All of the following are Sternberg’s components of love EXCEPT ________________.

A) intimacy
B) commitment
C) loyalty
D) passion

C. Loyalty
What term do psychologists use to describe our liking of other people?

A) interpersonal attraction
B) love
C) appeal
D) cognitive dissonance

A. Interpersonal attraction
In the Stanley Milgram obedience experiment, the teachers were given a “sample shock” of _______ volts.

A) 25
B) 30
C) 45
D) 10

C. 45
According to the research on implicit personality theory, who among the following is most likely to think that personality is a changeable thing?

A) Tony, an Italian American born in New York
B) Yonghang, a Chinese American born in Hong Kong
C) Shireese, an African American born in New Jersey
D) Mark, an Irish American born in Kansas

B. Yonghang, a Chinese American born in Hong Kong
Which of the following was a finding in the classic study by Festinger and Carlsmith (1959)?

A) Those who got $1 to perform a boring task said the task was more interesting than did those who got $20.
B) Women performed the tasks for less money than men.
C) Those who got $20 to perform a boring task said the task was more interesting than did those who got $1.
D) Paid groups said the task was less boring than did nonpaid groups.

A. Those who got $1 to perform a boring task said the task was more interesting that did those who got $20
A consultant was telling newly hired salespeople about techniques they can use to increase sales. At one point he was talking about increasing compliance by creating a sense of obligation. Because one of the last classes you took before you graduated was Social Psychology, you recognize the concept as ________________.

A) foot-in-the-door effect
B) the norm of reciprocity
C) returning a favor
D) indebtedness

B. The norm of reciprocity
Which of the following statements supports the idea of social identity?

A) My name is Antonio and I belong to the best fraternity on campus.
B) My name is Dan and I play the trumpet.
C) My name is Mario and I like tuna fish.
D) I am Sam and I own a car.

A. My name is Antonio and I belong to the best fraternity on campus
What term is used to describe compliance with an initial small request followed by compliance with a larger request?

A) polarization phenomenon
B) risky shift
C) door-in-the-face effect
D) foot-in-the-door effect

D. Foot-in-the-door effect
Dr. Cirillo divided her first-period class into two groups. One group had to read 20 pages in a boring psychology text but would get 2 extra points on the next test. The other group also read 20 pages but were given 25 points added to the next test. The class members were then asked to tell the second-period class how interesting the book was. According to the results of the Festinger and Carlsmith study, what predictions could one make about the remarks of the first-period class?

A) The first-period class would say the pages were interesting but the second-period class would say the pages were boring.
B) The first-period class would say the pages were boring but the second-period class would not.
C) Both groups would say the pages were interesting.
D) Both groups would say the pages were boring.

A. The fist period class would say the pages were interesting but the second-period class would say the pages were boring
Which of the following illustrates the power of complementary traits?

A) Two tennis players become good friends.
B) A girl and a boy who both like jogging fall in love.
C) A girl marries the boy next door.
D) A dominant woman marries a submissive man.

D. A dominant woman marries a submissive man
Social comparison occurs when _______________.

A) two people order food in a restaurant
B) two people enter a beauty contest
C) playing solitaire
D) someone asks you to give them directions

B. Two people enter a beauty contest
Which statement is correct concerning cross-cultural research on the fundamental attribution error?

A) Fundamental attribution error appears to be universal.
B) Most cultures attribute behavior to dispositional causes.
C) Eastern cultures like Japan seem to make more situational attributions than Western cultures such as the United States.
D) Western cultures seem to make more situational attributions than Eastern cultures.

C. Eastern cultures like Japan seem to make more situational attributions that Western cultures such as the United States
You observe a person at the grocery store get angry and yell at the cashier. Which of these attributions illustrates the fundamental attribution error?

A) the yeller is a mean, angry person
B) the cashier is overworked
C) the yeller has had a bad day
D) the cashier has had a bad day

A. The yeller is a mean, angry person
A bank loan officer thinks people who speak with an accent are lazy; consequently, he refuses to grant them loans. The loan officer’s belief is an example of _____ . His refusal to grant them loans is an example of _____.

A) attribution; stereotyping
B) discrimination; prejudice
C) prejudice; discrimination
D) stereotyping; attribution

C. Prejudic; discrimination
A response, either positive or negative, toward a certain person, idea, object, or situation is called _____________.

