Keeping blood in the different chambers of the heart from mixing is a function of the _____.
A. valves
B. arteries
C. septum
D. apex
E. chordae tendinae
septum
When blood leaves the heart, it first enters _____.
A. arteries
B. veins
C. arterioles
D. venules
E. capillaries
arteries
Which of the following is NOT a component of the pulmonary circuit?
A. right ventricle
B. pulmonary arteries
C. pulmonary veins
D. pulmonary capillaries
E. venae cava
venae cava
Blood suppy to the heart comes from _____.
A. coronary arteries
B. cerebral arteries
C. aorta
D. blood within the ventricles
E. blood within the atria
coronary arteries
Identify the structure that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
A. heart
B. diaphragm
C. intestines
D. liver
E. lungs
diaphragm
Which of the following chambers has the thickest musculature?
A. right atrium
B. right ventricle
C. left atrium
D. left ventricle
E. both ventricles have equal thickness and are thicker than the atria
left ventricle
Which of the following statements is true regarding the values of the heart?
A. the aortic valve is a semilunar valve
B. all four valves open and close passively in response to pressure gradients
C. the left AV valve is also called the mitral valve
D. both the aortic valve is a semilunar valve and the left AV valve is also called the mitral valve
E. all of these
all of these
Chordae tendinae are strands of connective tissue extending from ____ to _____.
A. atria : ventricle
B. inferior vena cava : right atrium
C. aortic valves : ventricular myocardium
D. semilunar valves : atrial mmyocardium
E. AV valves : papillary muscle
AV valves : papillary muscle
Closure of the atrioventricular valve occurs when _____.
A. the valve contracts
B. pressure inside the ventricle is less than pressure inside the atrium
C. pressure inside the ventricle is greater than pressure inside the atrium
D. the papillary muscle contracts
E. the atrium contracts
pressure inside the ventricle is greater than pressure inside the atrium
Whereas the contractile activity of skeletal muscle is called ____, that of cardiac muscle is _____ because the contraction originates within the musculature itself.
A. somatic : autonomic
B. voluntary : involuntary
C. neurogenic : myogenic
D. somatic : autorhythmic
E. extrinsic : intrinsic
neurogenic : myogenic
What are the two major regions of the heart containing pacemaker cells?
A. sinoatrial node and atrioventricular node
B. sinoatrial node and Purkinje fibers
C. sinoatrial node and Bundle of His
D. Bundle of His and atrioventricular node
E. Bundle of His and Purkinje fibers
sinoatrial node and atrioventricular node
Which of the following will occur within the systemic capillary beds?
A. net flux of oxygen out of the capillaries
B. net flux of carbon dioxide out of the capillaries
C. net flux of carbon dioxide into the capillaries
D. both net flux of carbon dioxide out of the capillaries and net flux of carbon dioxide into the capillaries
E. both net flux of oxygen out of the capillaries and net flux of carbon dioxide into the capillaries
both net flux of oxygen out of the capillaries and net flux of carbon dioxide into the capillaries
The _____ carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs
A. inferior vena cava
B. aorta
C. pulmonary vein
D. pulmonary artery
E. superior vena cava
pulmonary artery
The relative color (depth of redness) of blood is a direct indication of the amount of _____ bound to hemoglobin
A. sodium ions
B. oxygen
C. glucose
D. hydrogen ions
E. hormone
oxygen
The term autorhythmicity refers to the heart’s ability to ______.
A. conduct action potentials along the conduction pathway
B. generate its own contractile cycle
C. originate its contraction neurogenically
D. act as a functional syncytium
E. intrinsically modify its contractility
generate its own contraction cycle
Which of the following statements is true?
A. intercalatd disks contain gap junctions
B. intercalated disks are specialized regions of the conduction pathway of the heart responsible for the rapid conduction through these regions
C. intercalated disks contain desmosomes
D. both intercalated disks contain gap junctions and intercalated disks contain desmosomes
E. all of these
all of these
Which of the following ion channels open for a cardiac pacemaker cell to depolarize to threshold for an action potential?
A. funny channels
B. L-type calcium channels
C. T-type calcium channels
D. both funny channels and L-type calcium channels
E. both funny channels and T-type calcium channels
both funny channels and T-types calcium channels
_______ is responsible for the repolarization of pacemaker cells
A. an increase in Pca
B. an increase in Pna
C. a decrease in Pk
D. an increase in Pk
E. a decrease in Pna
an increase in Pk
What causes the rapid depolarization phase of a contractile cell action potential?
A. sodium movement into the cell
B. sodium movement out of the cell
C. calcium movement into the cell
D. calcium movement out of the cell
E. potassium movement into the cell
sodium movement into the cell
Which of the following statements about the plateau phase of a contractile cell action potential is FALSE?
A. calcium permeability is high relative to the resting state
B. sodium channels are inacrivated
C. potassium permeability is low relative to the resting state
D. the cardiac muscle is in the absolute refractory period
E. the membrane potentil remains the same as the peak of the action potential for about 200 miliseconds
the membrane potentil remains the same as the peak of the action potential for about 200 miliseconds
Which of the following components of an ECG represents ventricular repolarization?
A. P wave
B. QRS complex
C. T wave
D. PQ interval
E. TQ segment
T wave
If damage to the AV node slowed down conduction through this tissue, what would be observed on an ECG?
A. a larger P wave
B. a longer P wave
C. a longer PR interval
D. a wider QRS complex
E. an inverted T wave
a longer PR interval
In an ECG recording, the RR interval is 0.5 seconds. What is the heart rate?
