1) Which of the following equations correctly relates flow, pressure, and resistance?
B) pressure = flow ? resistance
2) What is the driving force for blood flow through the systemic circuit?
B) mean arterial pressure
3) In comparison to the systemic circuit, the pulmonary circuit
A) has lower resistance to blood flow.
4) Which of the following would increase the rate of blood flow through a blood vessel?
A) increased pressure of the blood entering the vessel
5) Which of the following equations is correct?
C) cardiac output = stroke volume ? heart rate
6) Which of the following is NOT a component of the microcirculation?
D) veins
7) The lumen of every blood vessel is lined by a monolayer of what cell type?
E) endothelial cells
8) What is/are the component(s) of a blood vessel’s extracellular matrix that provide(s) the tensile 8) strength required to withstand pressure?
C) collagen
The elastic nature of the largest blood vessel’s walls allows them to act as a ________, maintaining 9) the driving force for blood flow while the heart is relaxed during diastole.
A) pressure reservoir
The blood vessels of largest diameter are the ________, and the blood vessels with the thickest walls 10) are the ________.
A) veins : arteries
What component of artery walls allows them to store energy that is later used to maintain 11) continuous blood flow through the circulatory system?
E) elastin
12) Arteries have ________ compliance and ________ resistance to flow.
E) zero : high
13) What is a measure of the change in vascular volume as pressure within the vessel is altered?
D) blood flow
A person goes to the doctor and is told his blood pressure is 90/60 and his pulse is 80. Which of the 14) following is FALSE?
C) Pulse pressure is 80 mm Hg.
Blood pressure is usually estimated from indirect measurements of the pressure in what structure?
A) brachial artery
Resistance to blood flow is regulated primarily by what blood vessels?
B) arterioles
17) In the circulatory system, the largest pressure drop occurs across which blood vessels?
D) arteries
18) The pulsatile nature of blood pressure is greatest in which blood vessels?
B) arterioles
19) The total cross-sectional area is greatest in which blood vessels? A) venules B) veins C) arteries
D) veins
A) ventricle B) arterioles C) capillaries D) arteries E) veins
The contractile activity of smooth muscle cells within which type of blood vessel is primarily 20) involved in the control of the organ blood flow and mean arterial pressure?
E) veins
Blood flow velocity is inversely proportional to the pooled surface area of a structure; therefore, it is 21) greatest in the ________ and slowest in the ________.
B) arteries : capillaries
22) Which of the following statements about smooth muscle in arterioles is FALSE?
B) The muscle is multi-unit smooth muscle.
23) What is the purpose of extrinsic control of arteriolar smooth muscle contractile activity?
C) regulate mean arterial pressure
Which of the following chemicals’ concentration is NOT increased by an elevation in metabolic 24) activity?
D) oxygen
25) Chemicals released by metabolically active cells will cause which of the following?
D) relaxation of arteriolar smooth muscle to increase blood flow
26) What is a decrease in tissue oxygen called?
B) hypoxia
27) What is an increase in blood flow in response to an increase in tissue metabolic activity called?
A) active hyperemia
In response to a decrease in tissue metabolic activity, tissue oxygen concentrations ________, which 28) causes a(n) ________.
C) increase : constriction of the arterioles
29) A decrease in pressure within an arteriole will initiate a(n)
A) myogenic response
30) Which of the following accurately compares active hyperemia to reactive hyperemia?
E) One is caused by increased metabolic activity, the other in response to an increase in metabolites from an occlusion to blood flow.
An increase in the concentration of which of the following within the interstitial space surrounding 31) an arteriole would cause that vessel to constrict?
C) oxygen
32) Which of the following substances is secreted by endothelial cells and causes vasoconstriction?
A) endothelin-1
Which of the following substances is continuously secreted by endothelial cells and causes 33) vasodilation?
E) nitric oxide
34) Which of the following is an important vasodilator in coronary arteries?
D) adenosine
During exercise, which organs receive an increase in the proportion of cardiac output delivered to 35) them?
D) skeletal muscle, heart, and skin
Any change in the relative distribution of cardiac output to an organ is typically due to changes in 36) which of the following?
B) resistance of that organ’s vascular bed
During exercise, which of the following tissues receive less blood flow compared to resting 37) conditions?
A) gastrointestinal tract only
38) Which of the following would decrease mean arterial pressure?
E) increase in arteriole diameter
39) What type of adrenergic receptor is found in the smooth muscle of most systemic arterioles?
A) alpha only
40) The effects of epinephrine on vascular resistance are dependent upon which of the following?
