La Arena Roswell Selenga, Illusion Jeremiah Samoset, Christine Barnett Sanchez Department of Biology College of Science, University of Santos Atoms Spawn, Manila, Philippines Abstract This experiment is concerned with the densities of objects. The first activity is determining the density of a cylinder through displacement method and by weighing. The second activity is finding the density of a bone and determining it whether it is osteoporosis, Estonian, or osteoporosis.

The last activity determines he density of a regular and diet soft drink in relation with the density of water in which a viscometer was used to get their densities. 1. Introduction Relative density, or specific gravity, is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a given reference material. Specific gravity usually means relative density with respect to water. The term “relative density” is often preferred in modern scientific usage. If a substance’s relative density is less than one then it is less dense than the reference; if greater than 1 then it is denser than the reference.

If the elating density is exactly 1 then the densities are equal; that is, equal volumes of the two substances have the same mass. If the reference material is water then a substance with a relative density less than 1 will float in water. A substance with a relative density greater than 1 will sink. Relative density (RD) or specific gravity (SO) is a dimensionless quantity, as it is the ratio of either densities or weights. The principle used in this experiment was the Archimedes’ Principle. Archimedes’ principle is named after Archimedes of Syracuse, who first discovered this law in 212 B.

C, he stated that: “Any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. ” It is stated in the principle that objects weigh more in air than they do in water. The apparent weight of a submerged object is its weight under standard conditions minus the buoyant force. The weight of the displaced fluid is directly proportional to the volume of the displaced fluid the weight of the object in water is less than the weight of object in air, because of the force acting on it which is called as upturns.

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In simple terms, the Renville states that the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object, or the density of the fluid multiplied by the submerged volume times the gravitational constant. The objectives of this experiment are as follows: to determine the composition of a substance based on its density, to determine the density of a liquid by using a viscometer and to determine the 2. Theory Density refers to mass per unit volume while relative density of a substance to the density of a given reference material.

Using the formulas below the group was able o find the density and relative densities of the reference material: = where M refers to mass and V for volume. The relative density of the bone is done using the formula R. D. Bone=way-www I CEQ. 2 1 where Wa refers to the weight of the bone in air and Www for the weight of the bone in water . To solve for the actual density of the bone, the following formula is used: I CEQ. 3 1 It should be noted that the density of water is equal to 1 gram per cubic centimeters (CACM). To determine the RD of regular and diet soft drinks, the following is used: Ridiculer I CEQ. 1 Reddest I CEQ. 5 1 here Wreckers to the weight of viscometer filled with regular soft drink, WAD for diet soft drink, WAP for the weight of empty viscometer and WWW for the weight of viscometer filled with water. 3. Methodology Materials used in this experiment include electronic gram balance, spring scale, graduated cylinder, beaker, a cylinder, bone (pig/cow leg), diet and regular soft drinks of the same brand and a viscometer. The first activity, the displacement method for alloy, is done by placing some water in a graduated cylinder in which the initial water level is noted.

The cylinder to be seed should be predefined on the spring scale or electronic gram balance. The final volume is then noted after the cylinder is submerged into the water and the density of the cylinder is finally computed. For the second activity, a bone is weighed in the air using the spring scale, then, while submerged in water but not touching the bottom or sides of the container (beaker), the weight is noted. The relative density and density of the bone is computed using the values acquired.

The bone density is then used to identify whether the bone is normal or has osteoporosis, Estonian or osteoporosis. The third activity made use of the regular and diet soft drinks from the same brand. The weight of the empty viscometer was measured, along with its weight when it contains water, regular and diet soft drink. The relative density and density of each type of soft drink is the computed. 4. Results and Discussion Initial level of water (c) 151 1 Final level of water (c) | 57. 9 | Volume of cylinder (c) | 6. 9 | Density of cylinder (g/c) | 2. 40 | Table 1 .

