Ben is asked to memorize the words canine, feline, and avian. He remembers the words by associating them with their synonyms: dog, cat, and bird. This is an example of ________ encoding.

A. acoustic
B. semantic
C. sensory
D. visual

semantic
What is the set of processes used to encode, store, and retrieve information over different periods of time?

A. automatic processing
B. effortful processing
C. memory
D. sensory encoding

memory
Encoding information occurs through ________.

A. automatic processing and effortful storing
B. automatic storing and effortful retrieving
C. processing and storing
D. storing and retrieving

automatic processing and effortful storing
Felipe looks over his presentation, and he notices that some of the words are written in bold and some are written in italic. His ability to remember these differences is an example of ________ encoding.

A. acoustic
B. semantic
C. sensory
D. visual

visual
What should be changed to make the following sentence true? There are three types of encoding: semantic, visual, and sensory.

A. change the word “encoding” to the word “decoding”
B. change the word “semantic” to the word “memory”
C. change the word “sensory” to the word “acoustic”
D. change the word “visual” to the word “acoustic”

change the word “sensory” to the word “acoustic”
The encoding of words and their meaning is known as ________ encoding.

A. acoustic
B. effortful
C. semantic
D. visual

semantic
Pan finds it difficult to learn the alphabet, until he hears the alphabet song. Then he can easily remember it. This is an example of ________ encoding.

A. acoustic
B. semantic
C. sensory
D. visual

acoustic
What is the tendency for an individual to have better memory for information that relates to oneself in comparison to material that has less personal relevance?

A. Atkinson-Shiffrin model
B. self-reference effect
C. sensory memory
D. Stroop effect

self-reference effect
In order for a memory to go into storage (i.e., long-term memory), it has to pass through three distinct stages: sensory memory, short-term memory, and ________ memory.

A. encoded
B. long-term
C. sensory
D. visual

long-term
________ encoding is the encoding of images.

A. acoustic
B. effortful
C. semantic
D. visual

visual
According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, ________.

A. colors are more easily named when they appear printed in that color
B. happy memories are processed better than sad memories
C. memories are processed the same way that a computer processes information
D. short-term memory itself has different forms

memories are processed the same way that a computer processes information
What type of memories do we consciously try to remember and recall?

A. explicit memories
B. implicit memories
C. sensory memories
D. short-term memories

explicit memories
What is procedural memory?

A. information about events we have personally experienced
B. knowledge about words, concepts, and language-based knowledge and facts
C. storage of facts and events we personally experienced
D. type of implicit memory that stores information about how to do things

type of implicit memory that stores information about how to do things
________ encoding is the encoding of sounds.

A. acoustic
B. effortful
C. semantic
D. visual

acoustic
The act of getting information out of memory storage and back into conscious awareness is known as ________.

A. encoding
B. hyperthymesia
D. retrieval
C. storage

retrieval
According to Baddeley and Hitch, ________.

A. animals process memories the same way as people
B. short-term memory itself has different forms
C. people process happy memories better than sad memories
D. people will name a color more easily if it appears printed in that color

short-term memory itself has different forms
What is semantic memory?

A. information about events we have personally experienced
B. knowledge about words, concepts, and language-based knowledge and facts
C. storage of facts and events we personally experienced
D. type of implicit memory that stores information about how to do things

knowledge about words, concepts, and language- based knowledge and facts
What kind of memory involves storage of brief events, such as sights, sounds, and tastes?

A. effortful
B. procedural
C. recall
D. sensory

sensory
What are the two components of declarative memory?

A. implicit and explicit
B. procedural and implicit
C. semantic and episodic
D. short-term and long-term

semantic and episodic
Elaborative rehearsal involves ________.

A. immediately applying new information to a practical problem
B. organizing information into manageable bits or chunks C. sleeping immediately after learning new information to allow your mind to process it
D. thinking about the meaning of the new information and its relation to knowledge already stored in your memory

thinking about the meaning of the new information and its relation to knowledge already stored in your memory
Engram refers to the ________.

A. emotional focus of a memory
B. mental trauma that creates a memory
C. physical trace of a memory
D. sensory component of a memory

physical trace of a memory
Which theory/hypothesis suggests that strong emotions trigger the formation of strong memories, and weak emotional experiences form weak memories?

A. arousal theory
B. engram hypothesis
C. equipotentiality hypothesis
D. flashbulb theory

arousal theory
Which concept describes the effects of misinformation from external sources that leads to the creation of false memories?