D) relative distribution of alpha and beta receptors
In cardiac and skeletal muscle vasculature, the distribution of alpha and beta receptors is such that 41) epinephrine will
A) induce a dilation that increases blood flow to these tissues.
Arteriolar smooth muscle in which of the following tissues tends to have beta2 receptors 42)
predominating?
A) skeletal muscle
43) Drugs that block angiotensin-converting enzyme would cause which of the following?
B) decreased mean arterial pressure
44) Fenestrated capillaries are unique in their ability to
C) allow relatively large molecules to pass between endothelial cells.
45) What organ has capillaries that are the most restrictive to movement of hydrophilic solutes?
A) brain
46) Which of the following would increase blood flow through a capillary bed?
B) contraction of smooth muscle in the metarterioles bypassing the capillary bed
47) Which of the following would cause relaxation of precapillary sphincters?
A) carbon dioxide
48) Glucose moves across continuous capillary walls by what mechanism?
C) diffusion
Which of the following is NOT a mechanism that enables molecules to move across capillary 49) endothelial cells?
C) rapid diffusion of water-soluble molecules directly across the endothelial cells
________ describes the movement of fluid out of the capillary, while ________ describes the 50) movement of fluid into the capillary.
D) Filtration : absorption
The portion of osmotic pressure exerted by ________ in the blood is known as colloid osmotic 51)
pressure (or oncotic pressure).
A) proteins
52) Under normal conditions, which Starling forces favor filtration?
B) capillary hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure
53) Which of the following inaccurately represents normal forces across capillary walls?
A) Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure increases from arteriole end to venous end.
Given that the net filtration of fluid out of the capillaries averages about 3 liters per day, how is 54) blood volume maintained in light of this apparent fluid loss?
B) The lymphatic system returns filtered fluid to the blood.
Which of the following is NOT a mechanism that alters the balance between filtration and 55) absorption in the body?
E) increasing hydrostatic pressure gradient in cases of enhanced interstitial protein
Which of the following comparisons between systemic capillaries and lymphatic capillaries is 56) TRUE?
E) Blood cells are found in both types of capillaries.
Foreign materials are filtered out of the lymphatic fluid by what type of cell located within the 57) lymph nodes?
C) macrophages
58) Exchange between blood and interstitial fluid occurs across capillaries and, to a lesser extent,
A) venules.
59) What region of the cardiovascular system contains valves?
D) both the heart and veins
60) Veins functions as ________ reservoirs due to their ________ compliance.
A) volume : high
Valves, which are found ________, maintain the unidirectional movement of blood, thereby 61) facilitating the return of blood to the heart.
A) only in peripheral veins
62) The high compliance of veins allows them to
B) accommodate large volumes of blood with little change in pressure.
63) At rest, the greatest proportion of blood volume is present within the
E) systemic veins.
64) Which of the following would decrease central venous pressure?
D) standing up
An increase in the volume of blood ejected from the heart, with no change in total peripheral 65) resistance, would
D) elevate mean arterial pressure.
66) An increase in total peripheral resistance, in the absence of any change in cardiac output, would
E) elevate mean arterial pressure.
67) The respiratory pump facilitates the return of blood to the heart by
B) raising the pressure gradient between abdominal and thoracic veins during inspiration.
68) Which of the following would NOT increase mean arterial pressure?
D) decreased parasympathetic activity effects on the arterioles
69) The long-term regulation of arterial blood pressure involves the
D) control of blood volume by the kidneys.
70) ________ are responsible for the detection of mean arterial pressure.
D) Arterial baroreceptors
71) Which of the following best classifies the baroreceptor reflex?
A) cranial; autonomic; innate; polysynaptic
As mean arterial pressure increases, the ________, informing the medulla oblongata that blood 72) pressure has indeed increased.
B) frequency of action potentials from the baroreceptors increases
Information about mean arterial pressure is integrated within what area of the central nervous 73) system?
B) medulla
74) Where is the cardiovascular control center?
A) medulla oblongata
Which of the following descriptions of the autonomic innervation of the cardiovascular system is 75) FALSE?
A) Both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons innervate smooth muscle in arterioles.
Which of the following will NOT occur in response to a decrease in the extent of stretch detected by 76) a baroreceptor?
B) increased urine flow
Which of the following is NOT altered within seconds to minutes of the baroreceptor reflex being 77) activated?
E) blood volume
Which of the following does NOT occur in response to baroreceptors detecting an increase in mean 78) arterial pressure?
D) vasoconstriction
79) The chronic elevation in arterial pressure (hypertension) that occurs in many individuals results in
C) a gradual increase in pressure that resets the baroreceptors.
