Forces and their effects Appreciate that forces can cause changes to the shape or motion of an object. Not only can objects can move in a straight line at a constant speed but they can also change their speed and/ or direction (accelerate or decelerate). Be able to use/produce graphs can help us to describe the movement of an object. These may be distance-time graphs or velocity- time graphs.

You should be able to use their skills, knowledge and understanding to: interpret ATA from tables and graphs relating to speed, velocity and acceleration evaluate the effects of alcohol and drugs on stopping distances evaluate how the shape and power of a vehicle can be altered to increase the vehicle’s top speed draw and interpret velocity-time graphs for objects that reach terminal velocity, including a consideration of the forces acting on the object. AKA GEESE science PHYSICS unit UP. 1 . Resultant forces a) Know and understand that whenever two objects interact, the forces they exert on each other are equal and opposite. B) Know and understand that a number of forces acting at a point may be replaced by a single force that has the same effect on the motion as the original forces all acting together. Know that this single force is called the resultant force. C) Know and understand that a resultant force acting on an object may cause a change in its state of rest or motion.

Calculation of the energy tore when stretching an elastic material is not required. C) Know and understand that for an object that is able to recover its original shape, elastic potential energy is stored in the object when work is done on the object to change its shape. D) Know and understand that the extension of an elastic object is directly proportional to the force applied, provided that the limit of proportionality is not exceeded: Be able to use the equation: F=eke (F=eke) F is the force in Newton’s, N k is the spring constant in Newton’s per meter, N/m e is the extension in meters, m Practical work in unit 2. O help develop your skills and understanding may have included the following: dropping a penny and a feather in a vacuum and through the air to show the effect of air resistance planning and carrying out an investigation into Hooker’s Law catapult practical to compare stored energy measurement of acceleration of trolleys using known forces and masses timing objects falling through a liquid, egg wallpaper paste or glycerin, using light gates or stop clocks planning and carrying out an investigation to measure the effects of air resistance on parachutes, paper spinners, cones or bun cases measuring reaction mime with and without distractions, egg pod off and then on. Science PHYSICS 2 Unit UP. 2 The kinetic energy of objects speeding up or slowing down Know and understand that when an object speeds up or slows down, its kinetic energy increases or decreases. Know and understand that the forces which cause the change in speed do so by doing work. Know and understand that the momentum of an object is the product of the object’s mass and velocity.

You should be able to use your skills, knowledge and understanding to: evaluate the benefits of different types of braking system, such as regenerative braking, evaluate the benefits of air gas, crumple zones, seat belts and side impact bars in cars, and this should include ideas of both energy changes and momentum changes. AKA GEESE science PHYSICS unit UP. 2. 1 Forces and energy a) Know and understand that when a force causes an object to move through a distance work is done. B) Know and understand that work done, force and distance are related by the equation: Be able to use the equation: w=Fix (W=FDA) W is the work done in Joules, J F is the force applied in Newton’s, N d is the distance moved in the direction of the force in meters, m c) Know and discuss the transfer of kinetic energy in particular situations.

Examples might include shuttle re-entry or meteorites burning up in the atmosphere. D) Know and understand that work is done against frictional forces. E) Know and understand that power is the work done or energy transferred in a given time. Be able to use the equation: P is the power in watts, W E is the energy transferred in Joules,] f) Know and understand that gravitational potential energy is the energy that an object has by virtue of its position in a gravitational field. Be able to use the equation: Pep=mix (GAPE = MGM) You should understand that when an object is raised vertically work is done against revalidation force and the object gains gravitational potential energy.

Pep is the change in gravitational potential energy in Joules, J m is the mass in kilograms, keg g is the gravitational field strength in Newton’s per kilogram, N/keg h is the change in height in meters, m g) Know and understand that the kinetic energy of an object depends on its mass and its speed. Be able to use the equation