Society has attempted to decode what is existent. The thought of what is existent and what is understood has been a job for societies. The different societies and civilizations believed in other existences such as different God’s. Grecian society was a leader in idolizing and believing in God’s that perceived to be existent in their heads and civilization. Idolizing these God’s begun to hold other’s inquiry if these God’s were existent and gave birth to incredulity. The intent of this paper is to analyze the chief issues related to Epistemology. Philosophy has many subdivisions but the one subdivision concerned with the theory of cognition is Epistemology.
Epistemology asks inquiries that relate to the range. beginning. and nature of cognition. The truth. belief. and justification of cognition have been up for argument in the survey of Epistemology. Plato offered the first theory of cognition in his philosophical surveies ( Moore & A ; Bruder. 2011. pg. 41 ) . Epistemology asks the inquiry how does one cognize what he knows. The beginnings of cognition people gather is considered Epistemology as 1 who has read and researched and can by concluding attain what is fact or fiction. The method used to be certain are considered deductive logical thinking.
Peoples who use this method of concluding would be considered a positivist. Positivists ( Descartes. Spinoza. and Leibniz ) believe they know things for certain even though they may hold ne’er experienced themselves. My experience in the military had many positivists. They believed if we followed the manual on warfare we would be successful although they may hold ne’er experienced combat firsthand. Writers of the manual frequently used others experience to author the manual but each brush with the enemy may necessitate a different action. The antonym of a positivist is being an empiricist.
Empiricists ( Aristotle. Epicurus. and Aquinas ) deny that there is any cognition that does non stem from centripetal experience ( Moore & A ; Bruder. 2011. pg. 117 ) . The reading is that thoughts come from experience such as. perceptual experiences and emotions. Empiricists believed that if we had no experience we would hold no cognition. There is an stating that says “Experience is the Best Teacher. ” The inquiry that should be asked on the premiss of epistemology. Does see do the individual knowing of his or her errors? Will the individual repeat their error if he or she have cognition of his or her experience.
Experience has to be relevant as people have improved and advanced in ideas. creativeness. and personal betterments. Incredulity attains that true cognition is unsure or impossible ( Moore & A ; Bruder. 2011. pg. 80 ) . The Sophists were sceptics of the Grecian doctrine. The Sophists believed that any thought was every bit valid as the following ( Moore & A ; Bruder. 2011. pg. 42 ) . St. Augustine was a skeptic and believed that nil can be known. Skeptics besides suspend judgement in all affairs. Skeptics do non deny or suspend judgement about certain things such as God or history ( Moore & A ; Bruder. 2011. pg. 80 ) .
Skeptics can non reason the instance of whether there is a God because the uncertainness that they can non see. experience. or hear the higher being. Skeptics use centripetal projection to achieve if something is certain and that in itself makes it factual. The illustration of waking tomorrow and doing programs is a skeptic’s illustration of uncertainness. Waking tomorrow is non guaranteed but populating in the present minute is certain. Mention Moore. B. N. . & A ; Bruder. K. ( 2011 ) . Doctrine: The power of thoughts ( 8th ed. ) . New York. New york: McGraw-Hill.