A) conformity
B) an attitude
C) bystander apathy
D) groupthink

B. An attitude
All of the following terms are used in social identity theory EXCEPT _______________.

A) control group
B) identification
C) in-group
D) social comparison

A. Control group
There is currently a long history of fighting between the Israelis and Palestinians, and many attempts to resolve these conflicts have failed. According to the ____________ theory, the prejudice and discrimination that exists between the two groups will continue to rise as the conflict over limited land in Israel continues.

A) social diffusion
B) realistic conflict
C) genesis of bias
D) prosocial inhibition

B. Realistic conflict
A college instructor’s schedule has her teaching an honors section of psychology. Halfway through the semester, she is told that her class was NOT an honors section after all. She responds, “This is the best class I have ever taught and the grades prove it.” What concept might a social psychologist use to explain the high grades this class obtained and the teacher’s high opinion of the class?

A) collectivism
B) self-fulfilling prophecy
C) subject bias
D) covert sensitization

B. Self-fulfilling prophecy
When members of a group give priority to the cohesiveness of the group over the facts of a situation, they are engaging in what social psychologists call _____.

A) solidarity think
B) consumerism
C) groupthink
D) mass thought

C. Groupthink
Recent research using the Asch paradigm has found less conformity in the United States than the original study found in the 1950s. The reason for this decrease in conformity may be that _____.

A) the nature of the people in the 1950s seemed to be more conforming
B) people today watch more television
C) people in the 1950s had less money
D) people today are more obedient

A. The nature of the people in the 1950s seemed to be more conforming
Attitude formation is the result of a number of influences. What they have in common is that they are all forms of ________________.

A) learning
B) intuition
C) conformity
D) reinforcement

A. Learning
In a crowded mall parking lot, dozens of people hear a female voice yell, “He’s killing me!” Yet no one calls the police. What is the reason for the lack of action, according to Darley and Latane?

A) Most people “do not want to become involved.”
B) Diffusion of responsibility is the reason most people do not respond.
C) The fight-or-flight response is not activated when others are in danger.
D) People are too busy to respond.

B. Diffusion of responsibility is the reason most people do not respond
All of the following are ways to reduce prejudice EXCEPT ______________.

A) equal status contact
B) intergroup contact
C) scapegoating
D) mutual interdependence

C. Scapegoating
A dealer persuades a customer to buy a new car by reducing the price to well below that of his competitors. Once the customer has agreed to buy the car, the terms of the sale are shifted by lowering the value of the trade-in and requiring the purchase of expensive extra equipment. Now the car costs well above the current market rate. This is an example of the ______ technique.

A) bait-and-switch
B) foot-in-the-door
C) primacy
D) lowball

D. Lowball
Which term refers to a set of characteristics believed to be shared by all members of a particular group?

A) classification
B) stereotype
C) expectation
D) categorization

B. Stereotype
In Solomon Asch’s study, which factor increased the rate of conformity?

A) the task difficulty was increased
B) the confederates were all adults
C) the participants were given two chances at responding
D) the number of confederates increased

D. The number of confederates increased
A car crash woke John from his afternoon nap. When he looked out his apartment window, he saw several people milling around two smashed cars. He decided not to dial 911 because he assumed someone had already called. John’s reaction is an example of ______.

A) the bystander effect
B) obedience to authority
C) conformity to social norms
help.
D) pluralistic compliance

A. The bystander effect
Which one of the following activities will NOT reduce cognitive dissonance?

A) continuing the behavior in spite of the conflicting thoughts
B) developing new thoughts to justify the behavior
C) changing the behavior to match the attitude
D) changing the thought to justify the behavior

A. Continuing the behavior in spite of the conflicting thoughts
What historical event prompted Jane Elliott to begin the blue eye-brown eye project with her students?

A) the Vietnam War
B) the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
C) the assassination of John Lennon
D) the assassination of President John F. Kennedy

B. The assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Carlos and his work associates form a close, friendly group, and they usually work well together. However, they may face a problem involving an extreme form of conformity called ______________.

A) groupthink
B) fundamental attribution error
C) self-serving bias
D) generational identity

A. Groupthink
Your best friend has been acting rather cool toward you lately. As you try to figure out why, you are engaging in the process called ________________.

A) causal analysis
B) ascribing values
C) attribution
D) nonverbal communication

C. Attribution
Imagine 100 individuals are asked to take part in a replication of Milgram’s famous study on obedience. How are these 100 people likely to respond?

