Reading Pope’s works is a way to enjoy beauty as well as to bear the torture of great lose and ghostly horror because the shadow of death almost penetrates all of these described beauties. Dreamlike sceneries appeared in his work here and there too. Pope’s writing style has made him be a controversial figure in the literature field for many years.

What Poe wrote down is not only the reflection of the real-world objects but also imaging ones that were only existed in Pope’s mental world. This essay will use the Topographic Model of Fraud’s psychoanalytic approach to analyze Pope’s poem The Raven and help reader to learn more clearly about the poem. Freudian criticism is concerned with the quest for and discovery of connections between the artists themselves and what they actually create. As far as literature is concerned it analyses characters “invented” by authors, the language they use and what is known as “Freudian imagery’.

Thus, in the Freudian method a literary character is treated as if a living human being, whereas, for example, in the method f Jacques Lilac literature is seen as “symptom” of the writer. Topographic Model is one of Fraud’s critic methods. In an earlier version of this model, Freud separated the human psyche into three parts: the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious. And the later version of this model is called tripartite model that divides the psyche into three parts: the id, the ego, and the superego.

The id is the irrational, instinctual, unknown, unconscious part of the psyche, which contains our secret desires, our darkest wishes and our most intense fears. The id wishes only to fulfill the urges of the pleasure principle. And it houses the libido, the source of all our psychosocial desire and all our psychic energy. The ego is the rational, logical waking part of the mind, although much of its activities remain in the unconscious, it operates in harmony with the reality principle. It is the egos Job to regulate the instinctual desire of the id and to allow these desires to be released in some nondestructive way.

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Ego mediates the instinctual desires of the id and the demands of social pressure issued by the superego. Superego acts as an internal censor, causing us to make moral Judgments in light of social pressures. The superego operates according to the morality principle and serves primarily to protect society and us from the id. In Pope’s poem The Raven, Poe varied the status of the raven from friend, to God then to the devil. The raven appeared in his dreamlike imaginary is not only referring to a concrete bird in the real-world life but a subject from his unconsciousness.

It is a symbol reflecting the struggle among Pope’s id, ego and superego. To learn about Pope’s misery experience first can help the readers to understand tents viewpoint. ‘s parent’s Ana a Electroplated profession as wondering actors, such worse was that his father decamped and his mother died by the time when Poe was only two. Then he was took charge of by a well-to-do merchant John Allan. But the relationship between Poe and his foster father was totally broken up in the year of 1831. Thereafter, he began to live with poverty for his whole life. From his experience, it is clear that the raven is a symbol for his foster father.

Because when he lost his own parent’s, John Allan had adopted him and brought him up. From this aspect Pope’s rational mind thanked his foster father from the bottom of his heart and treated him as his friend. From Pope’s biography, readers also know that before Poe left Allan, some of Pope’s important experience were affected by John Allan, like going to university, Joining the united states army, going to the west point; moreover his foster father supplied him money, the necessities that he needed, and applied him opportunities; thus John Allan was the God and saver in Pope’s eyes.

However, the relationship between them was destroyed, Poe had to leave John Allan and give up the luxurious living surrounding and began to live by himself in poor. The result of the great change lighted Pope’s hatred to Allan both conscious and unconsciously. From the social pressure, I. E. The superego, Poe had to be grateful and respect John Allan, while his id emerged and let the hatred replaced the feeling of gratefulness. Pope’s ego tried to let him to be as normal as the past; so he tried to suppress the hatred feeling and tried to behave as the past in the real life.

But the his black side of the psyche need a way to relieve, that is the reason for his hatred of Allan was expressed under his pen unconsciously in the poem, there he treated Allan as devil thing who deprived him of his “beauty’. He needed a way to mediate his psyche lance or there would be an explosion in his psyche; Poe used writing poem to solve his psyche conflict. He tried to control his desire in a normal range with his superego, while his pen betrayed his ego and leaked his id unconsciously.

The beauty under Pope’s pen here is another mixture symbol. As Poe lost maternal love when he was only two, there’s a lack of libido during his childhood. When he wrote this poem his wife was seriously ill, that bring another fear of losing sexual consummation of the marriage. Furthermore, the experience of the death coming from his intimate relative also embedded great terror in his id. The great pressure of he terror and the desire always haunted him and tortured him, and he needed a way to relieve this pressure existing in his unconsciousness.

So writing helped him to express what he wanted to get but could not to. The beauty here was a combination of his lover, his own mother and his foster mother. First, the beauty appeared was in the form of ghost. According to his biography, it is known that his own mother and his foster mother had died and his wife Virginia sickened with tuberculosis but he tried in vain to save her when he composed this poem. The nightmare of death always haunted his mentality and scared him. Second, the beauty here was scribed in a vague way. Poe didn’t describe it in details.

He gave the reader a large space to imagine how beautiful she might be and who she might be and he let reader share a strong feeling of love the antagonist had for the woman. As Pope’s own mother died when he was only two, so Poe couldn’t had a clearly memory of her. But mother is the most beautiful woman in the world in her own children’s eyes, she snout a De scarlet In a cuddles way. Tater Pope’s roster mother oleo. Allan marled another woman who gave birth to twin brothers. The twins took the place of Poe that was one of the factors Poe broke away from Allan.

Thus Poe had enough reason to yearn his foster mother because she once was a guarantee of his luxurious life. And his wife was under the shadow of death. So the beauty is also a silhouette of his wife. In this poem, Poe used the beauty as a symbol to express his desire for maternal love and his great terror for death that existed in his id. In short, this poem is a mirror that reflected Pope’s psyche activities: his desire and his terror in his ‘d, his rational mediator in his ego and the great pressure coming from the society. It is symbols existing in this poem that reappeared the conflict among Pope’s id, ego, and superego.


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