A. 50 beats/min
B. 100 beats/min
C. 30 beats/min
D. 60 beats/min
E. 120 beats/min
120 beats/min
In second degree heart block _____.
A. there is a longer delay between atrial contraction and ventricular contraction
B. not every atrial contraction is followed by a ventricular contraction
C. not every ventricular contraction is preceded by an atrial contraction
D. the ventricles no longer contract
E. the atria no longer contract
not every atrial contraction is followed by a ventricular contraction
During isovolumetric ventriculation relaxation, _______.
A. the AV valves are closed
B. the semilunar valves are closed
C. ventricular pressure is decreasing
D. both the AV valves are closed and the semilunar valves are closed
E. all of these
all of these
During ventricular ejection, _____.
A. the AV valves are open
B. the ssemilunar valves are open
C. left ventricular pressure is greater than aortic pressure
D. both the semilunar valves are open and left ventricular pressure is greater than aortic pressure
E. all of these
both the semilunar valves are open and left ventricular pressure is greater than aortic pressure
Which of the following is true of the ventricular filling phase of the cardiac cycle?
A. ventricular filling occurs during systole
B. all valves in the heart are open
C. ventricular pressure is less then aortic pressure
D. ventricular pressure is greater than atrial pressure
E. ventricular pressure is decreasing
ventricular pressure is less than aortic pressure
Which of the phases of the cardiac pump cycle listed below are part of systole?
A. isovolumetric contraction
B. filling of the ventricle
C. ventricular ejection
D. both filling of the ventricle and ventricular ejection
E. both isovolumetric contraction and ventricular ejection
both isovolumetric contraction and ventricular ejection
Ejection of blood from the right ventricle will continue until _____.
A. the pulmonary semilunar valve contracts, inducing closure
B. the pulmonary semilunar valve contracts, inducing closure
C. pressure in the aorta is greater than pressure in the right ventricle
D. pressure in the pulmonary artery is greater than pressure in the right
ventricle
E. pressure in the aorta is less than pressure in the right ventricle
pressure in the pulmonary artery is greater than pressure in the right
ventricle
The increase in ventricular volume early in diastole reflects ________.
A. the increased stiffness of the heart
B. the contraction of the atria moving blood into the ventricle
C. the passive movement of blood through the atrium and into the
ventricle
D. the relaxation of the ventricle
E. the back-flow of blood from the aorta
the passive movement of blood through the atrium and into the
ventricle
The end-diastolic volume minus the end-systolic volume is the ________.
A. ejection fraction
B. stroke volume
C. cardiac output
D. total ventricular volume
E. total atrial volume
stroke volume
What causes the sounds that one hears as the heart beats?
A. the snapping of the valves into a closed position
B. the turbulence created as the valves close
C. the snapping of the valves into the open position
D. the turbulence created as the valves open
E. the bulk movement of blood into and out of the ventricle
the turbulence created as the valves close
The SA node is innervated by ________.
A. the sympathetic nervous system only
B. the parasympathetic nervous system only
C. the somatic nervous system only
D. the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
E. the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and somatic nervous systems
the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
Which of the following decreases heart rate?
A. sympathetic nervous system activity
B. parasympathetic nervous system activity
C. epinephrine
D. glucagon
E. both parasympathetic nervous system activity and glucagon
parasympathetic nervous system activity
The binding of a catecholamine to a beta adrenergic receptor will ________.
A. activate guanylate cyclase
B. activate adenylate cyclase
C. activate phospholipase C
D. inhibit guanylate cyclase
E. inhibit phospholipase C
activate adenylate cyclase
Which of the following decreases stroke volume?
A. decrease in central venous pressure
B. increase in filling time
C. increase sympathetic activity
D. increase parasympathetic activity
E. increase in atrial pressure
decrease in central venous pressure
An artery is a blood vessel that:
A. transports blood away from the heart
B. transports blood toward the heart
C. transports oxygenated blood
D. What is the anatomical definition of an artery as opposed to a vein?
E. None of the above
transports blood away from the heart
Put the following events of the cardiac cycle in the correct order, starting with the ventricular filling phase:
a. first heart sound
b. P wave of ECG
c. ventricular pressure ; atrial pressure
d. isovolumetric relaxation ____________________.
A. b, c, a, d
B. b, d, c, a
C. d, a, b, c
D. a, b, c, d
b, c, a, d
Which of the following will increase the force of contraction of the ventricles?
A. Increasing end-diastolic volume
B. Increasing parasympathetic activity
C. Increasing arterial pressure
D. All of the above
Increasing end-diastolic volume
Put the following structures involved in cardiac impulse conduction in the correct order:
a. AV node
b. Purkinje fibers
c. SA node
d. Bundle of His ____________________.
A. c, a, d, b
B. b, c, d, a
C. c, a, b, d
D. c, b, a, d
c, a, d, b
Which of the following equations correctly relates flow, pressure, and resistance?
A. Flow = Pressure x Resistance
B. Pressure = Flow x Resistance
C. Resistance = Flow x Pressure
D. Flow = Pressure + Resistance
E. Flow = Pressure – Resistance
Pressure = Flow x Resistance
The driving force for blood flow through the systemic circuit is ________.
A. capillary hydrostatic pressure
B. central venous pressure
C. left ventricular pressure
D. mean arterial pressure
E. right atrial pressure
mean arterial pressure
In comparison to the systemic circuit, the pulmonary circuit ________.
