Political Parties 2 Essay, Research Paper

Political PartiesHundreds of old ages ago the term political relations was unheard of, Xthe word layed scrambled among the alphabet, and the power behindXthe undeveloped word lied still. Today, political relations is a wellXknown word to us all and the power behind it has governed usXfor many centuries. Differences of sentiments in political relations haveXcreated what we know every bit political parties. The political partiesXof the United States are the oldest in the universe ; amongXDemocratic states, they may besides be the weakest. AmericanXvoters attitudes and traditions are large factors in what makesXour parties weak. A Political Party is a group that seeks to elect candidatesXto public office by giving them a party designation. XAlthough there are more than two political parties, theXDemocratic and Republican Parties, they have dominated theXpolitical system for 100s of old ages. Other parties thatXexist but, are non really familiar are the Whig Party, LibertarianXParty, Socialist Worker Party, Communist Party of the UnitedXStates of America, National Hamiltonian Party, NationalXProhibition Party, Peace and Freedom Party, and the Know-NothingXParty. + In the United States, the labels of the two major politicalX parties have ever had a comparatively strong entreaty for theXvoters. Because of that, 3rd parties and independentXcandidates have seldom had much competitory success at theXnational or even the province degree. There has barely, maybeXnever, been a strong national party organisation in this country.XThough at that place have, nevertheless, been long periods in which certainXstate, metropolis, and county constituents of the Democratic andXRepublican Parties have been organizationally powerful. Political Parties were developed because of differencesXin sentiments on topics ; each party was comprised of individualsX with similar positions. The inquiry that seems to come into mindXoften is, & # 8220 ; How do the parties truly differ? & # 8221 ; The reply isXvery composite, much depending on what facet of the party weXare looking at: their history, their policies and platforms, Xtheir leading, their rank, and their degree ofXgovernment & # 8211 ; national, province, or local. A batch of it besides dependsXon our ain position of how we see it from where we sit. During the New Deal, the difference between the DemocratsXand Republicans was clear to everyone. At one clip there wasXa great difference between all the Political Parties, but thingsXhave changed and the lines between the parties have blurred. Political Parties went through many name alterations beforeXany were concluding. Thomas Jefferson & # 8217 ; s party was known as theXDemocratic-Republican Party. By 1791, Jeffersonian RepublicansXwere emerging as an resistance political party. Although itsXleaders hesitated to utilize a name associated with the FrenchX+Revolution, the party remained in power until the election ofXJohn Quincy Adams in 1824. It returned to power with theXelection of Andrew Jackson, and shortly after became known as theXDemocratic Party ( Bender 698 ) . The Republican Party is the younger of the two major partiesXin the United States. In 1854, the Republican Party wasXorganized to oppose the extension of bondage into theXterritories. Republicans foremost captured the presidential term in 1860Xunder the leading of Abraham Lincoln. His election wasXfollowed by the Civil War, during which the Republican PartyXbecame the bulk party ( Reichley 433 ) . The Republican PartyXwas born in an effusion of protest against the Kansas-NebraskaXBill in 1852 ( 455 ) . After the transition of the Kansas-NebraskaXAct, oppositions of the step held a series of conventions thatXled to the formation of the Republican Party. By 1860, Republicans were in a strong place. The WhigXParty had disappeared, the Know-Nothing Party had faded, andXthe Democratic Party was divided over the issue of slavery.X ( Linden 69-73 ) . In 1860, a four-way presidential race broughtXvictory to the Republican campaigner. It was Abraham LincolnXwho won a bulk of the electoral ballots. However, theXRepublican triumph was a narrow sectional 1. The RepublicanXParty was the first, and therefore far the lone, 3rd party inXAmerican history to win in going one of the two majorXparties ( Binkley 173 ) . Our major parties have been expected to take on many heavyXtasks. At times in our history, they have performed admirablyX+and at times they have been found missing. Since early politicalXparties lacked the tight organisation of contemporary parties, Xcandidates were chosen by a few congressional leaders. TheyX were chosen at a party caucus. The caucus system was

