The forecasting time horizon that would typically be easiest to predict for would be the
A forecast that projects a company’s sales is a(n)
Quantitative methods of forecasting include
The method that considers several variables that are related to the variable being predicted is
The forecasting model that is based upon salesperson’s estimates of expected sales is
sales force composite
Decomposing a time series refers to breaking down past data into the components of
trends, cycles, seasonal and random variations
With regard to a regression-based forecast, the standard error of the estimate gives a measure of
the variability around the regression line
When using exponential smoothing, the smoothing constant
can be determined using MAD
A tracking signal
must be either 1, 0, or -1 for the first predicted value
If demand is 106 during January, 120 in February, 134 in March, and 142 in April, what is the 3-month simple moving average for May?
Given last period’s forecast of 65, and last period’s demand of 62, what is the simple exponential smoothing forecast with an alpha of 0.4 for the next period?
A forecasting technique consistently produces a negative tracking signal. This means that
the forecast technique consistently over predicts
A regression model is used to forecast sales based on advertising dollars spent. The regression line is y=500+35x and the coefficient of determination is .90. Which is the best statement about this forecasting model?
The correlation between sales and advertising is positive
Linear regression is most similar to
the trend projection method of forecasting
Time series patterns that repeat themselves after a period of days or weeks are called
Which of the following is NOT a time-series model?
Listing products in descending order of their individual dollar contribution to the firm is called
A route sheet
lists the operations necessary to produce the component.
An assembly chart is a(n)
schematic showing how the product is assembled.
Self-checkout at a grocery store is an example of
customer participation in service delivery
Which of the following is characteristic of the maturity phase
Competitors are well established
When ordering a new zagflatz, customers must choose the style of three major components, each of which has about ten variations. This is an example of:
Which of the following is NOT a concept of green manufacturing?
Make products so that small variations in production do not adversely affect the product.
Which of the following is an external product development strategy?
Which of the following is an internal product development strategy?
migration of existing products
There is a 0.7 probability of experiencing an increase in demand and a 0.3 probability of a decrease. If a company redesigns an existing product, they will gain $400,000 if there is a demand increase and $100,000 if demand falls. If the company designs a new product, they will gain $300,000 if demand increases and $200,000 if demand falls. If the company does nothing, they will not increase revenue at all. Which statement below is best?
The company should redesign the existing product.
In the service industry, the crucial moment that exemplifies, enhances, or detracts from the customer’s expectations is called
the moment of truth.
An umbrella of software programs that may include CAD/CAM, DFMA, product routing, maintenance, and other product concerns is called
product lifecycle management software
When a customer places a request for a product or service with a producer
a work order is created
Product design may be accomplished more quickly through the use of cross-functional teams that work on various aspects of the design at the same time. This approach is known as
A house of quality would depict the strength of relationship between which two items?
The customer’s desire for a durable wallet and the company’s choice of material for the walle
Which type of control chart should be used when it is possible to have more than one mistake per item?
One type of control chart for attributes is a
C-charts are based on the
If a sample of parts is measured and the mean of the sample measurements is outside the control limits
the process is out of control and the cause can be established.
means that the natural variation of the process must be small enough to produce products that meet the standard.
The object of a statistical process control (SPC) system is to
provide a signal when assignable variations are present.
is used to indicate gains or losses in uniformity.
In acceptance sampling, the producer’s risk is the risk of having a
good lot rejected.
Twenty samples of size 5 are taken from a stable process. The average means of the sample means is 42.5, and the average range of the samples is 1.5. What is the UCL for the X-bar chart? *NOTE* Table S6.1, Factors for Computing Control Chart Limits, is available in the Hint portion of this question.
Twenty samples of size 5 are taken from a stable process. The average means of the sample means is 42.5, and the average range of the samples is 1.5. What is the UCL for the R-chart? *NOTE* Table S6.1, Factors for Computing Control Chart Limits, is available in the Hint portion of this question.
Twenty samples of size 100 are taken. The total number of defective items is 75. What is the UCL of the 3-sigma (z=3) p-chart?
A customer service hotline has received an average of 7 complaints a day for the last 25 days. What type of control chart should be used to monitor this hotline?
For the last 30 days, the number of mistakes on the daily report has averaged 4.5. What would the UCL be if a 3-sigma c-chart was constructed?
A bottling company runs a filling process that should fill bottles with 12 plus or minus 0.04 ounces. A capability study reveals that the process mean is 12 ounces and the standard deviation is 0.01 ounces. What is the capability of the bottling process?