A) Most of the women would refuse to obey, whereas almost all of the men would obey.
B) The majority would administer 450 volts as instructed.
C) Most of the participants would work together to force the experimenter to end the experiment.
D) The majority would immediately realize the use of deception and leave.

B. The majority would administer 450 volts as instructed
Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding research into the relationship between violent video games and aggression in children?

A) Short-term exposure to violent video games increases the likelihood that children will engage in physical
aggression.
B) Playing violent video games causes increased aggression.
C) Short-term exposure to violent video games increases the likelihood that children will engage in verbal
aggression.
D) Short-term exposure to violent video games increases the likelihood that children will have aggressive
thoughts and emotions.

B. Playing violent video games causes increased aggression
What is the relationship between expertise and persuasion?

A) Nonexperts tend to be the most persuasive.
B) Greater expertise leads to greater persuasion.
C) Expertise has no effect on persuasion.
D) Communicators with moderate expertise are the most persuasive.

B. Greater expertise leads to greater persuasion
After a group of gang members learned that their friend had died in a seemingly random accident, several of the friends started blaming a rival gang for the death. Even though there was no evidence whatsoever that the death had been intentional, the more the friends talked the more passionate they became in their belief that an act of revenge was necessary. The members who didn’t necessarily think this was a good idea said nothing. What concept from social psychology may contribute to an act of violent revenge in this case?

A) social influence
B) prosocial behavior
C) altruism
D) groupthink

D. Groupthink
At the supermarket, a demonstrator gives away free samples of a new pizza. He also gives each taster a coupon worth $1 off his or her grocery bill. This manufacturer is depending on the social process of ________ to increase sales.

A) social facilitation
B) the norm of reciprocity
C) group polarization
D) deindividuation

B. The norm of reciprocity
How does the jigsaw classroom operate?

A) Students are all given separate puzzles to solve.
B) Students are told that one student holds the key to solving a problem and they must find out who it is.
C) Students are each given a piece of information that must be shared to solve a problem.
D) Students compete to win a top award.

C. Students are each given a piece of information that must be shared to solve a problem
“Mommy, mommy, mommy,” your young son asks frantically. “Can we please buy a new PlayStation®3 console with all of the games and the wireless controllers so that we don’t have to sit near the television?” “No,” you reply, “we can’t afford to buy all of that!” Seemingly unperturbed by your rejection, your son comes back with “Then can we just buy one new game for our PlayStation®2?” “Okay, I guess so,” you answer, not realizing that your son has taken a social psychology class and has just used the _____________ technique to get what he wanted.

A) lowball
B) that’s-not-all
C) door-in-the-face
D) foot-in-the-door

C. Door-in-the-face
The advice to “keep it simple stupid” suggests that political and other messages should be simple so that the audience will understand the content without distractions. This is an example of which type of processing suggested by the elaboration likelihood model?

A) central-route processing
B) peripheral-route processing
C) under-route processing
D) classic-route processing

A. Central-route processing
Which statement is the best explanation of the fundamental attribution error?

A) We rely on the first information we receive to make internal attributions.
B) We tend to attribute our successes to our own efforts and failures to the shortcomings of others.
C) We attribute most of what people do to the influence of situations.
D) We are more likely to attribute another’s behavior to internal rather than to situational causes.

D. We are more likely to attribute another’s behavior to internal rather than to situational causes
The study of the judgments people make as to whether someone else’s behavior is due to something about that person or due to the person’s situation is called ______.
A) the primacy effect
B) attribution theory
C) cognitive dissonance
D) stereotyping
B. Attribution theory
When opposites attract, it is said that they have __________ characteristics.

A) proximal
B) reciprocal
C) complementary
D) rewarding

C. Complementary
Which statement is more likely to be true concerning attributions made by Americans versus Chinese people?

A) they both tend to make situational cause errors
B) Chinese people are more likely to make dispositional errors, whereas Americans are more likely to make
situational errors.
C) Americans are more likely to make the fundamental attribution error than are Chinese people.
D) they both tend to make dispositional cause errors

C. Americans are more likely to make the fundamental attribution error than are Chinese people
Which communicator would likely be the most persuasive?

A) an attractive person who is an expert
B) a moderately attractive person who is an expert
C) a moderately attractive person who has moderate expertise
D) an attractive person who has moderate expertise

A. An attractive person who is an expert
Experiments showing the effects of group pressure on conformity were conducted by ______.

