Teaching and larning procedure in schoolroom fundamentally applies one of the four acquisition theories. which are behaviorism. cognitivism. societal constructivism and humanitarianism. Based on the lesson that I have observed in the schoolroom. the instructor practiced the behavioursm larning theory. Behaviourism is really the earliest acquisition theory that is being applied in the lesson. Harmonizing to Tracey & A ; Morrow ( 2012 ) . behaviorism is theoretical position on larning that focuses on discernible alterations in behavior ( pg. 194 ) . In other words. acquisition is involved whenever there is alteration in behavior. Behaviorists believe that “learning is any more or less lasting alteration in behavior which is the consequence of experience” ( Jarvis. Holford & A ; Griffin. 2003. pg. 25 ) . Behaviourism concerns any signifier of response to a stimulation that can be measured. For illustration. behaviorists believe that intelligence can be measured by trials and scrutinies. Therefore. from the observation that I have made. behaviorism is about repeat. support and teacher-centered orientation.
First thing foremost. in the instruction and acquisition procedure which applied behaviorism theory. boring or repeat is being emphasized the most. Repeat is really efficient in assisting pupils “to transfer cognition from their short term to long-run memories” ( Harmer. 2007. pg. 56 ) . Therefore. the more the pupils encounter the boring procedure. the higher the chance for them to retrieve and they might be able to utilize it more frequently. Skinner ( 1968 ) said that “learning demands to be trained in the same manner as musculuss are trained. which means all larning behavior has to be trained often through repeat. drill and rote larning to make positive effects” ( pg. 1 ) . As in the schoolroom. instructors frequently ask pupils to reiterate what they utter for many times in production of boring procedure.
It happened in Madam Kamari’s category when she preferred to reiterate once more and once more every sentence that she wrote on the chalkboard. Even though it is a sort of traditional method in larning. it works for the pupils since after reiterating for a few times. pupils could read all the sentences and spell every word really good. For illustration. most of the pupils in Madam Kamari’s category could non spell the word ‘leaves’ for the really first clip. but after spelling it once more and once more for at least five times. they eventually could spell it single-handed by their instructor. It is shown that repeat or boring has ever been a cardinal mechanism in scaffolding for pupils to get linguistic communication ( Philp. Oliver & A ; Mackey. 2008. pg. 282-283 ) . Hence. repeat in the 2nd linguistic communication schoolroom is really one of the indispensable characteristics in behaviourist’s instruction and acquisition procedure.
Following. in linguistic communication acquisition. behaviorism is apparent when pupils are given immediate wages or support for every response. The support either positive or negative will increase the students’ behavior. Freyberg ( 2006 ) stated that Skinner ( 1968 ) found “three variables for support to take topographic point. which are an juncture upon which behavior occurs. the behavior itself and in conclusion the effects of the behaviour” ( pg. 4 ) . It means that for every stimulation that occur on the pupils. there will be responses and this will ensue either positive or negative support. Learning takes topographic point when pupils have the chance to pattern doing the right response to a given stimulation no affair how many times they have to reiterate it. Students will “receive positive support if they response to the right linguistic communication and negative support if it is incorrect” ( Ellis. 1997. pg. 31 ) .
In the experiment made by Skinner. “when a visible radiation goes on ( the stimulation ) a rat goes up to a saloon and presses it ( response ) and is rewarded by the dropping of a tasty nutrient ( support ) ” ( Harmer. 2007. pg. 51 ) . In this behavioristic position of acquisition. a similar stimulus-response-reinforcement form besides occurs in geting the linguistic communication. For illustration. in the schoolroom. one of the pupils was given a opportunity to voluntarily read the sentences on the chalkboard in forepart of his friends ( stimulation ) . Then. he could read all of them really good ( response ) . thereupon. he was praised by Madam Kamari. his instructor ( support ) .
Skinner ( 1968 ) besides believed that “both positive and negative support strengthen the behavior and makes it more likely to happen again” ( pg. 18 ) . Support should be given instantly and systematically so that wont formation is established. Positive support could either be in the signifier of congratulationss. wagess or attending. As in Madam Kamari’s category. every pupil who got correct for all the inquiries given in the exercisings would be given ‘stars’ . In contrast. the negative support could be in the signifier of pecking. turning away or irony. Negative support is non a penalty. but it is really the remotion of aversive stimulations in order to increase the chance of a behavior being repeated ( Smith. 2011 ) . Therefore. in learning and larning procedure. behaviorists still believe that support is really important in order for pupils to get linguistic communication.
Last. in the instruction and acquisition procedure. the behaviorism larning theory is being applied since it focuses on teacher-centered orientation. Behaviorists believe that a teacher’s occupation is to reassign cognition from the instructor to the inactive scholar ( Duffy & A ; Cunningham. 1998 ) . It means that instructor is the 1 who supplies the cognition. provides patterns and pupils merely receive the cognition through stimulus-response mechanism. During learning and larning procedure. teacher plays the active function while pupils play the inactive function or the audience. which means. the instructor controls all the instruction and acquisition activities in the schoolroom. Harmonizing to Mok ( 2008 ) . the teacher-centered scheme is a “one-way interaction and communicating between instructor and students” ( pg. 131 ) . In the schoolroom. teacher talks a batch while the pupils listen carefully to every word that comes out from the teacher’s oral cavity.
This sort of orientation could be seen in Madam Kamari’s category. For case. Madam Kamari read the sentences on the chalkboard and the pupils yieldingly follow her. The pupils were non given any chance to voice out their sentiment or even ask inquiries. By utilizing bossy instruction manner. Madam Kamari became the authorization. gave instructions to pupils and she was the 1 who controlled the whole category. In add-on. pupils are required to memorise the stuff that instructor has presented to turn out they have learnt something. Stover ( 2006 ) quoted the words from Delanshere ( 2002 ) . “students are expected to larn stuff as presented by the instructor and are assessed on their ability to show that they remember the stuff as presented” . As instructor controls the category. the consequence of instruction and acquisition could be seen when pupils could make the exercisings really good. follow teacher’s direction and instructor besides could accomplish the acquisition aims.
In decision. it is clear that behaviorism larning theory is a affair of conditioning by agencies of repeat or boring. pattern. support. teacher-centered orientation and addiction. All of these are really of import in geting the linguistic communication. particularly for the 2nd linguistic communication acquisition. In linguistic communication learning country. behaviorism establishes the basic background of exercisings and most of the instructors presents still use this sort of theory. Therefore. it shows that instructors still believe in behaviorism theory.