The reduction in organ blood flow that results from a decrease in mean arterial pressure would be 80) exacerbated by the ________ that occurs as a consequence of the baroreceptor reflex.
C) increased peripheral resistance
An increase in sympathetic nervous activity to arterioles will have little effect on vasoconstriction 81) of the
A) brain and heart.
The hormone vasopressin acts in the short term to ________ and in the long term to ________, 82) thereby increasing mean arterial pressure.
E) vasoconstrict arterioles : decrease urine outflow
Due to their location, baroreceptors in the large systemic veins and the heart function primarily to 83) monitor
C) blood volume.
Which of the following terms is used to label the rhythmic changes in sympathetic and 84) parasympathetic activity that affect heart rate coincident with respiration?
A) respiratory sinus arrhythmia B) lung sinus rhythmia
Despite seeming counterproductive, an increase in arterial carbon dioxide levels activates 85) ________, which causes a(n) ________ in heart rate and a(n) ________ in total peripheral resistance.
E) chemoreceptors: decrease : decrease
hich of the following will NOT occur as a consequence of the activation of the baroreceptor reflex 86) that would occur in response to an increased heat load within the body?
C) an increase in resistance within the skin vasculature
87) The increase in stroke volume that occurs during exercise is caused primarily by a(n)
E) increase in myocardial contractility.
88) The increase in blood flow to active skeletal muscle relative to other organs is largely caused by the
E) increase in local metabolic factors within the muscle.
Which of the following accurately describes sympathetic control of blood vessels in the skin during 89) thermoregulation?
C) Heat causes a decrease in sympathetic activity, resulting in vasodilation.
90) Mean arterial pressure can be increased by all of the following EXCEPT
A) decreasing end-diastolic volume.
91) Which of the following can cause vasoconstriction?
D) angiotensin II
92) The primary mechanism for exchange of substances across the capillary wall is
B) diffusion.
93) Given the following information, calculate the net filtration pressure: capillary hydrostatic pressure 93) = 30 mm Hg; interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure = 5 mm Hg; capillary oncotic pressure = 25 mm
Hg; and interstitial fluid oncotic pressure = 10 mm Hg.
A) 10 mm Hg, favoring filtration
94) Which of the following can cause edema?
A) damage to capillary walls only
95) Which of the following is an incorrect description of a blood vessel type?
A) Capillary walls are comprised of only two cell layers, minimizing the distance for exchange.
During exercise, carbon dioxide produced by muscle cells causes vasodilation in skeletal muscle. 96) This is an example of
E) active hyperemia.
97) Which of the following structures contains high pressure baroreceptors?
D) both the aortic arch and carotid sinus
Of the following choices, which has the elastic recoil of its walls during diastole, causing a 98) continuation of blood flow throughout the cardiac cycle?
E) artery
Which of the following has high compliance, allowing it to hold a large volume of blood with little 99) change in pressure?
C) vein
Which of the following has the regulation of its radius determining blood flow through specific 100) organs?
E) arteriole
Which of the following is the smallest of blood vessels with thin walls allowing for ready exchange 101) of material between blood and tissue?
B) capillary
Which of the following blood vessels is slightly larger than capillaries, allowing for some exchange 102)
between blood and the tissue?
B) venule
103) Which of the following is a decrease in tissue oxygen?
C) hypoxia
Which of the following is a decrease in blood supply to the tissue such that it does not meet the 104) metabolic demands of the tissue?
E) ischemia
An increase in blood flow to tissues in response to increased metabolic activity is called
B) active hyperemia.
106) A constriction of an arteriole in response to stretch of the arteriole smooth muscle is called
D) myogenic response.
An increase in blood flow to tissues in response to a previous reduction in blood flow is called
D) reactive hyperemia.
Vasopressin has what effect on systemic arterioles?
E) vasoconstriction
109) Oxygen has what effect on systemic arterioles?
C) vasoconstriction
110) Angiotensin II has what effect on systemic arterioles?
E) vasoconstriction
111) Carbon dioxide has what effect on systemic arterioles?
C) vasodilation
112) Nitric oxide has what effect on systemic arterioles?
A) vasodilation
113) Hydrogen ions have what effect on systemic arterioles?
B) vasodilation
114) Sympathetic nerves have what effect on systemic arterioles?
C) vasoconstriction
115) Parasympathetic nervous activity has what effect on systemic arterioles?
E) neither vasoconstriction and vasodilation
116) What is the equation relating flow to resistance and a pressure gradient?
B) flow = pressure gradient / resistance
117) What is the driving force for blood flow through the systemic circuit?
D) mean arterial pressure
What is a decrease in blood flow that is less than what is necessary to keep up with metabolic 118) demands called?