Results from the first activity, displacement method for alloy. The table above shows the results for the first activity. The initial volume of the water was 51 ml. After the weight of the cylinder had been recorded, it was then submerged in the water and the density was computed. Weight of bone in air (g) 180 1 Weight of bone in water (g) | 40 | Relative density of bone | 2 | Density of bone (g/c) | 2 | Finding I Osteoporosis I Table 2. The results obtained from the second activity, density of bone. The weight of the bone was first computed in the air, as shown in table 2.

It was then submerged in water and its weight was then noted. The density was then computed and compared to the values given, and it was found that the bone had osteoporosis. Weight if the empty viscometer(g) | 23. 06 | Weight of viscometer filled with water (g) | 48 | Weight of viscometer filled with regular soft drink (g) | 48. 78 | Weight of viscometer filled with diet soft drink (g) | 46. 74 | Relative density of regular soft drink | 1. 03 | Density of regular soft drink | 1. 03 | Relative density of diet soft drink | 0. 95 | Density of Diet soft drink | 0. 5 | Table 3. Results from the third activity, Regular vs.. Diet soft drink. Table 3 shows the results for the third activity. The regular soft drink and diet soft rink had different values. After the densities have been computed, it was found out that the diet soft drink have lesser density, which may be the reason why it is called diet. 5. Conclusion Density is the mass of a substance per unit volume. When we compare a density of a substance with a given reference material, we get the relative density of the substance. A viscometer is also known as specific gravity bottle.

It is a flask with a stopper that has a capillary tube through it, which allows air bubbles to escape. It is used to obtain accurate measurements of density. All objectives have been resolved. 6. Applications 1 . How can you distinguish “Fool’s Gold” from pure gold? Through calculating the density of gold; naturally the density of gold is 19. 3 g/ml. The sample in question could be determined by using conventional and simple instruments, like electronic weighing scale and the graduated cylinder. Record the weight of the object by using the electronic scale.

Find the volume by placing the sample in a graduated cylinder and get difference between the graduated cylinder with water and the sample with the graduated cylinder with water only. Divide the grams over the volume of the sample, and if the result is equal or near 19. 3 g/ml then it is in fact real gold. Some gold pan, a small speck of gold will still look like gold in the shade, the others will not. Larger pieces of fool’s gold will crumble when a knife is pressed into them. A rock which is “peppered” with many small pieces of gold will sound off with a metal detector, others will not.

Scratching a larger piece of pyrite will produce a sulfur smell. 2. The solid samples used in the experiment are denser than water. How will you determine the density of a solid that is less dense than water? Some solid sample that is denser than water would only float and therefore not yield a specific volume in the container. To solve for a solid denser than water the equations used would be: R. D= Way-www Density of the solid=R. D. X density of water In equation 1, Wa is the solid weighed in the air using a spring balance, while Www is the solid weighed in the water.

This equation is used to identify the volume of the denser solid sample, instead of differentiation in volume; it was substituted to the eight of the solid in the air minus the weight of the solid in the water to acquire the “make-shift” volume of the solid sample. And in equation 2, the relative density was multiplied with the density of water which is 1 g/ml to acquire the density of the solid in the water. Density of the solid= g in airs in waters (g of watermill of water) 3. The suitability of a person to donate blood may be tested by placing a drop of his blood in a saline solution of a density 1. 3 g/c. Is he a suitable donor if the drop of blood sinks? It depends, if the blood of the person is equal to the density of the saline elution then he/she is qualified to donate but if it sinks in water it would be difficult to determine. Some doctors perform this activity because it is quick and inexpensive, though not entirely accurate, it is to determine whether the person is anemic or not, therefore he/she could could be liable to donate blood depending on the speed of how it dissolved in water. 4. What is the meaning of the expression “tip of the iceberg”? Is there a physical basis for this?

The phrase means; the only thing easily observed is a part of something, but he rest of it is hidden and cannot be seen; referring to the fact that the majority of an iceberg is below the surface of the water. Ice is denser than water at some point, but as it melts, it becomes lighter and therefore floats to the surface. The tip of the iceberg as we call it is the only thing that can be seen because it is the lightest part of the ice that can float above water. 5. Normal relative density of urine is from 1. 015 – 1. 030. What might be said if during urinalysis, a specific gravity higher than normal is obtained?


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