A manufacturing engineer is designing a process that must be able to produce a shaft with a diameter of 2.5 cm plus or minus 0.01 cm. If the process capability must be 1.5, what is the maximum process standard deviation?
Which is the best statement regarding an operating characteristic curve?
As the AQL decreases, the producer’s risk also decreases.
A box of 1000 parts is subjected to an acceptance sampling plan that examines only 50 parts. The actual fraction defective in the box is 0.02 and the sampling plan has a 0.53 probability of accepting a box of this quality. What is the average outgoing quality for this scenario?
A fundamental weakness of associative forecasting methods is that we must first provide a forecast of the value of the independent variable, and then apply that value in the forecast of the dependent variable.
Exponential smoothing is an example of an associative model.
When the data are highly variable, the forecaster should choose a high value of alpha if exponential smoothing is to be used.
No single forecast methodology is appropriate under all conditions.
The alpha that generates the lowest mean absolute deviation (MAD) is the best choice.
A weighted moving average is the only moving average technique that responds to trends.
Unfortunately, regression analysis can only be used to develop a forecast based upon a single independent variable.
The naive approach to forecasting is a qualitative model.
A cycle represents a longer period of time than a season.
The larger the n in a moving average forecast, the more sensitive it is to real changes in the data
If forecasting model A has a higher MSE than forecasting model B, then model A is more accurate than model B.
The slope in a trend projection equation represents the value of the dependent variable when time is equivalent to zero.
Due to a typo, Jim uses a linear trend equation with a value for b of 25 instead of the value 15 that should be used. The tracking signal computed on a series of forecasts made using this model will be positive.
A robust design is a product design such that small variations in production or assembly do not adversely affect the product.
During the maturity stage of the product life cycle, the product is still being “fine-tuned.”
Migration of existing products is an example of an external product development strategy.
One factor influencing market opportunities is political/legal change.
The house of quality is a graphical technique for defining the relationship between customer desires and product.
Time-based competition involves rapidly developing products and moving them to market.
Using less material is one example of green manufacturing.
The cash flow graph is almost identical to the product life cycle graph.
A product that has been developed with robust design principles is insensitive to variations in the production process.
Waste minimization represents ethical behavior on the part of the manufacturer.
Increasing the standardization of components tends to make products more difficult to manufacture because a standard component must fit many different uses.
One way for a company to rapidly develop a new product is to buy a firm that has already developed one.
Cause-and-effect diagrams are a schematic technique used to discover possible locations of quality problems.
Company reputation is one reason quality is important.
Employee empowerment means involving employees in every step of the production process.
Inspection must be conducted at the point of customer contract.
ISO 14000 provides an international standard for quality management.
ISO 9000 is the only quality standard with international recognition.
Kaizen is the Japanese word for the ongoing process of incremental improvement.
One cost of quality is internal failure costs.
TQM refers to a quality emphasis that encompasses the entire organization.
A Green Belt in a Six Sigma program spends more time on his normal job duties than a Master Black Belt does.
Joseph Juran is famous for his 14 points for implementing quality improvement.
Benchmarking involves selecting a target at which to shoot and measuring your performance against it.
Taguchi’s quality loss function says that a product is OK as long as its performance or measurement falls in between an upper tolerance limit and a lower tolerance limit.
The personal component of services is more difficult to measure than the quality of the tangible component.
The service operations manager must accept the fact that the customer’s perception of service quality depends in part on their before-service expectation.
A process is said to be operating in statistical control when the only natural variation is present.
When the process average is under control, the process dispersion is also under control.
The central limit theorem states that regardless of the distribution of all parts (or services), the distribution of x-bars will tend to follow a normal curve as the number of samples increases.
Control charts for variables classify items as defective or not defective.
One popular measure of process capability is Cpk.
Acceptance sampling is a form of testing that involves taking random samples of lots or batches of products and comparing them against predetermined standards.
For a process exhibiting only natural variation, 95% of the sample averages will fall within three standard deviations of the sampling distribution.
When the process fraction defective is low, the p-chart may have a negative lower control limit.
Six sigma capability means that the process specifications are six standard deviations wide.
If the producer’s risk increases, then the consumer’s risk decreases.
The average outgoing quality limit (AOQL) tells the producer the maximum fraction defective possible for a sampling plan
If a process is in control, then all of the output produced is acceptable for use.