A) Singer
B) Milgram
C) Luchens
D) Asch

D. Asch
What process describes the use of social influence to cause other people to change their attitudes and behavior?

A) affectance
B) persuasion
C) conversion
D) enticement

B. Persuasion
Which of the following would result in cognitive dissonance?

A) Wearing glasses is dignified; a respected political leader wears glasses.
B) Orange juice is healthy; I love orange juice.
C) Pink shirts are effeminate; Mel Gibson wears pink shirts.
D) Dresses are feminine; Britney Spears wears dresses.

C. Pink shirts are effeminate; Mel Gibson wears pink shirts
You’ve always disliked a particular coworker who strikes you as dishonest, but he is nice to you and does you favors, so you become friendly with him despite your misgivings. One day you learn that he stole personal items from your desk. You now decide to discontinue the friendship. Your negative attitude toward this coworker is strengthened through ___________.

A) instrumental learning
B) operant conditioning
C) classical conditioning
D) reduction of cognitive dissonance

D. Reduction of cognitive dissonance
Luis picks up a pack of cigarettes and reads, “Cigarette smoking is harmful to your health.” Which one of the following statements leads one to believe Luis is actually having cognitive dissonance?

A) “I know these cigarettes are killing me but I just can’t stop.”
B) “No one I know who smokes is sick.”
C) “That is not true. Cigarettes are not that harmful.”
D) “I’ve been smoking my whole life and I don’t have health problems.”

A. “I know these cigarettes are killing me but I just can’t stop”
What term refers to helping behavior that is performed voluntarily for the benefit of another person, with no anticipation of reward?

A) altruism
B) interdependence
C) collectivism
D) humanitarianism

A. Altruism
A local car insurance company advertises their products with television commercials. During those spots, there are flashy lights, attractive dancers wearing skin-tight outfits, and local celebrities talking about how they have that company’s insurance. The advertisement does not, however, mention any of the features or costs associated with the product. This company is attempting to earn customers through which path of processing?

A) peripheral-route
B) secondary-route
C) tertiary-route
D) central-route

A. Peripheral-route
What is the primacy effect, as it relates to impression formation, more commonly known as?

A) situational bias
B) altruism
C) first impression
D) negative attribution

C. First impression
The realistic conflict theory focuses on conflict ______.

A) between two groups
B) within an in-group
C) between two members of an in-group
D) within an out-group

A. Between two groups
Roberta is trying to decide whether to vote for a political candidate. Based on what she has read about him, she has concluded that he is not qualified for the position, but she agrees with his political positions. Also, she trusts him and likes his decisive personality. In fact, she likes him so much that she sent a small donation to his campaign. Her opinion that the candidate is not qualified represents the ______ component of her attitude toward him.

A) feeling
B) intuition
C) behavioral
D) cognitive

D. Cognitive
When we make situational attributions we are identifying the cause of an action as something _____.

A) with an unconscious motivation
B) that is a biological trait
C) in the person’s disposition
D) in the environment

D. In the environment
The term psychologists use for how close two people live to each other is ______.

A) similarity
B) proximity
C) complimentarity
D) propinquity

B. Proximity
What is the term for the process of developing our first knowledge about another person?

A) social interaction
B) interpersonal judgment
C) impression formation
D) stereotyping

C. Impression formation
One form of the norm of reciprocity is when the merchant offers more than the consumer asks for. This is called the ___________
technique.

A) that’s-not-all
B) there’s-still-more
C) that’s-all-folks
D) one-mo’-time

A. That’s-not-all
According to the research of Latane and Darley, which of the following situations would be the most likely in which someone would offer to help?

A) person on the side of the road with a flat tire during rush hour
B) person asking for help in a crowded stadium parking lot
C) a student falling off a ladder outside a full classroom
D) person falling down coming out of an elevator with only one other person in it

D. Person falling down coming out of an elevator with only one other person in it
Behavior that is initiated or changed in response to a request as opposed to a command or direct order is an example of _______.

A) compliance
B) obedience
C) conformity
D) persuasion

A. Compliance
A group of four friends, two men and two women, are out for an evening on the town. “I’d like to go to the bookstore and get coffee,” one of the women says. “Nah, lets go over to that club and have drinks while we listen to the band,” one of the men replies. What does Solomon Asch’s research suggest will be the likely outcome?

A) The group will probably do both tasks, as Asch found that in a group with both men and women compromise tends to be the likely outcome.
B) The group will end up going in two separate ways – the women to the bookstore and the men to the club- as Asch found that women prefer quieter environments and men prefer louder environments.
C) The group will probably go to the bookstore, as Asch found that men are more willing to comply to the demands of women then the demands of other men.
D) The group will probably go to the club, as Asch found that women tend to conform more then men when a public response is required.

D. The group will probably go to the club, as Asch found that women tend to conform more then men when a public response is required.
Which of the following qualities would make members of a target audience easier to persuade?

A) highly educated members
B) older members
C) experts in the field
D) younger members

D. Younger members
Some have suggested that the results of Milgram’s obedience study may have been due to the __________ effect.

A) returning-a-favor
B) foot-in-the-door
C) reciprocity
D) indebtedness

B. Foot-in-the-door
It is 1951, and you are going to participate in a perception experiment. You join seven others seated in a room. You are shown a 10-inch test line and must choose the line that matches it in length from a choice of three lines. The experimenter, Solomon Asch, is studying _____________________.

A) social loafing
B) groupthink
C) bystander apathy
D) conformity

D. Conformity
Asch’s studies showed that overall conformity to group pressure occurred about
______ of the time.

A) one-fifth
B) three-fourths
C) one-half
D) one-third

D. One-third
We tend to _________ attractive people more than we do less attractive people.

A) ignore
B) dislike
C) hate
D) like

D. Like
In order to reduce groupthink, which of the following strategies would NOT be employed?

A) voting for a choice by secret ballot rather than with a show of hands
B) making sure that group leaders remain impartial
C) finding holes in all arguments that go against the group’s desires
D) seeing opinions of people outside of the group

C. Finding holes in all arguments that go against the group’s desires
Which of the following is NOT one of the processes associated with social identity theory?

A) social categorization
B) authoritarianism
C) social comparison
D) identification

B. Authoritarianism
“We” have all different types of personalities and lots of endearing little quirks, whereas “they” all think and act alike. This assumption would be an example of the cognitive schema called______________.

A) mental set
B) mindlessness
C) a stereotype
D) a fundamental attribution error

C. A sterotype
In what way is compliance different from conformity?

A) Compliance is a response to a direct request, whereas conformity is a response to indirect social pressure.
B) Conformity involves direct group pressure for change, whereas compliance involves orders or commands.
C) Compliance involves eliciting reaction on the part of group members, whereas conformity involves
subliminal persuasion.
D) Conformity and compliance are very similar; the distinction depends on whether one is a male or female.

A. Compliance is a response to a direct request, whereas conformity is a response to indirect social pressure.
The World-Will-End-on-June-7 group got together on June 7 to pray as the world ended. The next day the world did not end. The leader of the group said, “Our prayers saved the world.” What process was responsible for the attitude change?

A) operant conditioning
B) cognitive dissonance. Saying that their prayers saved the world served that purpose.
C) classical conditioning
D) positive reinforcement

B. Cognitive dissonance. Saying their prayers saved the world served that purpose.
The tendency of people to comply with a second, lesser request after refusing a larger one is called the ______ technique.

A) door-in-the-face
B) lowball
C) foot-in-the-door
D) bait-and-switch

A. Door-in-the-face
What was the grade level of the students with whom Jane Elliott performed her famous blue eye-brown eye demonstration?

A) second grade
B) kindergarten
C) third grade
D) first grade

A. Second grade
Which of the following is the best example of the behavioral component of an attitude?

A) Bea feels recycling is a great concept.
B) Betty writes a letter to her senator asking for support of a law making corporations responsible for the pollution they cause.
C) Bob is upset when he hears a corporation plans to build a polluting plant near his home.
D) Bill struggles to understand the arguments both sides present in a debate over a new manufacturing plant.

B. Betty writes a letter to her senator asking for support of a law making corporations responsible for the pollution they cause.
What term do social psychologists use for the process of making people in an out-group responsible for the problems of people in the in-group?

A) scapegoating
B) deindividuation
C) groupthink
D) pariah formation

A. Scapegoating
Analysis of the participants in Milgram’s obedience study has indicated that which personality trait was highly related to the willingness to be obedient?

