All metal ions in solution are ‘associated’ with H2O. The H2O molecules can besides be weakly bonded or more strongly as a ligand to organize a complex ion. and these can besides show in solid ‘hydrated’ salts of crystallisation. E. g Copper ( II ) nitrate ( Cu ( NO3 ) 2. 3H2O ) .

A complex ion has a metal ion at its Centre with a figure of other molecules or ions environing it. These can be considered to be attached to the cardinal ion by coordinate ( dative covalent ) bonds. The molecules or ions environing the cardinal metal ion are called ligands. Simple ligands include H2O. ammonium hydroxide. acetyl propanone and chloride ions. Ligand has active lone brace of negatrons in the outer energy degree. These are used to organize co-ordinate bonds with the metal ion. All ligands are solitary brace givers. In other words. all ligands map as Lewis bases.

Lewis acid-base theory reminders:
A base is an negatron brace giver and an acid is an negatron brace acceptor. Ligands like H2O. can donate a brace of non-bonding negatrons ( lone brace ) into a vacant orbital of a cardinal metal ion and so dative covalent ( co-ordinate ) bonds hold a complex together. The cardinal metal ion with vacant adhering orbitals can move as a Lewis acid. Ligands act as Lewis bases by negatron brace contribution to organize the metal-ligand bond.

Bronsted-Lowry acid-base theory reminders ( basically a sub-set of Lewis Theory ) A base is a proton acceptor.
This is via an negatron lone brace on the base ( a Lewis base is a lone brace giver ) . e. g. NH3. HCO3- . OH- etc.
An acid is proton giver.
This involves a heterolytic breakage of an X-H bond ( a Lewis acid is an negatron brace acceptor ) . e. g. HCl. HCO3- . H2SO4. CH3COOH etc.
• Many hexa-aqa complex ions can undergo acid-base reactions with H2O to bring forth solutions of pH less than 7. o Usually group 2. 3 and passage metal ions.



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o The positive cardinal metal ion polarises a H2O molecule. let go ofing a proton. H+ . O In the deprotonation reaction the proton transportations to H2O and the overall charge on the complex falls by 1 unit since the H2O – H+ = OH- . i. e. one of the ligands is now a hydrated oxide ion.

• e. g. for hexaaquametal ( II ) ions …
• [ M ( H2O ) 6 ] 2+ ( aq ) + H2O ( cubic decimeter ) [ pic ] [ M ( H2O ) 5 ( OH ) ] + ( aq ) + H3O+ ( aq )
O e. g. when M = Mn. Fe. Co. Ni. Cu. Mg etc. gives a really weak acerb solutions with pH’s merely less than 7 • A complex is formed by the combination of a cardinal metal ion surrounded by. and bonded to. impersonal molecules or ions moving as ‘ligands’ ( spots stuck on or extremities ) . • A ligand is an atom. ion or molecule which can move as an negatron brace giver ( Lewis base ) and normally forms a dative covalent or ‘co-ordinate’ bond with the cardinal metal ion. o The lone brace contribution is normally from an O. N or halogen atom of the ligand in this covalent co-ordinate bonding. o The cardinal metal ion acts as a Lewis Acid. that is. an negatron brace acceptor from the ligand by manner of vacant 3d. 4s. 4p and even 4d orbitals for the 3d-block passage elements. o The ligand acts as a Lewis Base. that is. an negatron brace giver e. g. impersonal ligands like H2O: ( H2O. greenish blue in complex name ) or: NH3 ( ammonium hydroxide. ammine in complex name ) and negatively charged ligands like: OH- ( hydrated oxide. hydroxo in complex name ) . Cl- ( chloride ion. chloro in complex name ) and: CN- ( cyanide ion. cyano in complex name ) .

Materials: Cu ( II ) nitrate. H2O. ammonia solution. acetylacetone

Apparatus: 100ml beaker. glass rod. dropper. vacuity suction

Procedures:

1 ) 6g of Cu ( II ) nitrate is dissolved on 60cm? of H2O. 2 ) The solution of 1:1 ammonia solution is added easy by stirring until the precipitate foremost formed is dissolved. 3 ) The solution is stirred continuously and 6cm? of ethanoyl group propanone added bead wise. 4 ) The rough merchandise is filtered off by utilizing suction filtration. 5 ) The merchandise is washed good with H2O and drained exhaustively. 6 ) The merchandise is dried in the oven.

