Locke was born in the small town of Wrington. Somerset. on August 29. 1632. He was educated at the University of Oxford and lectured on Greek. rhetoric. and moral doctrine at Oxford from 1661 to 1664. In 1667 Locke began his association with the English solon Anthony Ashley Cooper. 1st earl of Shaftesbury. to whom Locke was friend. advisor. and physician. Shaftesbury secured for Locke a series of minor authorities assignments. In 1669. in one of his official capacities. In 1675. after the broad Shaftesbury lost is power. Locke went to France.
In 1679 he returned to England. but in position of his resistance to the Roman Catholicism favored by the English monarchy at that clip. he shortly found it expedient to return to France. From 1683 to 1688 he lived in Holland. and following the alleged Glorious Revolution of 1688 and the Restoration of Protestantism to prefer. Locke returned one time more to England. The new male monarch. William III. appointed Locke to the Board of Trade in 1696. a place from which he resigned because of sick wellness in 1700. He died in Oates on October 28. 1704. Empiricism
Locke’s empiricist philosophy emphasizes the importance of the experience of the senses in chase of cognition instead than guess or logical thinking. The empiricist philosophy was foremost developed by the English philosopher sir Francis Bacon early in the seventeenth century. but Locke organized his thoughts in an article in 1690 called Essay Concerning Human Understanding. He regarded the head of a individual at birth as a tabula rasa. a clean slate upon which experience brings cognition. and did non believe in intuition or theories of inherent aptitude. Locke besides held that all individuals are born good. independent. and equal.
Political Theories In his work Two Treatises of Government. written in 1690. John Locke attacked the theory of godly right of male monarchs and the nature of the province. He besides believed in spiritual freedom and in the separation of church and province. In Two Treatises of Government he argued that the power did and should non be within the province but within the people. He continued to state that the province is “supreme. ” but merely if it is bound by what he called “natural” jurisprudence. Natural Law: Locke was non the first theoretician to come up with natural jurisprudence. in fact the thought was originated by ancient Greeks’ .
Similar to Greeks. Locke argued that worlds ( in the province of nature ) are free and equal. He stated that when worlds enter society they surrender merely the rights that are necessary for their security and for the common good. He believed that each person has cardinal rights drawn from what is called the “natural jurisprudence. ” Many of Locke’s political thoughts. such as natural rights. belongings rights. the responsibility of the authorities to protect those rights. and the regulation of the bulk. were subsequently incorporated in the U. S. Constitution. Besides. his natural-rights theory provided a philosophical footing for both the American and Gallic revolutions.
Locke farther preached that revolution was non merely a right but frequently an duty. Locke besides advocated a system of cheques and balances in authorities. This thought meant to consist three subdivisions. of which the legislative is more powerful than the executive or the judicial. Locke’s influence in modern doctrine has been profound and. with his application of empirical analysis to moralss. political relations. and faith. he remains one of the most of import and controversial philosophers of all clip. Among his other plants are Some Ideas Refering Education ( 1693 ) and The Reasonableness of Christianity ( 1695 ) .