A) submissiveness
B) No one single personality trait has been found to be associated with high levels of obedience.
C) hostility
D) aggressiveness

B. No one single personality trait has been found to be associated with high levels of obedience
Luther operates a small nightclub that specializes in soul music and features up-and-coming African American singing groups. He actively discourages white couples from coming in and always gives them the worst seats if they insist on being admitted. Luther’s behavior is BEST described as an example of ______.

A) prejudice
B) discrimination
C) ambiguity
D) oppression

B. Discrimination
What do social psychologists call the tendency to rely on internal characteristics for explanations of the behavior of others and to ignore the influence of the situation?

A) self-fulfilling prophecy
B) fundamental attribution error
C) augmenting principle
D) availability heuristic

B. Fundamental attribution error
While watching Jeopardy, your roommate says, “Alex Trebek knows all the answers. He must be a genius.” You tell your roommate she probably would not have said that if she had attended class the day the instructor discussed the topic of ______.

A) social facilitation
B) stereotyping illusions
C) fundamental attribution errors
D) internal attribution biases

C. Fundamental attribution errors
In Solomon Asch’s study on conformity, the number of confederates was found to have a significant impact on the participants’ likelihood of giving an incorrect answer. How many confederates did Asch find maximized the likelihood of conformity occurring?

A) 6
B) 12
C) 4
D) 2

C. 4
Which of the following parts of the brain are related to aggression?

A) the amygdala
B) the limbic system
C) neither A nor B
D) both A and B

D. Both A and B
One conclusion of much of the research on media and violence is that ____________.

A) TV tends to make nonaggressive children become aggressive
B) TV causes violence
C) violent TV programs are responsible for over 75 percent of aggression among children
D) aggressive children tend to watch violent TV more than nonaggressive children

D. Aggressive children tend to watch violent TV more than nonaggressive children
What term do psychologists use for the phenomenon that occurs when people are less likely to aid a person in trouble if there are other people around who are also potential helpers?

A) antisocial behavior effect
B) bystander effect
C) sole-witness effect
D) subtle aggressive effect

B. Bystander effect
You are in the market for a new car. You go from dealer to dealer and find they all follow the same procedure: every salesperson offers you a soda and asks you to take a test drive. Which two psychological techniques are behind the offer of the soda and the test drive?

A) groupthink and social facilitation
B) norm of reciprocity and foot-in-the-door
C) that’s-not-all and foot-in-the-door
D) social facilitation and norm of reciprocity

B. Norm of reciprocity and foot-in-the-door
“Jeremy, can you possibly give me a ride to the airport this Sunday,” your friend Ben asks. Not thinking that this is a big deal, you agree to do this favor for Ben. “Oh, that’s great! Thanks so much. And by the way, I forgot that the plane leaves at 8:30 am so I’ll have to be at the airport by 6:30 am. Pick me up at 6:00. See you then,” Ben adds. You are still likely to do the favor for Ben because you have just been a victim of the _____________ technique.

A) norm of reciprocity
B) obedience
C) door-in-the-face
D) lowball

D. Lowball
“Birds of a feather” is a phrase that refers to __________.

A) emotional expression
B) similarity
C) reinforcement
D) self-disclosure

B. Similarity
When watching an infomercial offering the latest and greatest in laundry soap products the pitchman continually asks how much you’d be willing to pay, but immediately after telling you the price he yells, “plus, if you act now, we’ll double your order absolutely free!” This is a classic example of the _____________ technique.

A) door-in-the-face
B) lowballing
C) order-now
D) that’s-not-all

D. That’s-not-all
Why do we engage in the stereotyping of people?

A) to validate our assumptions
B) to provide more complete information about individuals
C) to reduce the amount of information we need to process
D) to help us perceive people more accurately

C. To reduce the amount of information we need to process
Asch found that the likelihood of conformity increased with group size until ______ confederates were present.

A) five
B) three
C) four
D) six

C. Four
Upon arriving at college and meeting your roommate, you sigh mightily as you listen to his endless droning on about how wonderful his girlfriend back home is. “I miss her so much and I can’t wait to see her during Thanksgiving break,” he comments. Knowing a bit about social psychology and the rules of interpersonal attraction, what are you most likely to think to yourself?

A) This relationship will never work out because research suggests that students going away to college change so much that they become unrecognizable to those with whom they formerly had relationships.
B) I wish he’d realize that everything he’s saying makes it sound like they are too similar for each other, and people who date others with whom they share a lot of similarities usually end up breaking up.
C) I’m going to have to listen to this all year, because relationships that have some distance usually get stronger in the long run.
D) This relationship is doomed, because the rule of proximity says that people are most attracted to those who are nearby, not far away.