A. is under greater pressure
B. has lower blood flow
C. has lower resistance to blood flow
D. has an equal pressure gradient to drive blood flow
E. none of these
has lower resistance to blood flow
Which of the following equations is correct?
A. cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate
B. cardiac output = mean arterial pressure x total peripheral resistance
C. resistance = (length x radius4) / viscosity
D. both cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate and cardiac output =
mean arterial pressure x total peripheral resistance
E. both cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate and resistance =
(length x radius4) / viscosity
cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate
________ is/are the component(s) of a blood vessel’s extracellular matrix that provide(s) the tensile strength required to withstand pressure.
A. Gap junctions
B. Elastin
C. Collagen
D. Hemoglobin
E. Albumin
Collagen
The elastic nature of the largest blood vessel’s (the aorta’s) walls allows them to act as a ________, maintaining the driving force for blood flow while the heart is relaxed during diastole.
A. volume reservoir
B. non-distensible structure
C. non-compliant structure
D. pressure reservoir
E. resistor
pressure reservoir
A person goes to the doctor and is told his blood pressure is 90/60. Which of the following is true?
A. Systolic pressure is 90 mm Hg.
B. Pulse pressure is 30 mm Hg.
C. Mean arterial pressure is around 70-75 mm Hg.
D. both Systolic pressure is 90 mm Hg and Pulse pressure is 30 mm Hg.
E. all of these
all of these
Blood pressure is usually measured in the ________ artery, which is reflective of ________ pressure.
A. brachial : aortic
B. coronary : aortic
C. brachial : left ventricular
D. coronary : left ventricular
E. ulnar : left atrial
brachial : aortic
The contractile activity of smooth muscle cells within ________ is primarily involved in the control of organ blood flow and mean arterial pressure.
A. arterioles
B. capillaries
C. arteries
D. venules
E. veins
arterioles
Which of the following cardiovascular changes is MOST specific for increasing blood flow to a specific organ?
A. a decrease in resistance of arterioles providing blood to the organ as well as an increase in mean arterial pressure
B. an increase in mean arterial pressure
C. a decrease in the resistance of arterioles providing blood to OTHER
organs
D. a decrease in resistance of arterioles providing blood to the organ
E. an increase in mean arterial pressure as well as a decrease in the
resistance of arterioles providing blood to OTHER organs
a decrease in resistance of arterioles providing blood to the organ
Intrinsic control of organ blood flow refers to the fact that ________.
A. baroreceptor reflex controls organ resistance
B. sympathetic nervous activity regulates organ resistance
C. arteries respond to local factors that regulate organ resistance
D. arterioles respond to local factors that regulate organ resistance
E. withdrawal of parasympathetic activity allows the sympathetic system
to regulate organ resistance
arterioles respond to local factors that regulate organ resistance
Chemicals released by metabolically active cells will cause which of the following?
A. relaxation of arteriolar smooth muscle to increase blood flow
B. relaxation of arteriolar smooth muscle to decrease blood flow
C. contraction of arteriolar smooth muscle to increase blood flow
D. contraction of arteriolar smooth muscle to decrease blood flow
E. none of these
relaxation of arteriolar smooth muscle to increase blood flow
A decrease in tissue oxygen is called ________.
A. hypoxemia
B. hyperemia
C. hypoxia
D. hyperoxia
E. ischemia
hypoxia
An increase in blood flow to metabolically active tissue will increase ________.
A. capillary diameter
B. tissue hypoxia
C. arteriolar resistance
D. oxygen delivery
E. blood pressure
oxygen delivery
An increase in the concentration of ________ within the interstitial space surrounding an arteriole would lead that vessel to constrict.
A. lactic acid
B. oxygen
C. prostacyclin
D. bradykinin
E. nitric oxide
oxygen
Which of the following substances is secreted by endothelial cells and causes vasodilation?
A. oxygen
B. nitric oxide
C. adenosine
D. bradykinin
E. endothelin-1
nitric oxide
Any change in the relative distribution of cardiac output to an organ is typically due to changes in ________.
A. central venous pressure
B. viscosity of the blood moving through that organ’s vascular bed
C. compliance of that organ’s vascular bed
D. mean arterial pressure
E. resistance of that organ’s vascular bed
resistance of that organ’s vascular bed
What blood vessel type has the greatest overall cross-sectional area?
A. arteries
B. arterioles
C. capillaries
D. venules
E. veins
capillaries
Which of the following anatomical features of capillaries favors the rapid exchange of molecules between blood and tissue?
A. thin walls
B. small radius
C. larger overall number (total surface area)
D. gaps between endothelial cells
E. all of these
all of these
Glucose will move across continuous capillary walls by ________.
A. diffusion
B. facilitated diffusion
C. primary active transport
D. secondary active transport
E. transcytosis
diffusion
What region of the cardiovascular system contains valves?
A. heart
B. metarterioles
C. veins
D. both heart and veins
E. all of these
both heart and veins
Veins functions as ________ reservoirs due to their ________
compliance.
A. pressure : high
B. volume : high
C. pressure : low
D. volume : low
E. pressure : lack of
volume : high
The high compliance of veins allows them to ________.
A. act as pressure reservoirs
B. accommodate large volumes of blood with little change in pressure
C. rapidly change central venous pressure with small changes in blood
volume
D. hold only small volumes of blood
E. provide the driving force for the movement of blood through the
vasculature during diastole
accommodate large volumes of blood with little change in pressure
At rest, the greatest proportion of blood volume is present within the ________.
