds. The Sun is ever reflecting.
World Wide Web. ramatalks. com Hiya and Other Misinterpreted Filipino Values Hiya is another construct autochthonal to the Filipinos. and it is literally translated as “shame. ” This reading of hiya is unequal because it does non see the other significances of the word in different fortunes and signifier. Armando Bonifacio said that nakakahiya ( abashing ) is different from napahiya ( placed in an awkward place ) and ikinahihiya ( be embarrassed with person ) . Zeus Salazar besides said that there are internal and external facets of hiya. Foreign bookmans have captured merely the external facet.
The more appropriate interlingual rendition of hiya is non “shame. ” but “sense of properness. ” More on this subject Sikolohiyang Pilipino – The History of Philippine Psychology Food in the Philippines Reflects Different Cultural Influences Cultural. Social Traditions Remain Integral Part of Philippines For Western psychologist Charles Kaut. utang na loob is “debt of gratitude. ” This definition identified the utang ( debt ) merely. disregarding the other constructs related to loob such as sama nanogram loob. kusang loob. and lakas nanogram loob. Utang na loob became convenient in perpetuating the colonial position of the Filipino head.
For Enriquez. reciprocality maintains the image of coloniser as helper. When utang na loob is looked at in the Filipino context. it becomes non “debt of gratitude” but “gratitude / human solidarity. ” It is non a large a load as “debt” is because in the Filipino civilization of interpersonal dealingss. there is ever the chance to return a favour. It is non obligatory in the immediate hereafter ; it could be fulfilled in the following coevals. It binds a individual to his/her place community. Pakikisama is another Filipino value that has been misinterpreted by foreign psychologists.
For Frank Lynch ( 1961 ) . it is keeping “smooth interpersonal dealingss by traveling along with the bulk ; conformance. ” For Enriquez. though. it is merely one of the eight identifiable degrees and manners of interaction in the Filipino society. which range from civility to oneness with. It about means conformance but it is non slavish conformance. This becomes apparent merely when 1 besides looks at the different degrees of interaction. which shows that all those get downing with paki is oriented to “others. ” The term pakikisama was hence taken out of context. Sikolohiyang Pilipino in Social Research.
The whole scope of interaction can be summarized by the term pakikipagkapwa ( an orientation/commitment toward one’s fellowman ) better than pakikisama. Kapwa ( integrity of ego and others/shared individuality ) embraces both classs of foreigner and insider. Enriquez gave the undermentioned graduated table of relationship between research worker and participant: Ibang Tao Category ( Outsider ) Pakikitungo ( civility with ) Pakikisalamuha ( interaction with ) Pakikilahok ( engagement with ) Pakikibagay ( in agreement with/level of conforming ) Pakikisama ( being along with/level of seting ) Hindi Ibang Tao Category ( One-of-Us ) .
Pakikipagpalagayang-loob ( being in rapport/understanding/level of common trust ) Pakikisangkot ( degree of active engagement ) Pakikiisa ( being one with/level of unity and full trust ) Indigenous research methods identified in Sikolohiyang Pilipino as appropriate in Filipino civilization are pagmamasid ( general looking about ) . pakikiramdam ( experiencing through or feeling ) . pagtatanung-tanong ( inquiring inquiries ) . pagsubok ( proving the state of affairs ) . pagdalaw-dalaw ( occasional visits ) . pakikilahok ( engagement ) . pakikisangkot ( deeper engagement ) . pakapa-kapa ( fumbling ) . and pakikialam ( concerned intervention ) .
The field of psychological science in the Philippines is turning. With the increasing figure of Filipino psychologists recognizing the demand to indigenize the field. every bit good as the figure of research surveies being done utilizing Sikolohiyang Pilipino methods. it can merely thrive in the hereafter. Mention: Enriquez. V. ( Ed. ) . ( 1990 ) . Autochthonal psychological science: A book of readings. Quezon City: Akademya ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino.