From a psychological perspective, the term cognition means ________.

A. determining
B. processing
C. thinking
D. understanding

thinking
________ are categories or groupings of linguistic information, images, ideas, or memories, such as life experiences.

A. beliefs
B. concepts
C. emotions
D. values

concepts
A(an) ________ is the best example, or representation, of a concept.

A. amalgamation
B. archetype
C. prototype
D. unification

prototype
________ concepts are ones that we know by a specific set of characteristics that are always exhibited, such as what defines different basic shapes.

A. absent
B. artificial
C. ideal
D. simple

artificial
A(an) ________ is a mental construct consisting of a cluster or collection of related concepts.

A. idea
B. paradigm
C. prototype
D. schema

schema
________ encompasses the processes associated with perception, knowledge, problem solving, judgment, language, and memory.

A. cognition
B. personality
C. schema
D. targeting

cognition
A(an) ________ schema is also known as a cognitive script.

A. artificial
B. event
C. mental
D. role

event
Which term describes a communication system that uses systematic rules to organize words to transmit information from one individual to another?

A. concept
B. language
C. prototype
D. schemata

language
Which term refers to the vocabulary of a language?

A. grammar
B. lexicon
C. morpheme
D. phonem

lexicon
A(an) ________ is a basic sound unit of a given language.

A. audio
B. morpheme
C. phoneme
D. syntax

phoneme
A ________ is the smallest unit of language that conveys some type of meaning.

A. letter
B. morpheme
C. phoneme
D. phonic

morpheme
Which term refers to the process by which we derive meaning from morphemes and words?

A. interpretation
B. language
C. semantics
D. syntax

sematics
From ________ months old, children are most capable of using simple sentences such as “I see.”

A. 0 to 5
B. 6 to 11
C. 12 to 17
D. 18 to 24

18 to 24
A(an) ________ involves approaching a problem in a way that has worked in the past, but it is clearly no longer working.

A. anchoring bias
B. functional fixedness
C. mental set
D. trial and error

mental set
Which concept is a type of mental set where you cannot perceive an object being used for something other than what it was designed for?

A. anchoring bias
B. functional fixedness
C. hindsight bias
D. representative bias

functional fixedness
What is confirmation bias?

A. believing the event you just experienced was predictable
B. focusing on information that confirms your existing beliefs
C. focusing only on one piece of information when making a decision
D. stereotyping someone or something unintentionally

focusing on information that confirms your existing beliefs
Raymond Cattell was a psychologist who ________.

A. believed intelligence consisted of one general factor, called g
B. developed Multiple Intelligences Theory
C. developed triarchic theory of intelligence
D. divided intelligence into two components

divided intellifence into two componets
________intelligence is marked by inventing or imagining a solution to a problem or situation.

A. analytic
B. creative
C. crystallized
D. practical

creative
The analytical intelligence component of the triarchic theory of intelligence is demonstrated by the ability to ________.

A. analyze, evaluate, judge, compare, and contrast
B. produce new products or ideas and invent novel solutions to a problem
C. provide correct or established answers to a problem
D. think outside the box to arrive at novel solutions to a problem

analyze, evaluate, judge, compare, and contrast
Who developed the triarchic theory of intelligence?

A. Charles Spearman
B. Howard Gardner
C. Raymond Cattell
D. Robert Sternberg

Robert Sternberg
Scientists who study cognition are searching for ways to understand how we ________, organize, and utilize our conscious cognitive experiences without being aware of all of the unconscious work that our brains are doing.

A. infiltrate
B. innovate
C. integrate
D. intensify

integrate
Not all aspects of cognition are ________.

A. consciously experienced
B. essential features of adult consciousness
C. essential features of human consciousness
D. exceptionally complex

consciously experienced
________ and ________ are powerful influences on both our thoughts and behaviors.

A. emotion; memory
B. feeling; remembering
C. recall; retention
D. recollection; sentiment

emotion;memory
Sensations and information are received by our brains, filtered through emotions and memories, and processed to become ________.

A. actions
B. chemicals
C. subconscious
D. thoughts

thoughts
In psychology, concepts can be divided into two categories: ________ and ________.

A. known; unknown
B. natural; artificial
C. realizable; unrealizable
D. unnatural; unidentified

natural;artificial
Natural concepts are mental groupings created naturally through our ________.

A. behaviors
B. experiences
C. personality
D. socialization

experiences
The fact that English grammar dictates that most verbs end in-ed to indicate past tense is an example of the ________ component of language.

A. grammar
B. lexicon
C. syntax
D. thesaurus

grammar
The word ________ is both a morpheme and a phoneme.

