Sociology is a survey of the development. construction. and operation of human society. Sociology besides surveies the sophisticated connexion between human behaviour and single life alterations. Sociology examines by the manner of societal construction such as assorted societal establishments that affect human attitudes. organisations and societal classs. However. in the topic of Sociology of Work. it has combined sociology with work to better the human behaviour in the organisation. Harmonizing to Grint ( 2005 ) . “Work occupies a significant proportion of most people’s lives and has frequently been taken as a symbol of personal value” . He perceived that work will impact an activity that transforms nature which could be undertaken in societal circumstance. However. power is the chief subject to discourse in this essay.
Power is the major account to the survey of societal society. Harmonizing to J. G. March ( 1966 cited in Shafritz. Ott & A ; Jang. 2005 ) . it is non even related to organisation and besides among the community of determination devising. concern behaviour. and little treatment. Meanwhile. power is non merely used in the organisation but theoretical able to use in the other fortunes. However. the treatment in this essay will be critically measure the power that is used by those top degree of the organisation to command and possess to those lower degree in the hierarchy. Coercive power is one of the powers that will be discussed in the statement. follow by societal power and besides legitimate power. This essay will include some of the theories by Weber and Marx to back up the treatment of power.
Bureaucracy means the top of the direction holds the coordination and ownership of the hierarchy and who devised a system that includes the regulation and ordinance to curtail the lower degree subsidiary in order to accomplish organisation ends. ( Grint 2005 ) . In the theory of Bureaucracy by Max Weber. he perceived that there are possess and control towards the lower degree subsidiary by the top in the organisation. Weber has conceptualized of authorization on bureaucratism by the sense of legitimate power and it will be the centre of the organization’s processes. Weber besides emphasizes rationalisation procedure that respect to work organisation and besides able to better development of technological and scientific thought. This procedure would remind the employees to utilize the most appropriate manner to accomplish undertaking base on the processs and the formalize functions. Besides. harmonizing to Shafritz. Ott & A ; Jang ( 2005 ) . “The rule of office hierarchy and the degree of ranked authorization mean a steadfastly ordered system of ace and sub-ordination in which there is a supervising of the lower office by the higher ones” .
It means that the hierarchy and the degree of an organisation had their ain system of authorization to supervision the employees by the top of the direction. Capitalism is devised by a German philosopher named Karl Marx. It is related to the industrial sociology and labour procedure. Marx had mentioned that industrial society had to be compared with agricultural society and the success of human freedom finally. but the chief ground of the societal formation was merely caused by the capitalist form and non the industrial procedure. Marx had emphasized that capitalist economy is more of import than industrialism because it is the lone capitalist economy. He besides argued that “human species is different from all other carnal species. non because of its consciousness but because it entirely produces its ain agencies of subsistence” ( Grint 2005 ) .
On the other manus. disaffection and development still an of import portion of the capitalist economy. The impact on Marx’s theory in the modern industrial had purely been usage in the labour procedure. This impact had developed a position with the employment dealingss and employee behaviour in the work design and besides the organisation. Alienation is the relationship between human look and labour alterations. and non utilizing labour to carry through their demands. Marx besides stated that worker are alienates from their labour because it is no longer belong to the worker. but instead to the capitalist. In the system of capitalist. the minority owns the production. where the labour power is merely owned by bulk ( Grint. 2005 ) . Therefore. the net income of production is through a trade good market and this is called disaffection of production.
Exploitation is a societal relation on which capitalist economy is built. Worker pays less of rewards than what they produce. It means that the worker gets a 10 dollars wages a twenty-four hours. he/she must bring forth more than 10 dollars a twenty-four hours worth of value. As we know. power largely uses to command the hierarchy by the top of the direction in an organisation. Power in an organisation has truly large accomplishment. whoever holding the higher place in the organisation will obtain the ownership authorization to command the full organisation. Harmonizing to Giddens ( 1979 cited in Grint 2005 ) . he argued that excessively many power which had been used at the same clip would do the least of the consequence finally. It means that if the organisation had excessively many of work relationship. it would be more complicated and unmanageable by the direction.