A. anterograde amnesia
B. misinformation effect paradigm
C. reconstruction
D. suggestibility

suggestibility
What is episodic memory?

A. information about events we have personally experienced
B. knowledge about words, concepts, and language-based knowledge and facts
C. storage of facts and events we have personally experienced
D. type of implicit memory that stores information about how to do things

information about events we have personally experienced
Which of the following is a good example of acoustic encoding?

A. being able to hum the tune to a song even when you can’t remember the lyrics
B. dreaming about an airport and deciding to take a trip
C. remembering the names of the Great Lakes with the acronym HOMES
D. thinking about a bike you plan to buy and having the image of the bike appear in your mind

being able to hum the tune to a song even when you can’t remember the lyrics
Remembering ________ is a good example of episodic memory.

A. how a hamburger tastes even though you have never tasted it yourself
B. how to use the microwave
C. what the word January means
D. your first day of school

your first day of school
Aleah remembers that her dog is named Rocky and her cat is named Skipper, but she can’t remember the name of her first grade teacher’s dog and cat. This is an example of ________.

A. Atkinson-Shiffrin model
B. relearning effect
C. self-reference effect
D. Stroop effect

Atkinson-Shrffrin model
In order to remember his lines for the play, Guy repeats his lines over and over again. This process is called ________.

A. declarative memory
B. hyperthymesia
C. rehearsal
D. relearning

rehearsal
I am trying to learn the names of all 50 states. While I am actively remembering and recalling this information, it is considered ________.

A. explicit memory
B. implicit memory
C. procedural memory
D. sensory memory

explicit memory
Which of the following is a good example of semantic encoding?

A. being able to hum the tune to a song after hearing it only once
B. dreaming about a beach and deciding to take a vacation
C. remembering the colors of the rainbow with the acronym ROY-G-BIV
D. thinking about a car you plan to buy and having the image of the car appear in your mind

remembering the colors of the rainbow with the acronym ROY-G-BIV
Remembering ________ is a good example of semantic memory.

A. how a fruit tastes even though you have never tasted it yourself
B. how to play the piano
C. what the word chocolate means
D. your most recent visit to the dentist

what the word chocolate means
When people say you never forget how to ride a bike, they are referring to ________ memory, also called non-declarative memory.

A. explicit
B. implicit
C. semantic
D. sensory

implicit
When you take a multiple-choice test, you are relying on ________, a means of retrieving information out of your long-term memory storage system that helps you choose the correct answer.

A. encoding
B. recognition
C. storage
D. the Stroop effect

recognition
Which of the following is a good example of visual encoding?

A. being able to remember the words to a song even when you can’t remember the tune
B. dreaming about your mother and deciding to call her
C. remembering the colors of the rainbow by thinking about a bag of Skittles
D. thinking about a dog you want to adopt and having the image of the dog appear in your mind

thinking about a dog you want to adopt and having the image of the dog appear in your mind
Remembering ________ is a good example of procedural memory.

A. how a cookie tastes even though you have never tasted it yourself
B. how to use the phone
C. what the word inconceivable means
D. your least favorite vacation trip

how to use the phone
Kenethia enjoys knitting. When she begins college, she has less time for knitting and finally stops altogether. After graduation, she wants to knit again, so she practices with her needles until she is good at it again. This is an example of ________, a means of retrieving information out of your long-term memory storage system.

A. effortless processing
B. encoding
C. an engram
D. relearning

relearning
If I am looking at a snake and processing the fear caused by the snake, what part of my brain am I using?

A. amygdala
B. cerebellum
C. hippocampus
D. prefrontal cortex

amygdala
For many in the baby-boom generation, the Kennedy assassination represents a ________, an exceptionally clear recollection of an important event.

A. flashbulb memory
B. flashpoint
C. hyperthymesia
D. sensory memory

flashbulb
Sharmila cannot remember what she had for breakfast last week, but she can remember the day she got married ten years ago as clearly as if it just happened. This example illustrates the ________ theory.

A. arousal
B. emotion
C. equipotentiality
D. flashbulb

arousal
Which of the following examples illustrates that the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm?

A. Jerome can perfectly describe and diagram a medical illustration of a dog, even though he has never seen it before.
B. Jerome is asked to name all the body parts of a dog in alphabetical order. Instead, he names the parts of a dog beginning in the front and moving backward toward the tail.
C. Jerome is required to memorize 15 words associated with dog. When he is asked to repeat the words he has learned, dog is among them, even though dog was not a word on the original list.
D. Jerome is told to memorize 15 words that describe what a dog does. He is then able to repeat them back in the order he memorized them.