A. Bob
B. I
C. thump
D. you

I
Knowing what a rainbow looks like because you have seen a rainbow is an example of a ________ concept.

A. model
B. natural
C. prototype
D. unnatural

natural
Knowing what a dinosaur is because you looked through a book with pictures of dinosaurs and watched the film Jurassic Park is an example of a natural concept that was developed through ________ experience.

A. direct
B. indirect
C. practical
D. theoretical

indirect
Samara meets a nurse. She immediately assumes he is able to help care for sick people, works long hours, and dispenses advice about illness because her ________ schema suggests that nurses behave this way.

A. artificial
B. event
C. role
D. script

role
After the first few months of life, babies enter what is known as the ________ stage, during which time they tend to produce single syllables, such as buh-buh, that are repeated over and over.

A. babbling
B. baby talk
C. lexicon
D. phoneme

babbling
Which researchers suggested that language determines thought?

A. Charles Spearman and Howard Gardner
B. Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf
C. Noam Chomsky and B. F. Skinner
D. Raymond Cattell and Robert Sternberg

Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf
Gonzalo is attempting to open his car door using the auto lock button on his keychain. He pushes the button twice, but his car door does not open. He continues to push the button even though it is likely that the auto lock feature has stopped working, and he will need to open the door manually with his key. This illustrates a ________.

A. confirmation bias
B. functional fixedness
C. hindsight bias
D. mental set

mental set
An anchoring bias occurs when you focus on ________.

A. direct experience versus indirect experience
B. empirical knowledge versus personal opinion
C. one piece of information versus all of the information
D. personal opinion versus empirical knowledge

one piece of information versus all of the information
Carmela believes her assistant, Lian, is incompetent. She notices only what Lian does wrong while ignoring the above average quality of most of her work. This exemplifies ________ bias.

A. anchoring
B. confirmation
C. hindsight
D. representational

confirmation
Niaz’s car breaks down, and he is convinced that it was a predictable event even though there was no way of knowing it would happen. This exemplifies ________.

A. anchoring bias
B. availability heuristic
C. hindsight bias
D. representational bias

hindsight bias
Ilayda assumes that her professors spend their free time reading books and engaging in intellectual conversation, because the idea of them spending their time playing volleyball or visiting an amusement park does not fit in with her stereotypes of professors. This exemplifies ________.

A. availability heuristic
B. confirmation bias
C. representational bias
D. stereotype bias

representational bias
Illnesses such as diabetes and stomach cancer kill more than twice the number of Americans than murder or car accidents. However, Zale sees car accidents as more dangerous because he often hears about car accident fatalities on the nightly news, and he doesn’t know anyone with diabetes or stomach cancer. Therefore, Zale takes more precautions against car accidents. This exemplifies ________.

A. algorithm
B. availability heuristic
C. functional fixedness
D. hindsight bias

availability heurstic
Navigating your way home through an unfamiliar route due to road construction would draw upon your ________ intelligence.

A. analytic
B. common sense
C. crystallized
D. fluid

fluid
Tasks that require you to compare, contrast, or evaluate are using the ________ intelligence component of the triarchic theory of intelligence.

A. academic
B. analytical
C. creative
D. practical

analytical
Kai cuts her foot while hiking. She forgot to pack bandages, but she has a tube of superglue and uses that to seal the wound. Kai’s ability to invent a solution uses the ________ intelligence component of the triarchic theory of intelligence.

A. analytic
B. creative
C. fluid
D. practical

creative
Anwar dresses for a cold fall day and steps outside to find it sunny and hot. He goes back inside to change out of his sweater and jeans into a shirt and shorts. Anwar is demonstrating the ________ intelligence component of the triarchic theory of intelligence.

A. analytic
B. creative
C. functional
D. practical

practical
Emily is an adult with a 4th-grade skill level in reading, writing, and math. Her doctor suggests there is no reason she can’t find a job and live independently. Which subtype of intellectual disability describes Emily?

A. mild
B. moderate
C. profound
D. severe

mild
Reth is known for his ability and interest in writing. He won an award for his short story, “A Bear in the Woods,” and was named Young Poet of the Year at his high school. He is currently working on a book titled, When Harry Potter Attacks. This exemplifies ________ intelligence.

A. linguistic
B. logical-mathematical
C. musical
D. spatial

linguistic
Mel is an adult who can take care of his basic needs, but he requires oversight while he paints and someone to check on his living conditions daily. Which subtype of intellectual disability describes Mel?