A. heart
B. systemic arteries
C. systemic capillaries
D. systemic veins
E. pulmonary veins
systemic veins
An increase in central venous pressure will cause ________.
A. cardiac output to increase
B. heart rate to increase
C. stroke volume to increase
D. both cardiac output to increase and stroke volume to increase
E. all of these
both cardiac output to increase and stroke volume to increase
An increase in the volume of blood ejected from the heart, with no change in total peripheral resistance, would ________.
A. elevate mean arterial pressure
B. elevate central venous pressure
C. reduce mean arterial pressure
D. elevate pulmonary venous pressure
E. reduce the stretch on the aorta
elevate mean arterial pressure
The long-term regulation of arterial blood pressure involves ________.
A. the release of hormones over a period of minutes
B. the immediate change in activity of the nervous system
C. the control of blood volume by the kidneys
D. the control of peripheral resistance
E. the stimulation of an increase in urine flow through the kidneys
the control of blood volume by the kidneys
Baroreceptors respond to ________, which is/are altered by mean arterial pressure.
A. the metabolic byproducts formed within blood vessel walls
B. the rate that blood is flowing past the nerves
C. the compressive forces of pressure against the nerve endings
D. the changes in stretch of the blood vessel wall
E. the partial pressure of oxygen within the blood
the changes in stretch of the blood vessel wall
Which of the following will NOT occur in response to a decrease in the extent of stretch detected by a baroreceptor?
A. increased urine flow
B. increased ventricular contractility
C. increased heart rate
D. increased peripheral resistance
E. increased venomotor tone
increased urine flow
The reduction in organ blood flow that results from a decrease in mean arterial pressure would be exacerbated by the ________ that occurs as a consequence of the baroreceptor reflex.
A. decreased compliance of the veins
B. increased venous return
C. increased stroke volume
D. increased peripheral resistance
E. increased ventricular contractility
increased peripheral resistance
The hormone vasopressin acts in the short term to ________ and in the long term to ________, thereby increasing mean arterial pressure.
A. decrease urine outflow : vasoconstrict arterioles
B. vasoconstrict arterioles : decrease urine outflow
C. vasodilate arterioles : increase urine outflow
D. increase urine outflow : vasodilate arterioles
E. vasodilate arterioles : decrease urine outflow
vasoconstrict arterioles : decrease urine outflow
Given the following information, calculate the net filtration pressure: capillary hydrostatic pressure = 30 mm Hg, interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure = 5 mm Hg, capillary oncotic pressure = 25 mm Hg, and
interstitial fluid oncotic pressure = 10 mm Hg.
A. 40 mm Hg, favoring filtration
B. -40 mm Hg, favoring reabsorption
C. 10 mm Hg, favoring filtration
D. -10 mm Hg, favoring reabsorption
E. 0 mm Hg, no net force
10 mm Hg, favoring filtration
Which of the following can cause edema?
A. increase in plasma proteins
B. damage to capillary walls
C. decreased venous pressure
D. both increase in plasma proteins and decreased venous pressure
E. all of these
damage to capillary walls
Venous return is increased by:
A. breathing
B. muscle contraction
C. drinking fluids such as water
D. standing up
drinking fluids such as water
As part of the baroreceptor reflex response to hemorrhage, which of
the following will increase?
A. Venous return
B. Vasodilation
C. Heart rate
D. Urine output
Heart rate
Hypertension can be caused by:
A. genetics
B. kidney disease
C. hormone imbalance
D. All of the above
All of the above
A hematocrit is a measure of ________.
A. the amount of hemoglobin in blood
B. the percentage of blood that is comprised of red blood cells
C. the percentage of blood that is comprised of red and white blood
cells
D. the percentage of blood that is comprised of plasma
E. the amount of oxygen that can be transported by blood
the percentage of blood that is comprised of red and white blood
cells
Which of the following is NOT a protein found in plasma?
A. albumin
B. hormones
C. carbonic anhydrase
D. fibrinogen
E. globulins
carbonic anhydrase
The most abundant plasma protein is ________.
A. albumin
B. hemoglobin
C. fibrinogen
D. globulins
E. carbonic anhydrase
albumin
A majority of the protein present within blood is synthesized within the ________.
A. skeletal muscles
B. liver
C. central nervous system
D. kidneys
E. lungs
liver
Plasma from which clotting factors have been removed is called ________.
A. whole blood
B. platelets
C. serum
D. lymph
E. interstitial fluid
serum
Which of the following statements is NOT accurate with respect to erythrocytes?
A. They lack nuclei.
B. They lack mitochondria.
C. They contain large amounts of hemoglobin.
D. They migrate into infected regions of tissue.
E. They transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.
They migrate into infected regions of tissue.
The iron-containing ring in hemoglobin is called ________ and it binds ________.
A. heme : carbon dioxide
B. spectrin : carbon dioxide
C. heme : oxygen
D. globin : oxygen
E. heme : carbon dioxide or oxygen
heme : oxygen
What enzyme catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid, and where is this enzyme located?
A. carbonic anhydrase : plasma
B. carbonic dehydrogenase : plasma
C. carbonic anhydrase : hemoglobin
D. carbonic dehydrogenase : hemoglobin
E. carbonic anhydrase : erythrocytes
carbonic anhydrase : erythrocytes
Carbonic acid reversibly dissociates to form ________ and ________, without the need of an enzyme.
A. water : carbon dioxide
B. water : bicarbonate
C. carbon dioxide : bicarbonate
D. bicarbonate : hydrogen ion
E. water : hydrogen ion
bicarbonate : hydrogen ion
Erythrocytes are synthesized in the ________ under the control of ________.