E) ischemia
119) What are local controls that tend to keep blood flow constant called?
A) flow autoregulation
120) Bradykinin causes vasodilation by stimulating the release of what substance from endothelial cells?
C) nitric oxide
Epinephrine triggers vasodilation by binding to which receptors and vasoconstriction by binding to 121) which receptors?
E) beta2 : alpha
To produce angiotensin II, what must be secreted from the kidney to convert angiotensinogen to 122) angiotensin I, which is then converted to angiotensin II by angiotensin converting enzyme?
C) renin
What are blood vessels that normally bypass capillary beds are called?
C) metarterioles.
124) What is bulk flow of fluid from inside a capillary into interstitial fluid called?
D) filtration
What is the fluid within the lymphatic vessels called?
A) lymph
What is a drop in mean arterial pressure that results from standing up called?
E) orthostatic hypotension
Smooth muscle in the veins has what type of adrenergic receptor?
A) alpha
Which of the following is the equation relating cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and total 128) peripheral resistance?
D) MAP = CO ? TPR
129) Where are the arterial baroreceptors located?
C) aortic arch and carotid sinuses (carotid arteries)
130) What are the two functions of increasing blood flow to the skin during exercise?
D) facilitate dissipation of heat; provide energy for sweat production
In response to a decrease in the stretch of a baroreceptor, sympathetic nervous activity will 131) ________ while parasympathetic nervous activity will ________.
E) increase : decrease
An increase in the stretch of a baroreceptor will cause venomotor tone to ________ while 132) ventricular contractility will ________.
A) decrease : decrease
What structures of the cardiovascular system are innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, 133) but are NOT by the parasympathetic nervous system?
B) ventricular myocardium, arteriolar smooth muscle and venous smooth muscle
Calculate the net filtration pressure given the following information: capillary blood pressure = 40 134) mm Hg; interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure = 2 mm Hg; plasma osmotic pressure = 20 mm Hg;
and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure = 5 mm Hg. Does filtration or absorption occur across this
capillary wall?
A) 23 mm Hg; filtration
135) The flow equation is: flow = pressure gradient ? resistance.
False
136) The pressure gradient for blood flow through the systemic circuit is the mean arterial pressure.
True
137) The more proteins in blood, the higher the blood viscosity.
True
Flow through the pulmonary circuit is less than that through the systemic circuit due to a smaller 138) pressure gradient.
False
139) Resistance is lower in the pulmonary circuit than in the systemic circuit.
True
The factor having the greatest influence on resistance to blood flow is the radius of the blood 140) vessels.
True
Smooth muscle is ONLY found in arterioles.
False
Blood flow through the systemic circulation is intermittent, flowing during systole and pausing 142) during diastole.
False
There is a progressive decrease in pressure throughout the vasculature as blood moves down its 143) pressure gradient.
True
Due to their diameter, capillaries have the greatest individual resistance, while the arteriole 144) networks have the greatest total resistance.
True
The distribution of cardiac output to each organ is determined by the relative resistance of that 145) organ’s vascular bed compared with all other organs.
True
146) An increase in blood flow to metabolically active tissue is called reactive hyperemia.
False
147) Intrinsic regulation of arteriolar radius regulates mean arterial pressure.
False
Flow autoregulation refers to an organ’s ability to maintain perfusion pressure in the presence of a 148) range of blood flows.
False
Histamine induces vasodilation by stimulating the synthesis of nitric oxide.
True
Intrinsic changes in arteriole radius have no effect on arterial blood pressure.
False
151) Increases in angiotensin II levels in the blood will elevate total peripheral resistance.
True
152) Walls of fenestrated capillaries are more permeable than the walls of continuous capillaries.
True
Precapillary sphincters are controlled by local metabolites and the sympathetic nervous system, but 153) not epinephrine.
False
An increase in venous pressure can cause edema.
True
There are no valves in the cranial veins.
True
veins have greater compliance than arteries.
True
Increased respiratory activity facilitates venous return.
True
158) Smooth muscle in the veins is innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system.
False
159) Arterial baroreceptors are located in the left ventricle and aorta.
False
The baroreceptor reflex responds to an increase in mean arterial pressure by increasing sympathetic 160) nervous activity, while reducing parasympathetic nervous activity.
False
161) The baroreceptor reflex plays a primary role in the long-term regulation of mean arterial pressure.
False
162) Local controls of blood flow can override extrinsic controls.
True
163) The velocity of blood flow is greatest in the arteries and slowest in the capillaries.
True
164) The thoracic duct returns lymph to the blood by emptying into the pulmonary trunk.
False
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