Jerome is required to memorize 15 words associated with dog. When he is asked to repeat the words he has learned, dog is among them, even though dog was not a word on the original list.
When experiencing ________ amnesia, you experience loss of memory for events that occurred prior to the trauma. When experiencing ________ amnesia, you cannot remember new information.

A. antero-retro; flashbulb
B. anterograde; retrograde
C. flashbulb; retro-antero
D. retrograde; anterograde

retrograde;anterograde
People may not intend to distort facts, but ________.

A. it can happen in the process of retrieving old memories and combining them with new memories
B. other people will influence bystanders to change details in their short term memory
C. people are unreliable and don’t pay attention, so they make things up
D. research proves it always happens when the event is unimportant

it can happen in the process of retrieving old memories and combining them with new memories
Dozens of people witness a purse snatching. One of the eyewitnesses loudly yells “the man with the blue shirt did it.” Later, when questioned by police, several other eyewitnesses remember the purse snatcher wearing a blue shirt, even though the purse snatcher was a woman in flowered dress. This is an example of ________: the effects of misinformation from external sources that leads to the creation of false memories.

A. sexism
B. suggestibility
C. recognition
D. reconstruction

suggestibility
Lisa puts five quarters into the parking meter every time she goes downtown. However, when asked, Lisa cannot say if the head on a quarter is facing left or right. This may be an example of ________, because Lisa never paid attention to the picture in the first place.

A. effortful processing
B. effortless processing
C. encoding failure
D. enigmatic processing

encoding failure
Giorgio memorizes the German poem “The Erlking” to recite in his eighth grade German class. He remembers it well for weeks after the presentation, but gradually his ability to recite the poem fades. This is an example of ________, one of the seven sins of memory.

A. blocking
B. misattribution
C. persistence
D. transience

transience
A public opinion poll was administered to 50 people before the election of President Barack Obama. Polls taken before election night showed 50% of the people polled believed Barack Obama would be elected president. After the election results, the same people were asked if they believed Barack Obama would be elected president, and this time 75% of the people said yes. This may be an example of ________ bias.

A. egocentric
B. hindsight
C. stereotypical
D. transient

hindsight
Quincy is struck on the back of the head and finds, while she can remember her life up to the time she was struck on the head, she can no longer make new memories. Quincy has ________ amnesia.

A. anterograde
B. flashbulb
C. graduated
D. retrograde

anterograde
The formulation of new memories is sometimes called ________, and the process of bringing up old memories is called ________.

A. coding; recoding
B. construction; reconstruction
C. equipotentiality; amnesia
D. information; misinformation

construction;reconstruction
Which category of memory failure associated with the seven sins of memory is exemplified by the following? Amantha left her phone somewhere, but she can’t remember where.

A. distortion
B. forgetting
C. imposition
D. intrusion

forgetting
Forgetting anything good that happened on your trip to France because you just broke up with your French fiancee and now can’t bear the thought of anything French is a good example of ________: Memories are distorted by your current belief system.

A. bias
B. blocking
C. suggestibility
D. transience

bias
Jason studies Spanish for three years, and then switches to Pashto. When asked to remember Spanish vocabulary he can’t, instead he can only remember Pashto vocabulary. This is an example of ________ interference.

A. active
B. inactive
C. proactive
D. retroactive

retroactive
Which part of the brain is most involved in creating implicit memories?

A. amygdala
B. cerebellum
C. hippocampus
D. primary cortex

cerebellum
Which of the following is a good example of anterograde amnesia?

A. John Doe can provide detailed autobiographical information for every day of his life over the past 30 years, including what he wore and ate every day.
B. John Doe emerges from a collapsed building with no idea who he is.
C. John Doe is in a car accident. Every day he wakes up with no memory of what he did the day before, feeling as though no time has passed because he is unable to form new memories.
D. John Doe remembers his third birthday more clearly than any other birthday because his dog died the day of his birthday party.

John Doe is in a car accident. Every day he wakes up with no memory of what he did the day before, feeling as though no time has passed because he is unable to form new memories.
When Benito was five he cut his leg on some glass and needed stiches. Years later, his mother tells him the scar came from being bit by a dog. Now, when people ask about his scar he distinctly remembers the dog biting him. This is an example of the ________.

A. Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm
B. equipotentiality hypothesis
C. levels of processing theory
D. misinformation effect paradigm

misinformation effect paradigm
Elaine wakes up in the hospital with a head injury. She gets to know her doctors and nurses over time, but it soon becomes clear that she has no memories from before she woke up in the hospital. Elaine has ________ amnesia.

A. anterograde
B. flashbulb
C. graduated
D. retrograde

retrograde
Chuck was in a car accident. He wishes he could put it behind him, but every night he has dreams about it, and every time he sees a car he remembers how he felt that day. Which category of memory failure associated with the seven sins of memory is exemplified?

A. distortion
B. forgetting
C. imposition
D. intrusion

intrusion
Elena finds it very difficult to remember a long string of numbers, so she tries to memorize three numbers at a time. Later, she is able to repeat the numbers correctly because she grouped the numbers into more manageable groups of three. This is an example of ________.

A. chunking
B. elaborative rehearsal
C. mnemonic device
D. persistence

chunking
Which of the following is an example of a mnemonic device?

A. dividing your telephone number into groups of numbers to remember it easier
B. drinking coffee when you study for your math exam, then drinking coffee at your exam to reproduce the mental state you had when you studied
C. using a biofeedback machine to track your alpha waves during an exam
D. using the acronym “HOMES” to remember the names of the five Great Lakes

using the acronym “HOMES” to remember the names of the five Great Lakes
Which part of my brain is probably damaged if I am unable to recognize basic objects around my house?

A. amygdala
B. cerebellum
C. hippocampus
D. prefrontal cortex

hippocampus
Which of the following is an example of retrograde amnesia?

A. Jane Doe can provide a second-by-second account of what she ate for dinner.
B. Jane Doe emerges from a coma with no idea who she is, and she is unable to provide any details about herself, where she came from, or what happened to her.
C. Jane Doe is in a boating accident. Every day she wakes up with no memory of what she did the day before.
D. Jane Doe remembers her first day of school more clearly than any other day because her best friend was not there.

Jane Doe emerges from a coma with no idea who she is, and she is unable to provide any details about herself, where she came from, or what happened to her.
Benigno wakes up in the middle of the night. He dreamed that he left the oven on, and he is now convinced that the oven is on. He can’t go back to sleep until he turns the oven off. Which category of memory failure associated with the seven sins of memory is exemplified?

A. distortion
B. forgetting
C. imposition
D. intrusion

distortion
Why do strong emotions trigger the formation of strong memories and weak emotional experiences form weak memories?

A. Strong emotional experiences can trigger the release of neurotransmitters and hormones that strengthen memory.
B. Strong emotional experiences stimulate the cerebellum and thyroid, the centers of emotional memory.
C. Strong emotional memories are transferred from short-term memory to long-term memory more quickly than weak emotional memories.
D. Weak emotional memories involve effortless processing and strong emotional memories involve effortful processing.

Strong emotional experiences can trigger the release of neurotransmitters and hormones that strengthen memory.
According to Craik and Tulving, how do we process verbal information best?

A. acoustic encoding
B. effortful encoding
C. semantic encoding
D. visual encoding

semantic encoding
According to Craik and Tulving, how do we process verbal information best?

A. acoustic encoding
B. effortful encoding
C. semantic encoding
D. visual encoding

semantic
Which of the following is a way police have changed their interrogation techniques to lower the risk of false memory syndrome? Police have ________.

A. decided to only prosecute cases with DNA evidence
B. modified the way witnesses are questioned
C. required new officers to study psychology and learn about false memory syndrome
D. spoken to victim advocacy groups to learn more about sensitivity

modified the way witnesses are questioned
Which of the following statements about encoding is incorrect?

A. Encoding involves a single set of neurotransmitters located in the prefrontal cortex.
B. Encoding involves the input of information into the memory system.
C. Encoding is an information processing system.
D. Encoding is the set of processes used to decode, store, and retrieve information.

Encoding involves the input of information into the memory system.
What should be changed to make the following sentence true? In order for a memory to go into storage, it has to pass through three distinct stages: transitional memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

A. change the word “memory” to the word “neurotransmitter”
B. change the word “short-term” to the word “episodic”
C. change the word “storage” to the word “engram”
D. change the word “transitional” to the word “sensory”

change the word “transitional” to the word “sensory”
Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.

A. another area of the brain compensating for the damage, enabling the brain compensate for the damage
B. memory impairment on various tasks, such as object recognition and maze running
C. rats that could not complete puzzles even when food was offered as a reward
D. rats that feared the researchers and avoided the cage that was closest to the researcher

memory impairment on various tasks, such as object recognition and maze running
What does the equipotentiality hypothesis suggest would happen if the hippocampus was damaged?