A. liver : bilirubin
B. bone marrow : erythropoietin
C. kidney : transferrin
D. liver : erythropoietin
E. bone marrow : bilirubin
bone marrow : erythropoietin
What hematopoietic growth factor controls red blood cell synthesis, and what organ releases it?
A. oxytocin : posterior pituitary
B. calcitonin : kidney
C. parathyroid hormone : parathyroid glands
D. erythropoietin : kidney
E. transferrin : bone marrow
erythropoietin : kidney
What triggers erythropoietin release?
A. increased blood carbon dioxide levels
B. decreased blood oxygen levels
C. infection in the tissues
D. infection in the blood
E. damage to a blood vessel wall and subsequent exposure of collagen
decreased blood oxygen levels
Pernicious anemia is associated with ________.
A. abnormal hemoglobin
B. inadequate bilirubin levels
C. bleeding
D. damage to the bone marrow
E. insufficient vitamin B12
insufficient vitamin B12
Old red blood cells are removed from the blood by macrophages in what organ?
A. bone marrow
B. spleen
C. kidney
D. thymus
E. pancreas
spleen
During hemoglobin metabolism, removal of the iron group results in a yellow pigmented substance called ________.
A. ferritin
B. transferrin
C. bile
D. bilirubin
E. myoglobin
bilirubin
Iron is transported in blood bound to ________.
A. transferrin
B. ferritin
C. bilirubin
D. hemoglobin
E. heme transporters
transferrin
What is the most abundant type of blood cell?
A. erythrocyte
B. neutrophil
C. eosinophil
D. lymphocyte
E. monocyte
erythrocyte
A normal hematocrit is approximately ________.
A. 10
B. 25
C. 45
D. 75
E. 90
45
If the carbon dioxide concentration of blood increases, so will the:
A. bicarbonate concentration
B. carbonic acid concentration
C. oxygen concentration
D. pH
bicarbonate concentration
________ specifically describes the movement of air into and out of the lungs.
A. Internal respiration
B. Pulmonary ventilation
C. Secondary ventilation
D. Respiration
E. Expiration
Pulmonary ventilation
Food is prevented from entering the respiratory tract by the ________, which is/are located in the ________, the entry to the larynx.
A. glottis : pharynx
B. glottis : epiglottis
C. vocal cords : glottis
D. epiglottis : glottis
C. bronchioles : bronchi
epiglottis : glottis
The rigidity of the trachea is important because it prevents the trachea from ________.
A. allowing food to enter the respiratory passage
B. actively changing its radius
C. collapsing during expiration
D. collapsing during inspiration
E. functioning in the uptake of gases
collapsing during inspiration
________ cells become more abundant deeper into the conducting zone (from bronchi to bronchioles) .
A. Cartilagenous
B. Type I alveolar
C. Ciliated
D. Goblet
E. Smooth muscle
Smooth muscle
The ________, which is/are most abundant in the trachea and bronchi, become(s) much less dense (and eventually absent) in the bronchioles.
A. smooth muscle cells
B. cartilage
C. goblet cells
D. macrophages
E. type II alveolar cells
cartilage
The ________ functions primarily as the region of the lungs where the majority of gas exchange occurs.
A. respiratory bronchiole
B. alveolar duct
C. alveolus
D. terminal bronchiole
E. bronchus
alveolus
The ________ is a thin barrier (0.2 ?m) that allows for the efficient exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood.
A. endothelial cell
B. type I alveolar cell
C. type II alveolar cell
D. alveolar macrophage
E. respiratory membrane
respiratory membrane
Which of the following is NOT a muscle involved in breathing?
A. the pleural muscle
B. the internal intercostal muscle
C. the external intercostal muscle
D. the diaphragm
E. the abdominal muscle
the pleural muscle
The ________ is bounded by the interior surface of the chest wall and the exterior surface of the lung.
A. interpleural space
B. alveolar space
C. bronchiolar space
D. intraparietal cavity
E. thoracic cavity
interpleural space
This dome-shaped muscle separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities and plays an important role in breathing.
A. internal intercostals
B. sternocleidomastoid
C. external intercostals
D. diaphragm
E. scalene
diaphragm
When air is no longer moving through the respiratory tract and the airway is open to the environment, the pressure within the lung is equal to ________.
A. systolic blood pressure
B. transpulmonary pressure
C. intrapleural pressure
D. atmospheric pressure
E. end-diastolic pressure
atmospheric pressure
The difference between ________ pressure and ________ pressure drives air into and out of the lungs.
A. pulmonary venous : atmospheric
B. central venous : intracoronary
C. intrapleural : intra-alveolar
D. atmospheric : intra-alveolar
E. atmospheric : intrapleural
atmospheric : intra-alveolar
When intra-alveolar pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure ________.
A. air moves into the lung
B. air moves out of the lung
C. the lung collapses
D. the lung must be expanding
E. intrapleural pressure is greater than intra-alveolar pressure
air moves out of the lung
Which of the following pressure(s) vary rhythmically with respiration?
A. atmospheric pressure
B. intrapleural pressure
C. intra-alveolar pressure
D. both intrapleural pressure and intra-alveolar pressure
E. both atmospheric pressure and intrapleural pressure
both intrapleural pressure and intra-alveolar pressure
The difference between intrapleural pressure and intra-alveolar pressure is ________.