7 ) Weight of the merchandise is recorded and the per centum output % is calculated.

Data/Results:

Mass of Cu ( II ) nitrate = 6. 013g
Mass of beaker=52. 9072g

Mass of beaker + merchandise after
drying in oven = 54. 2723g

Mass of petroleum merchandise after = 54. 2723-52. 9072
drying in oven =1. 3651g

Calculations:

Mass of Cu ( II ) nitrate used = 6. 013g
Mass of rough merchandise = 1. 3651g

Theoretical output

Given molar mass of Cu ( II ) nitrate = 241

Num of moles of Cu ( II ) nitrate = 6. 013
241
= 0. 0249 moles
Assume figure of moles is equals figure of moles of rough merchandise = 0. 0249
moles



Given that molar mass of petroleum product= 261.

Theoretical output mass = 0. 0249 moles ? 261
= 6. 4989g

Percentage output of merchandise = Mass of rough merchandise ? 100 %
Theoretical mass
= 1. 3651g ? 100 %
6. 4989
= 21. 0050 %



Discussion:

Copper ( II ) Nitrate. ( Cu ( NO3 ) 2 is an inorganic compound that forms a bluish crystalline solid. Anhydrous Cu nitrate signifiers deep bluish green crystals and sublimes in a vacuity at 150-200 °C. Copper nitrate besides occurs as five different hydrates. the most common 1s being the trihydrate and hexahydrate. . Hydrated signifiers of Cu nitrate. besides bluish.

Copper ( II ) nitrate ( Cu ( NO3 ) 2. 3H2O ) is dissolved in H2O and Cu ( H2O ) 6 ] 2+ ( aq ) ions are formed.

Small sum of ammonium hydroxide is added to Cu ( H2O ) 6 ] 2+ ( aq ) to organize Cu ( H2O ) 4 ( OH ) 2 ] ( aq ) ions. . Chemical reactions of the hexaaqua ions with ammonia solution are complicated by the fact that the ammonium hydroxide can hold two rather different maps. Small sum of ammonaia can move as a base ( in the Bronsted-Lowry sense ) . But it is besides a possible ligand which can replace H2O molecules around the cardinal metal ion if surplus of ammonium hydroxide is added. When it acts as a ligand. it is moving as a Lewis base.

In our experiment. we are utilizing acetyl acetone as the ligand. The acetylacetonate anion. acac- . signifiers complexes with many passage metal ions. A general method of synthesis is to respond the metal ion with acetylacetone in the presence of a base ( B ) :

Mz + z ( acacH ) M ( acac ) omega +z BH+

which assists the remotion of a proton from acetylacetone and switch the equilibrium in favor of the composite. Both O atoms bind to the metal to organize a 6-membered chelate ring. In some instances the chelate consequence is so strong that no added base is needed to organize the composite. Since the metal complex carries no electrical charge. it is soluble in non-polar organic dissolvers.

Questions

1 ) Pull the construction of the composite.

2 ) Describe the construction by adverting the ligating atoms of the ligand and its geometry. Discourse the synthesis of the composite.

Acetyl acetonate is the ligand. It is a colourless liquid that is a precursor to acetylacetonate ( acac ) . a common bidentate ligand. The acetylacetonate anion. acac- . signifiers complexes with many passage metal ions. Bidentate ligands have two lone braces. both of which can bond to the cardinal metal ion. CH3-C ( O ) -CH2-C ( O ) -CH3

Acetylacetonate bonds through both solitary paor of O.
Cu ( acac ) 2 is alone among the metal composites of acetylacetanato. It has square two-dimensional monomeric Cu ( II ) complex form. The acetylacetonate anion. acac- . signifiers complexes with many passage metal ions. A general method of synthesis is to respond the metal ion with acetylacetone in the presence of a base ( B ) . which assists the remotion of a proton from acetylacetone and switch the equilibrium in favor of the composite. Both O atoms bind to the metal to organize a 6-membered chelate ring. In some instances the chelate consequence is so strong that no added base is needed to organize the composite. Since the metal complex carries no electrical charge. it is soluble in non-polar organic dissolvers.

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