However. coercive power is one of the powers that ever uses by an organisation. This power by and large uses in some “low trust” organisation to possess their worker and employees. Due to that. coercive power is frequently used by the top degree to direct control the lower 1s. Coercive power tends to be extremely prescribed processs which the workers are ordered to follow measure by measure of the occupation. Workers are in close supervising and under surveillance by the top degree along the on the job period. Therefore. low committedness and low trust civilization would be integrated into the coercive power regulated organisation. Not even that. a tightly bureaucratic construction and civilization will inculcate in this coercive organisation. Bureaucracy direction is somewhat similar to coercive powers which both are utilizing force and impersonal forces to modulate the organisation. Furthermore. the internalisation of an organisation would be affected straight to the public presentation and productiveness of an organisation. In other words. societal power means internalisation ; fundamentally it is a cardinal component in analysing human society and the manner it is organized.
Based on organisation point of position. the strength of societal power is defined as the possible ability of A to act upon to B in the organisation. Harmonizing to French and Raven ( 1959 cited in Shafritz. Ott & A ; Jang. 2005 ) . power of a individual is mensurable by the influence ability although he may take to utilize lesser than it. Due to that. internalisation and societal power are largely the same. they are both survey about procedure of credence of a set of norms and values established by people or group which are influential to the person through the procedure of socialisation. However. legitimate powers occur when a leader is being selected to an authorization place. It means that the leader with legitimate power has the authorization to publish order which they in bend have an duty to accept. Harmonizing to French and Raven ( 1959 cited in Shafritz. Ott & A ; Jang. 2005 ) . they said that the guess and probe about societal specified behaviour has been considerable. which is peculiarly prescribed to give a place.
Peoples with legitimate power are normally involved in certain rubric or place. The impact of this legitimate power could impact the whole organisation. At the higher hierarchy direction individual. such as director and Chief Executive Officer ( CEO ) . they are the chief individual who makes determination in the whole organisation. In term of leading. the top direction would utilize legitimate power to coerce the employee to make anything they want and complete the undertaking. But. the down-line employees could reject the forces by their up-line director. Harmonizing to Linton ( 1945 cited in Shafritz. Ott & A ; Jang. 2005 ) . the differences of the group norm are pursuant from whether they are alternate. civilization and fortes. Equally far as concerned. Marx and Weber both have interpret the same significance related to enforcement in the organisation. In the above treatment. Weber has conceptualized of authorization on bureaucratism by the sense of legitimate power.
Which is means bureaucratism and legitimate power are similar construct of direction manner for a organisation. He besides devised that there are possess and control towards the lower degree subsidiary by the top in the organisation. Legitimate power used by some of the organisation to modulate their employee. The organisation construction and public presentation will be better and besides increase productiveness. In a legitimate organisation. the top direction has the authorization to command the lower 1s. However. coercive power besides same as the legitimate power usage manage the hierarchy in an organisation. Coercive power is suited to utilize in industrial base organisation to oversee the worker since there is “low trust” construction in the organisation. Both of these powers are somewhat similar to bureaucracy direction that uses to rule the lower degree employees in an organisation.
For illustration. Just in Time system ( JIT ) able to better behaviour of the worker and power capacity. JIT is chiefly usage by industrial sector in Japan which is green goods merely in clip for them to utilize. JIT is a simple production method for fabrication. It is to bring forth and present the merchandise at once it is finished to be sold which is besides called merely in clip to be sold. Last. there is another power relate to hierarchy direction from top to lower degree. Social power as we know as internalisation of an organisation. it is a survey of someone’s influential to single through the procedure of socialisation. Social power is much more of import for the hierarchy direction
. This power would be need more skill and cognition when usage to use on employees. Top direction demand to cognize how to act upon the lower 1s to alter their mentality. The worker will execute better and efficaciousness when their mentality is merely toward the organisation. Entire Quality Management ( TQM ) . the system that use in many organisation since 1980s. In this instance survey of TQM. they had inquiry toward power that to be capableness of single or group. They research on the construction and inter-personal features within the bank division and subdivisions that under same organisation. From analysis of this instance survey. the power relation non merely evident in societal power but besides in coercive and political power.
In decision. the power that discuss above which usage to better hierarchy direction and that able to develop the human behaviour in the organisation. Power is the major account to analyze if societal society. The three powers that had discussed in the above paragraph include coercive. legitimate and societal power. All of these powers have enough usage to manage the hierarchy direction in the organisation. However. coercive and legitimate power is more toward impersonal and forces manner of direction. Top direction can utilize societal power to act upon their employees to work and alter their head of believing in term any fondness in the organisation.