A. the driving force for air flow into and out of the lungs
B. atmospheric pressure
C. transpulmonary pressure
D. both the driving force for air flow into and out of the lungs and atmospheric pressure
E. both the driving force for air flow into and out of the lungs and transpulmonary pressure
transpulmonary pressure
A measure of the distending force across the lungs is the ________.
A. intrapleural pressure
B. intra-alveolar pressure
C. transpulmonary pressure
D. atmospheric pressure
E. difference between intra-alveolar pressure and atmospheric pressure
transpulmonary pressure
Equilibration of pressure between the intrapleural space and the alveoli will lead to ________.
A. air moving out of the lungs
B. air moving into the lungs
C. a pneumothorax (the lung will collapse)
D. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
E. restrictive pulmonary disease
a pneumothorax (the lung will collapse)
The volume of air when the lungs are at rest (in between breaths) is ________.
A. zero
B. functional residual capacity
C. residual volume
D. total lung capacity
E. tidal volume
functional residual capacity
As the lungs expand, intra-alveolar pressure ________ and air moves ________ the lungs.
A. increases : out of
B. increases : into
C. decreases : out of
D. decreases : into
E. does not change : neither into nor out of
decreases : into
The increased number of gas molecules that have moved into the lung during inspiration results from a(n) ________.
A. decrease in intrapleural pressure
B. increase in atmospheric pressure
C. decrease in atmospheric pressure
D. decrease in intra-alveolar pressure
E. increase in intra-alveolar pressure
decrease in intra-alveolar pressure
The contraction of the diaphragm results in a(n) ________.
A. decrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity and therefore a decrease in atmospheric pressure
B. decrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity and therefore a decrease in intra-alveolar pressure
C. increase in the volume of the thoracic cavity and therefore a decrease in intra-alveolar pressure
D. decrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity and therefore an increase in intra-alveolar pressure
E. increase in the volume of the thoracic cavity and therefore an increase in intra-alveolar pressure
increase in the volume of the thoracic cavity and therefore a decrease in intra-alveolar pressure
The primary inspiratory muscles are the ________.
A. external and internal intercostals
B. diaphragm and external intercostals
C. diaphragm and internal intercostals
D. diaphragm and the external and internal intercostals
E. diaphragm and abdominal muscles
diaphragm and external intercostals
As the diameter of the chest wall increases, the concomitant expansion of the lungs is due to a(n) ________.
A. increase in atmospheric pressure
B. decrease in intra-alveolar pressure
C. increase in intrapleural pressure
D. decrease in transpulmonary pressure
E. increase in transpulmonary pressure
increase in transpulmonary pressure
At rest, expiration is a(n) ________ process that involves ________.
A. active : the contraction of the diaphragm
B. passive : relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostals
C. active : contraction of the internal intercostals
D. passive : relaxation of the internal intercostals
E. active : relaxation of the diaphragm
passive : relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostals
Which of the following pressures is lower during inspiration than during expiration?
A. intra-alveolar pressure
B. transpulmonary pressure
C. intrapleural pressure
D. both intra-alveolar pressure and transpulmonary pressure
E. both intra-alveolar pressure and intrapleural pressure
both intra-alveolar pressure and intrapleural pressure
As the resistance of the airway increases, ________ would be required to move the same volume of air into the lung.
A. a greater transpulmonary pressure
B. an enhanced lung compliance
C. a reduction in lung compliance
D. a greater concentration of surfactant
E. a reduction in surface tension
a greater transpulmonary pressure
Which of the following chemicals will NOT result in a decrease in airway resistance?
A. norepinephrine
B. epinephrine
C. carbon dioxide
D. bronchodilators
E. histamine
histamine
What benefit are corticosteroids in the treatment of asthma?
A. They induce bronchodilation.
B. They induce bronchoconstriction.
C. They reduce inflammation of the airways.
D. They increase blood flow to the airways.
E. They decrease mucus secretion into the airways.
They reduce inflammation of the airways.
A(n) ________ is used clinically to measure lung volumes and rates of air flow.
A. spirometer
B. electrocardiograph
C. ratiometer
D. electroencephalogram
E. X-ray
spirometer
________ refers to the volume of air moved into and out of the lungs in a single breath during unforced breathing.
A. Total lung capacity
B. Functional residual capacity
C. Tidal volume
D. Vital capacity
E. Minute ventilation
Tidal volume
The presence of a negative intrapleural pressure at maximum expiration is responsible for ________.
A. residual volume
B. functional residual volume
C. tidal volume
D. vital capacity
E. functional residual capacity
residual volume
________ is the sum of tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume.
A. Residual volume
B. Functional residual capacity
C. Total lung capacity
D. Inspiratory capacity
E. Vital capacity
Inspiratory capacity
Functional residual capacity is comprised of ________.
A. vital capacity and expiratory reserve volume
B. tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume
C. tidal volume and expiratory reserve volume
D. tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume
E. residual volume and expiratory reserve volume
residual volume and expiratory reserve volume
Which of the following measurements cannot be determined by a spirometer?
A. vital capacity
B. tidal volume
C. residual volume
D. inspiratory capacity
E. inspiratory reserve volume
residual volume
A decrease in ________ is indicative of an obstructive pulmonary disease.
A. minute ventilation
B. tidal volume
C. forced expiratory volume
D. residual volume
E. forced vital capacity
forced expiratory volume
The volume of air moved into the lungs every minute is referred to as ________.