A. mild
B. moderate
C. profound
D. severe

severe
Nima excels at working with numbers in subjects such as calculus and algebra. This exemplifies ________ intelligence.

A. bodily kinesthetic
B. interpersonal
C. logical-mathematical
D. spatial

logical-mathematical
Which of the following is key to generating a bell curve?

A. Flynn effect
B. norming
C. population size
D. sample size

sample size
Aram is proficient in playing a number of instruments and can easily learn new songs and rhythms. This exemplifies ________ intelligence.

A. linguistic
B. logical-mathematical
C. musical
D. spatial

musical
Which of the following is an example of an abstract, complex concept?

A. categories of psychology
B. dog breeds
C. patriotism
D. types of cars

patriotism
Lauren is gifted in the area of body movement. Her ability to balance and coordinate her body’s movement enables her to do well in basketball, baseball, and field hockey. Which area of intelligence does this exemplify?

A. bodily kinesthetic
B. intrapersonal
C. logical-mathematical
D. spatial

bodily kinesthetic
Why are event schemata difficult to change? They are ________.

A. automatic
B. concepts
C. diverse
D. stereotypes

automatic
Jake is sympathetic and considerate of his friends’ moods. He really identifies with their feelings and readily understands their point of view. He is well-known around campus, and he has great relationships with his classmates and professors. Which area of intelligence does this exemplify?

A. interpersonal
B. intrapersonal
C. linguistic
D. naturalist

interpersonal
The following sentence misuses the word accept: “I’ll take all the cupcakes accept the one with cream cheese icing.” Which part of language involves knowing the proper use of the word accept?

A. concept
B. grammar
C. lexicon
D. prototype

lexicon
Mikel can look at an engineering plan and quickly build a scale model. This exemplifies ________ intelligence.

A. bodily kinesthetic
B. logical-mathematical
C. naturalist
D. spatial

spatial
Bernadette has difficulty spelling words correctly while writing and mixes up letters within words and sentences. Which learning disability does she have?

A. dysfunction
B. dysgraphia
C. dyslexia
D. dysthymia

dyslexia
In Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory, ________ intelligence and ________ intelligence are often combined into a single type: emotional intelligence.

A. interpersonal; intrapersonal
B. intrapersonal; naturalist
C. logical-mathematical; interpersonal
D. musical; linguistic

interpersonal; intrapersonal
Walter struggles to write legibly and has a difficult time putting his thoughts on paper. Which learning disability does he have?

A. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
B. comorbidity
C. dysgraphia
D. dyslexia

dysgraphia
What is the Flynn effect?

A. Once a person knows his IQ, he stops trying to excel academically.
B. The idea that standard intelligence tests are flawed when they are used to compare ethnic groups.
C. The observation that each generation has a significantly higher IQ than the previous generation.
D. The observation that each generation has a significantly lower IQ than the previous generation.

The observation that each generation has a significantly higher IQ than the previous generation.
At what age can babies only discriminate among those phonemes that are used in the language(s) in their environments?

A. 1-30 days old
B. 6-8 months old
C. 9-11 months old
D. 12 months old

12 months old
Schemata are a(an) ________.

A. example of the brain’s ability to form prototypes
B. means of sublimating frustration
C. method of organizing information that allows the brain to work more efficiently
D. source of emotional content for the brain

method of organizing information that allows the brain to work more efficiently.
What should be changed to make the following sentence true? “A prototype is a category or grouping of linguistic information, objects, ideas, or life experiences.”

A. The word “category” should be changed to the word “type.”
B. The word “linguistic” should be changed to the word “emotional.”
C. The word “prototype” should be changed to the word “concept.”
D. The words “objects” and “ideas” should be eliminated.

The word “prototype” should be changed to the word “concept.”
What impact did Genie’s early isolation have on her ability to acquire language? She never developed a(an) ________.

A. ability to communicate
B. ability to speak
C. lexicon
D. mastery of the grammatical aspects of language

mastery of the grammatical aspects of language
Which of the following is not one of the conditions that leads to the impulse to use heuristics?

A. an appropriate heuristic comes to mind in the same moment
B. one is faced with too much information
C. the decision to be made is important
D. the time to make the decision is limited

the decision to be made is important
Which of the following is a criticism of the Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf research on language?

A. It only applied to preindustrial societies.
B. It was not empirical.
C. It was overly empirical.
D. It was sexist.

It was not empirical.
Which of the following statements about algorithms is false?

A. Algorithms are a problem-solving strategy.
B. Algorithms are used frequently in our everyday lives.
C. Algorithms involve a step-by-step problem-solving formula.
D. Working backwards is an example of an algorith

Algorithms are used frequently in our everyday lives.
What do the concepts of representational bias, anchoring bias, and hindsight bias all have in common?

