Objective: To study the conservation of energy and momentum using projectile motion. Theory: The ballistic pendulum demonstrates both the constant horizontal velocity in projectile motion and the conservation of momentum. Because there is no acceleration in the horizontal direction, the horizontal component (v_x) of the projectile’s velocity remains unchanged from its initial value throughout the motion. In a closed isolated system, if no net external force acts on a system of particles, the total linear momentum of the system cannot change. There are two simple types of collisions, elastic and inelastic.
If the total kinetic energy of the two systems is conserved then the collision is known as elastic. If the kinetic energy is not conserved, then the collision is inelastic. (1 – cosec) Apparatus: CONE Ballistic Pendulum, meter stick, carbon paper, 2 sheets of white paper, metal ball, plumb bob. Procedure: In preparation to fire the metal ball from the spring gun, we moved the pendulum arm to its maximum position and out the line of fire. We fired the spring gun to get an estimate of where the ball will drop on the floor.
We then set up the carbon paper between two sheets of white paper on the floor in the spot that the ball hit the floor. We fired the spring gun 3 times, each time using a meter stick to record the vertical distance from the tip of the spring gun to the points on the floor. We took the mean distance (x) and recorded it. We released the pendulum arm to allow the ball to be caught by the pendulum’s ball catcher. The ball was fired 3 times, each time giving a different reading on the scale that determines the angle of the inelastic collision. We took the mean angle (6) and recorded it.
We measured the mass of the ball (m_b), the mass of the pendulum (m_b), and the length of the pendulum arm (l). Using our measurement, we were able to determine the horizontal speed of the projectile, calculate the momentum of the ball before impact, and the kinetic energy (K. E. ) of the ball and pendulum after the collision. Conclusion: Based on our calculations, we were able to conclude that energy is loss during the collision of the ball and pendulum. Momentum however, is conserved and has the same quantity before and after the collision. (K. E. ) _(b F [K. E. ) _a