A. alveolar ventilation
B. tidal volume
C. total lung capacity
D. minute ventilation
E. pulmonary ventilation
minute ventilation
Pick the correct sequence of changes in alveolar pressure, starting with inspiration (one of the answers is used twice):
a. Palv< Patm
b. Palv = Patm
c. Palv> Patm
A. a, c, b, c
B. a, b, c, b
C. b, c, b, a
D. c, b, a, b
a, b, c, b
Put the events of inspiration in the correct order:
a. Pip decreases
b. Transpulmonary pressure increases
c. Diaphragm and intercostals contract
d. Palv decreases to less than Patm
A. b, a, c, d
B. a, b, c, d
C. c, a, b, d
D. d, b, c, a
c, a, b, d
Vital Capacity =
A. Vt + ERV
B. Vt + IRV + ERV
C. Vt + ERV + IRV + RV
D. Vt + IRV
Vt + IRV + ERV
Functional residual capacity and total lung capacity increase in:
A. restrictive pulmonary disease
B. obstructive pulmonary disease
C. asthma
D. emphysema
emphysema
The lowest PO2 and the highest PCO2 can be found in the:
A. pulmonary veins
B. cells
C. atmospheric air
D. alveolar air
cells
At high altitudes, which of the following may occur?
A. hypoventilation
B. respiratory alkalosis
C. polycythemia
D. hypoxia
hypoxia
The respiratory quotient is calculated by the ________.
A. ratio of the volume of oxygen consumed per volume of carbon dioxide produced
B. ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide produced per volume of oxygen consumed
C. product of the volume of carbon dioxide consumed and the volume of oxygen produced
D. product of the volume of oxygen consumed and the volume of carbon dioxide produced
E. sum of the volume of oxygen consumed and the volume of carbon dioxide
produced
ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide produced per volume of oxygen consumed
Movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveoli and blood occurs by ________.
A. simple diffusion
B. facilitated diffusion
C. osmosis
D. primary active transport
E. secondary active transport
simple diffusion
In a mixture of gases, the driving force for the movement of an individual gas within that mixture is ultimately the ________.
A. solubility of the gas
B. total pressure of the gases
C. fractional concentration of that gas
D. partial pressure of that gas
E. volume of the gas
partial pressure of that gas
The most abundant gas in the air that we breath is ________.
A. oxygen
B. carbon dioxide
C. water vapor
D. argon
E. nitrogen
nitrogen
Which of the following best describes the oxygen composition of air?
A. < 1%
B. 12%
C. 21%
D. 79%
21%
Which of the following best describes the carbon dioxide composition of air?
A. < 1%
B. 12%
C. 21%
D, 79%
< 1 %
As the air is saturated with water vapor (humidified) upon entry into the conducting pathway, there will be ________.
A. a selective increase in the partial pressure of nitrogen
B. a selective decrease in the partial pressure of nitrogen
C. no change in the partial pressure of the remaining gases
D. a decrease in the partial pressure of the remaining gases
E. an increase in the partial pressure of the remaining gases
a decrease in the partial pressure of the remaining gases
At equilibrium, the gas molecules that dissolve in solution and those that remain in the gaseous phase are ________.
A. at the same temperature
B. at the same concentration
C. at the same partial pressure
D. at the same volume
E. at the same humidity
at the same partial pressure
Which of the following can increase the concentration of a particular gas in a solution?
A. increase the partial pressure of that gas exposed to the solution
B. increase the volume of the container containing the gas and solution
C. increase the volume of the gas only
D. increase the volume of the solution only
E. both increase the partial pressure of that gas exposed to the solution and
increase the volume of the gas only
increase the partial pressure of that gas exposed to the solution
The continuous exchange of gases between the blood and alveolar air in the lungs results in a partial pressure of ________.
A. water vapor in the alveoli that is lower than in atmospheric air
B. nitrogen in the alveoli that is higher than in atmospheric air
C. oxygen in the alveoli that is lower than in atmospheric air
D. carbon dioxide in the alveoli that is lower than in atmospheric air
E. none of these
oxygen in the alveoli that is lower than in atmospheric air
Pulmonary edema describes a condition where the uptake of oxygen and unloading of carbon dioxide is reduced as a consequence of a(n) ________.
A. increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood
B. thickening of the diffusion barrier
C. decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen in the alveolus
D. both increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood and thickening of the diffusion barrier
E. both increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood and decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen in the alveolus
thickening of the diffusion barrier
During intense exercise, the metabolic activity of muscle ________ the partial pressure of oxygen in the tissue, ________ its movement into the tissue.
A. decreases : reducing
B. decreases : facilitating
C. increases : reducing
D. increases : facilitating
E. does not change : facilitating
decreases : facilitating
During intense exercise, the metabolic activity of muscle ________ the partial pressure gradient for carbon dioxide, ________ its movement out of the tissue.
A. decreases : reducing
B. decreases : facilitating
C. increases : reducing
D. increases : facilitating
E. does not change : facilitating
increases : facilitating
A typical value for PO2 blood in the pulmonary vein is ________, whereas PCO2 is ________.
A. 150 mm Hg : 0.3 mm Hg
B. 46 mm Hg : 100 mm Hg
C. 40 mm Hg : 46 mm Hg
D. 40 mm Hg : 100 mm Hg
E. 100 mm Hg : 40 mm Hg
100 mm Hg : 40 mm Hg
Hyperventilation would lead to a(n) ________ within the systemic arteries.