D. This relationship is doomed, because the rule of proximity says that people are most attracted to those who are nearby, not far away
A group of Ray’s friends have been waiting for Ray for an hour. One says, “He never remembers anything.” Another says, “He’s probably caught in rush hour traffic.” What are these friends doing that might be of interest to a social psychologist?

A) They are making attributions.
B) They are forming initial impressions of Ray.
C) They are conforming to the group’s norms.
D) They are reducing dissonance levels.

A. They are making attributions
Which aspect of culture tends to decrease rates of conformity?

A) high levels of societal dependence
B) high level of individualism
C) low socioeconomic status
D) sex-role stereotypes

B. High levels of individualism
Attributions are __________________.

A) innate personality traits
B) genetic predispositions to behave a certain way
C) explanations that account for one’s own behaviors and/or the behaviors of others.
D) physical qualities people have such as attractiveness

C. Explanations that account for one’s own behaviors and/or the behaviors of others
What is a difference between obedience and conformity?

A) Obedience is an indirect request whereas conformity is a direct request.
B) In obedience there is a difference in status between the one who obeys and the one who makes the request.
C) In conformity there is a perceived difference in status between the one who conforms and the group.
D) Conformity requires strict adherence to the rules whereas obedience does not.

B. In obedience there is a difference in the status between the one who obeys and the one who makes the request.
Which of the following individuals is most likely to make the fundamental attribution error?

A) Anut, a 46-year old Pakistani woman
B) Maggie, a 24-year old Caucasian woman
C) Jethro, a 18-year old Caucasian man
D) Mona, a 72-year old Hawaiian woman

D. Mona, a 72-year old Hawaiian woman
The hormone associated with aggression seems to be ___________.

A) peptone
B) testosterone
C) MDH
D) estrogen

B. Testosterone
You want to visit Argentina but your attitude about Argentina is changing as you read the news about the kidnappings that have occurred there. Which component of attitude is being affected?

A) affective
B) behavioral
C) cognitive
D) situational

C. Cognitive
Which statement correctly characterizes one aspect of Stanley Milgram’s study of obedience?

A) Participants were shocked when they made errors in reciting word pairs.
B) Participants in the study were randomly assigned to be teachers or learners.
C) A learner and the teacher sat side by side across from the shock machine.
D) Subjects were shown an ominous-looking shock machine that was marked 0 to 450 volts.

D. Subjects were shown an ominous-looking shock machine that was marked 0 to 450 volts
What do we call judgments about people, situations, objects, or thoughts?

A) cognitions
B) stereotypes
C) attributions
D) attitudes

D. Attitudes
Which statement best describes an important finding of Milgram’s classic research?

A) Individuals easily conform to group norms.
B) The presence of other people makes aggression more likely.
C) Agreeing to a small request makes it more likely you will agree to a big request.
D) People will easily obey an authority figure and do harm to others.

D. People will easily obey an authority figure and do harm to others.
Which of the following individuals is the most likely candidate to join a cult?

A) Glenn who lives with his strict parents, never fights back when people call him names, and builds Star Trek symbols out of wood
B) Brenda who is disappointed with the president, lives with her sister, and has a great job
C) Jane who is a straight A student and has a great relationship with her parents but just broke up with her
boyfriend
D) Dan who just got a job, has a great marriage but is unhappy with his religion

A. Glenn who lives with his strict parents, never rights back when people call him names, and builds Star Trek symbols out of wood
Which of the following would result in cognitive dissonance?

A) I believe smoking is bad for my health; I love to smoke.
B) I believe profanity is childish; my father uses profanity.
C) I believe dresses are feminine; Nicole Kidman sometimes wears pants.
D) I believe exercising is healthy; I love to exercise.

A. I believe smoking is bad for my health; I love to smoke
“Look! Up in the sky! It’s a bird. It’s a plane. It’s Superman!” If you looked up, would you be conforming?

A) Yes. You would be looking up because you were told to do so.
B) No. Conformity requires that you base your behavior on what other people are doing, not being told to do so.
C) Yes. Conformity means doing what you are told or else.
D) No. Looking up only means you are curious.

B. No. Conformity requires that you base your behavior on what other people are doing, not being told to do so
x

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