A. All of the concepts are examples of functional fixedness.
B. All of the concepts are examples of mental set.
C. All of the concepts are examples of problem-solving strategies.
D. None of the concepts occur in preindustrial societies.

All of the concepts are examples of mental set.
What should be changed to make the following sentence true? “Fluid intelligence is characterized as acquired knowledge and the ability to retrieve it.”

A. The word “acquired” should be changed to the word “practiced.”
B. The word “Fluid” should be changed to the word “Crystallized.”
C. The word “intelligence” should be changed to the word “intellect.”
D. The word “retrieve” should be changed to the word “practice.”

The word “Fluid” should be changed to the word “Crystallized.”
Which of the following statements about Charles Spearman is false?

A. He believed intelligence consisted of a general factor called g.
B. He believed intelligence could be measured and compared between individuals.
C. He divided intelligence into two components: crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence.
D. He focused on the commonalities among various intellectual abilities and de-emphasized what made each unique.

He divided intelligence into two components: crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence.
The likelihood of functional fixedness occurring may be influenced by culture, and it is________.

A. experienced in both industrial and preindustrial countries equally
B. less often experienced in preindustrial countries
C. more often experienced in English-speaking countries
D. more often experienced in industrial countries

experienced in both industrial and preindustrial countries equally
Which of the following is not one of the four indices of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children?

A. perceptual reasoning
B. processing memory
C. verbal comprehension
D. working memory

processing memory
Parents of African American students filed a case against the state of California in 1979 because they believed the testing method used to identify students with learning disabilities________.

A. did not identify enough African American children in need of special education
B. disadvantaged their children by placing them in special education classes
C. resulted in less funding
D. was culturally unfair as the tests were normed and standardized using White children

was culturally unfair as the tests were normed and standardized using White children
The average score on an IQ test is 100. In modern IQ testing, one standard deviation is 15 points. Someone with an IQ of 115 would be described as________.

A. one standard deviation above the mean
B. one standard deviation below the mean
C. two standard deviations above the mean
D. 15 points above the average

one standard deviation above the mean
Which of the following is not one of the four subtypes of intellectual disability?

A. mild
B. modest
C. profound
D. severe

modest
What should be changed to make the following sentence true “Arthur Jensen theorized that Level I intelligence is responsible for conceptual and analytical abilities while Level II intelligence is responsible for rote memorization.”

A. The name “Arthur Jensen” should be changed to the name “Howard Gardener.”
B. The placement of the phrases “Level I” and “Level II” should be switched.
C. The word “conceptual” should be eliminated.
D. The word “rote” should be changed to with the word “routine.”

The placement of the phrases “Level I” and “Level II” should be switched.
Children who live in poverty perform worse on intelligence tests because they________.

A. are exposed to a greater degree of diversity, which causes their brains to function differently, thus resulting in a type of intelligence that IQ tests do not measure
B. are not encouraged to reach their potential
C. don’t care about IQ testing
D. experience more pervasive daily stress, which affects how the brain functions and develops, thus causing a dip in IQ scores

experience more pervasive daily stress, which affects how the brain functions and develops, thus causing a dip in IQ scores
What did the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart suggest about intelligence? The findings from this study ________.

A. demonstrated that female twins are more intelligent than male twins
B. revealed a genetic component to intelligence
C. suggested that intelligence is affected by early adoption
D. suggested there is no genetic component to intelligence

revealed a genetic component to intelligence
What was the most controversial claim in Arthur Jensen’s article, “How Much Can We Boost I.Q. and Achievement?”

A. IQ tests are biased in favor of Caucasians.
B. Level II intelligence is most prevalent among Asians, followed by Caucasians, then African Americans.
C. Level II intelligence is prevalent among African Americans, followed by Asians, then Caucasians.
D. There is no racial or ethnic component to intelligence.

Level II intelligence is most prevalent among Asians, followed by Caucasians, then African Americans.
Anywhere between 30-70% of individuals with diagnosed cases of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) also have some sort of ________.

A. brain damage
B. intellectual disability
C. learning disability
D. post-traumatic stress

learning disability
Which of the following statements about Howard Gardner is false?

A. He believed discussing IQ as standard deviations from average was inaccurate.
B. He developed a theory in which each person possesses at least eight intelligences.
C. He developed Multiple Intelligences Theory.
D. He was a former student of Erik Erikson.

He believed discussing IQ as standard deviations from avergae was inaccurate
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