A. selective decrease in PO2
B. selective increase in PO2
C. selective decrease in PCO2
D. increase in PO2 and decrease in PCO2
E. decrease PO2 in and increase in PCO2
increase in PO2 and decrease in PCO2
An increase in alveolar ventilation to match the demands of increased metabolic activity in the cells is called ________.
A. hyperventilation
B. hypoventilation
C. hyperpnea
D. hypopnea
E. dyspnea
hyperpnea
Which of the following terms refers to a decrease in carbon dioxide within the blood?
A. hypoxia
B. hypoxemia
C. hypocapnia
D. hypercapnia
E. hyperpnea
hypocapnia
The majority of oxygen present within the blood is ________.
A. bound to hemoglobin within the plasma
B. bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells
C. dissolved within the plasma
D. in the plasma as HCO3-
E. within the capillaries of the lung
bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells
Each ________ on the hemoglobin subunit is capable of binding an oxygen molecule, thereby allowing ________ oxygen to bind with one hemoglobin molecule.
A. heme : four
B. heme : three
C. globin : four
D. globin : three
E. free iron : one
heme : four
The primary driving force for the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin is ________.
A. temperature
B. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG)
C. PCO2
D. PO2
E. pH
PO2
Based upon the law of mass action, an increase in blood PO2 will ________ bound to hemoglobin.
A. not affect the amount of oxygen
B. decrease the amount of oxygen
C. increase the amount of oxygen
D. increase the amount of carbon dioxide
E. not affect the amount of carbon dioxide
increase the amount of oxygen
Anemia is defined by a(n) ________.
A. decrease in PO2
B. increase in PCO2
C. decrease in hemoglobin
D. decrease in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
E. decrease in the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen
decrease in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
Labored or difficult breathing is called ________.
A. hyperpnea
B. dyspnea
C. hypopnea
D. eupnea
E. apnea
dyspnea
A deficiency of oxygen in the tissues is called ________.
A. apnea
B. hypoxia
C. hypoxemia
D. hypocapnia
E. hypercapnia
hypoxia
Rapid shallow breathing is called ________.
A. tachypnea
B. apnea
C. dyspnea
D. hyperpnea
E. eupnea
tachypnea
A decrease in oxygen in the blood is called ________.
A. hypoxia
B. hypoxemia
C. anemia
D. hypocapnia
E. dysnemia
hypoxemia
Which of the following will cause a shift in the hemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve to the right?
A. increase in temperature
B. increase in plasma pH
C. increase in 2,3-DPG (2,3-diphosphoglycerate)
D. both increase in temperature and increase in 2,3-DPG (2,3-diphosphoglycerate)
E. all of these
both increase in temperature and increase in 2,3-DPG (2,3-diphosphoglycerate)
As it leaves the lung in the pulmonary vein, blood is ________ saturated with oxygen.
A. 75%
B. 90%
C. 98%
D. completely (100%)
E. supersaturated (108%)
98%
Which of the following will increase the loading of oxygen onto the hemoglobin molecule within the lungs?
A. decreased hydrogen ion concentration
B. increased PCO2
C. decreased pH
D. increased 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG)
E. increased body temperature
decreased hydrogen ion concentration
A majority of the CO2 that is transported in the blood is present ________.
A. bound to hemoglobin
B. dissolved in plasma
C. as bicarbonate (HCO3-) in plasma
D. as bicarbonate (HCO3-) in RBCs
E. bound to carbonic anhydrase
as bicarbonate (HCO3-) in plasma
The conversion of CO2 to bicarbonate in the blood occurs primarily within the ________.
A. erythrocytes
B. alveolar epithelial cells
C. capillary endothelial cells
D. leukocytes
E. plasma
erythrocytes
The conversion of CO2 to carbonic acid is a(n) ________ reaction, which allows that reaction to occur both within the lungs and active tissues.
A. dephosphorylation
B. condensation
C. phosphorylation
D. reversible
E. irreversible
reversible
The presence of bicarbonate ions in the blood has an important direct effect, aside from the transport of CO2, that involves ________.
A. stimulating the proliferation of alveolar epithelial cells
B. altering the activity of several receptors
C. altering the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen
D. maintaining acid-base balance
E. altering the activity of carbonic anhydrase
maintaining acid-base balance
In order to transport bicarbonate out of the erythrocyte while maintaining electroneutrality, a ________ molecule is transported into the erythrocyte at the same time bicarbonate moves out.
A. sodium
B. chloride
C. hydrogen
D. sulfate
E. phosphate
chloride
The Haldane effect describes the increase in the affinity of hemoglobin for CO2 in the presence of a lowered ________.
A. concentration of bicarbonate (HCO3-)
B. temperature
C. pH
D. PCO2
E. PO2
PO2
Hyperventilation will cause changes in PCO2 that are detected by the chemoreceptors which causes a(n) ________.
A. decrease in breathing rate only
B. increase in depth of breathing only
C. increase in breathing rate only
D. increase in breathing rate and depth of breathing
E. decrease in breathing rate and depth of breathing
decrease in breathing rate and depth of breathing
Where are the peripheral chemoreceptors in humans?
A. aortic bodies
B. carotid bodies
C. medulla oblongata
D. both aortic bodies and carotid bodies
E. both aortic bodies and medulla oblongata
both aortic bodies and carotid bodies
Respiratory acidosis will result from a(n) ________.
A. increase in blood CO2 concentration
B. decrease in blood CO2 concentration
C. increase in blood bicarbonate
D. decrease in blood bicarbonate
E. increase in carbon monoxide
increase in blood CO2 concentration
x

Hi!
I'm Niki!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out