successfulXuntil the 1820’s when many Americans became resentful of “KingXCaucus.” The Americans then called for a change. In the election of 1824, 3 of the 4 presidential candidatesX were chosen by state conventions or state legislatures insteadXof by caucuses (Nichols 217). Rather quickly, political partiesXbegan to hold national conventions to choose presidentialXcandidates. The delegates to these conventions did give moreXparty members a voice in choosing candidates. Parties serve as unifying factors at times: drawingXtogether the president, senators, representatives, and sometimesXeven judges behind common programs. But political parties,X have weakened by having to work through a system of fragmentedXgovernmental power. This was so we would never develop a strongXparty. Since 1954, the electorate have chosen to put DemocratsXin charge of congress and a Republican in charge of the WhiteXHouse (Burns 32). Many Americans have mixed feelings about parties. TheyXthink parties: evade the issues, fail to deliver on theirXpromises, have no new ideas, and they are sources of corruptionXand misgovernment. Parties follow public opinion rather thanXlead it. Other Americans favor political parties and take partXin it. Most Americans believe in voting for individualXcandidates, regardless of party label.x+ There are many political parties that enter candidatesXin national elections. The Democrats and Republicans seem toXbe the most common. Democrats and Republicans also hold sharplyXcontrasting images of one another. As we entered the 1990’sXDemocrats consider the Republican party to be a JohnXWayne/Rambo/tough-guy party that talks a hard line againstXcommunists and terrorists in foreign affairs. They are alsoXagainst criminals and welfare cheats. Republicans considerXthe Democratic Party to be the party of “the losers, the lameXand the lazy.” The party that will not meet the nation’sXresponsibilities in the world arena. The party that is tooXsoft toward the communists abroad. They are too tolerant ofXfringe groups at home: the feminists, the gays, andX”troublemakers” in general. Reagan’s shift, late in hisXpresidency, toward a friendlier stance toward Moscow, and Bush’sXmixed approach hardly altered these contrasting images (BurnsX236). Our nation began without political parties; today politicalXparties, though far from extinct, are about as weak as at anyXtime in our history. Some party experts fear the parties areXso weak they are mortally ill–or at least in a long decline.X They point first to the long-run impact of the progressiveXreforms early in this century. It was the reforms that robbedXparty organizations of their control. Their control of nominationXprocess by allowing masses of independents and “uniformed” votersXto enter the primaries and vote for candidates who might notXbe accepted the to party leaders. They also point to a longX+series of “reforms.” The nonpartisan elections in cities andXtowns, the staggering of national, state, and local elections.XThis made it harder for parties to influence the electionXprocess. Some parties suffer from further ills today. The riseXof television and video cassette campaigns, media, andXdirect-mail consultants, have denied parties their historicXrole. The role of educating, mobilizing, and channeling theXelectorate. In addition, partly as a result of media influence,Xthe most powerful electoral forces today are officeseeker orXoffice holder organizations. Not the party organizations. XOfficeseekers are supported by money and media. They organizeXtheir personal followings to win nominations while the partyXleaders are supposed to stand by nuetrally. If they win office,Xthey are far more responsive to their personal followings thanXto the party leadership. The truth of the matter is, the two-party system in the UnitedXStates does not offer voters a meaningful choice. SomeXpoliticians and scholars, both Republican and Democrat, areXmore intrested in party renewal than party reform. In theirXview or at least in the view, of the “party pessimistes”, theXparty system needs to be strengthened, not reformed. ThoseXthat fortify the party as an organization would nurse both theXelephant and the donkey back to health and vitality before theyXwould teach either animal how to improve its ways. xEveryone has their own opinions about political partiesX+and how they should be run. There have been many changes overX the years since political parties started to develope. AlthoughXsome may agree with them and some may not, but this is howXpolitical parties operate


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