A. another part of the brain would compensate for the damage by taking over the memory function normally managed by the hippocampus
B. areas near the hippocampus would decay, followed by a cascading failure of the brain leading to death
C. people would become comatose
D. people would lose their ability to feel fear

another part of the brain would compensate for the damage by taking over the memory function normally managed by the hippocampus
Which of the following statements about eyewitness testimony is correct?

A. Eyewitness testimony is always reliable.
B. Eyewitness testimony is never reliable.
C. Eyewitness testimony is reliable for events that do not involve crime.
D. Eyewitness testimony is vulnerable to the power of suggestion.

Eyewitness testimony is vulnerable to the power of suggestion.
What should be changed to make the following sentence true? The step of recall, which is the conscious repetition of information to be remembered in order to move it from STM into long-term memory, is called memory consolidation.

A. change the word “conscious” to the word “unconscious”
B. change the word “long” to the word “short”
C. change the word “recall” to the word “rehearsal”
D. change the word “repetition” to the word “recognition”

change the word “recall” to the word “rehearsal”
How is an explicit memory different from an implicit memory?

A. Explicit memories are memories we consciously try to remember and recall, while implicit memories are those that are not part of our consciousness. B. Explicit memories are memories we have directly experienced, while implicit memories are memories that someone else directly experienced.
C. Explicit memories are memories we unconsciously remember, while implicit memories are those that we consciously remember.
D. Implicit memories are memories we consciously try to remember and recall, while explicit memories are those that are not part of our consciousness.

Explicit memories are memories we consciously try to remember and recall, while implicit memories are those that are not part of our consciousness.
What is the main idea of the Stroop effect?

A. The brain identifies color more readily than words.
B. The brain processes black and white information faster.
C. The brain’s reaction time slows when it must deal with conflicting information.
D. The memory process is facilitated when people take more time to consider information.

The brain’s reaction time slows when it must deal with conflicting information.
What should be changed to make the following sentence true? Long-term memory has two parts: semantic memory and episodic memory.

A. change the word “episodic” to the word “implicit”
B. change the word “long-term” to the word “declarative”
C. change the word “parts” to the word “components”
D. change the word “semantic” to the word “short-term”

change the word “long-term” to the word “declarative”
What did Lashley develop by purposely damaging the brains of rats that had learned a task and then testing those rats to see if the brain damage impaired their ability to complete that same task?

A. chunking effect
B. equipotentiality hypothesis
C. levels of processing hypothesis
D. Stroop effect

equipotentiality hypothesis
Which of the following statements about the amygdala is correct?

A. Communication among neurons via the amygdala is critical for developing new memories.
B. The amygdala is a processing area for explicit memories.
C. The amygdala is involved in normal recognition memory as well as spatial memory.
D. The amygdala is involved in the process of transferring new learning into long-term memory.

The amygdala is involved in the process of transferring new learning into long-term memory.
Which of the following is not a way you can use what you know about memory to help you remember the names of all 50 states?

A. memorize five states at a time—group the information into a more manageable size
B. sing the names of the 50 states to the tune of “Happy Birthday”
C. stay up the night before your exam to maximize the amount of time you have to study
D. think of something you might do in each state if you were on a vacation in that state

stay up the night before your exam to maximize the amount of time you have to study
What is the main idea of levels of processing theory?

A. Aerobic exercise promotes neurogenesis.
B. If you want to remember a piece of information, you should think about it more deeply and link it to other information and memories to make it more meaningful.
C. In order to remember information, you should build a web of retrieval cues to help you access material when you want to remember it. D. Overlearning can help prevent storage decay.

If you want to remember a piece of information, you should think about it more deeply and link it to other information and memories to make it more meaningful.
What should be changed to make the following sentence true? Persistence refers to lapses in memory that are caused by breaks in attention.

A. change the word “attention” to the word “focus”
B. change the word “lapses” to the word “delays”
C. change the word “memory” to the word “emotions”
D. change the word “persistence” to the word “absent-mindedness”

change the word “persistence” to the word “absent-mindedness”
What did a researcher identify by timing participants on how long they took to name colors when the semantic meaning of the word differed from the color it was presented in?

A. engrams
B. equipotentiality hypothesis
C. Stroop effect
D. visual encoding

Stroop Effect
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