According to the text, learning involves
a.
the ability to think abstractly.
b.
a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.
c.
the development of prosocial behavior.
d.
a reduction in extrinsic motivation.
e.
acquiring knowledge that can be recalled explicitly or implicitly.
B
The most crucial ingredient in all learning is
a.
shaping.
b.
modeling.
c.
experience.
d.
intrinsic motivation.
e.
maturation.
C
A sea slug learns to withdraw its gill after repeatedly being squirted by water. After repeated squirting, the withdrawal response lessens. Which term would learning theorists use to describe this reaction?
a.
operant conditioning
b.
negative reinforcement
c.
conditioned stimulus
d.
habituation
e.
law of effect
D
Learning that certain events occur together is called
a.
shaping.
b.
latent learning.
c.
observational learning.
d.
associative learning.
e.
conditioned reinforcement.
D
If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates
a.
spontaneous recovery.
b.
associative learning.
c.
observational learning.
d.
operant conditioning.
e.
habituation.
B
By learning to associate a squirt of water with an electric shock, sea snails demonstrate the process of
a.
habituation.
b.
spontaneous recovery.
c.
classical conditioning.
d.
observational learning.
e.
operant conditioning.
C
Conditioning is the process of
a.
discrimination.
b.
spontaneous recovery.
c.
learning associations.
d.
observational learning.
e.
generalization.
C
By directly experiencing a thunderstorm, we learn that a flash of lightning signals an impending crash of thunder. This best illustrates
a.
operant conditioning.
b.
the law of effect.
c.
observational learning.
d.
classical conditioning.
e.
generalization.
D
Seals in an aquarium will repeat behaviors, such as slapping and barking, that prompt people to toss them a herring. This best illustrates
a.
respondent behavior.
b.
operant conditioning.
c.
observational learning.
d.
latent learning.
e.
spontaneous recovery.
B
Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying
a.
intrinsic motivation.
b.
respondent behavior.
c.
spontaneous recovery.
d.
operant conditioning.
e.
latent learning.
D
After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates
a.
shaping.
b.
spontaneous recovery.
c.
respondent behavior.
d.
observational learning.
e.
positive reinforcement.
D
As you enter the kitchen after school you can smell chocolate chip cookies baking. This scent causes you to salivate. Your salivation is best explained by
a.
classical conditioning.
b.
observational learning.
c.
habituation.
d.
operant conditioning.
e.
latent learning.
A
The last time you came home after your curfew, your parents grounded you for the next two weekends. Ever since then you have been careful to come home on time. The change in your behavior is best explained by
a.
classical conditioning.
b.
observational learning.
c.
habituation.
d.
operant conditioning.
e.
latent learning.
D
Who would most likely agree with the following statement concerning the field of psychology? Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods.
a.
Albert Bandura
b.
John Garcia
c.
John B. Watson
d.
Carl Rogers
e.
Sigmund Freud
C
The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by
a.
John B. Watson.
b.
B. F. Skinner.
c.
Albert Bandura.
d.
Ivan Pavlov.
e.
Edward Deci.
D
The researcher most closely associated with the study of classical conditioning is
a.
Edward Thorndike.
b.
Edward Deci.
c.
B. F. Skinner.
d.
Albert Bandura.
e.
Ivan Pavlov.
E
Who introduced the term behaviorism?
a.
John Garcia
b.
B. F. Skinner
c.
John B. Watson
d.
Albert Bandura
e.
Ivan Pavlov
C
John B. Watson considered himself to be a(n)
a.
physiological psychologist.
b.
cognitive psychologist.
c.
behaviorist.
d.
psychoanalyst.
e.
operant conditioner.
C
John B. Watson emphasized that
a.
learning depends on how predictably rather than how frequently events are associated.
b.
unlike lower animals, humans learn through a process of cognition.
c.
both humans and lower animals learn to expect that a CS will be followed by a US.
d.
learning should be explained without any reference to mental processes.
e.
cognition plays a role in conditioning through the power of prediction.
D
The psychic secretions that interfered with Pavlov’s experiments on digestion were
a.
unconditioned responses.
b.
primary reinforcers.
c.
conditioned responses.
d.
conditioned stimuli.
e.
conditioned reinforcers.
C
Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha’s skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Natacha currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol?
a.
negative reinforcement
b.
classical conditioning
c.
latent learning
d.
operant conditioning
e.
observational learning
B
A dog’s salivation at the sight of a food dish is a(n)
a.
conditioned stimulus.
b.
unconditioned stimulus.
c.
unconditioned response.
d.
conditioned response.
e.
neutral stimulus.
D
Which of the following is an unconditioned response?
a.
playing jump rope
b.
running through a maze to get a food reward
c.
sweating in hot weather
d.
clapping after a thrilling concert performance
e.
getting money as a reward
C
In Pavlov’s experiments, the dog’s salivation triggered by the taste of food was a(n)
a.
conditioned response.
b.
unconditioned response.
c.
unconditioned stimulus.
d.
conditioned stimulus.
e.
neutral stimulus.
B
In Pavlov’s experiments, the dog’s salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a(n)
a.
conditioned response.
b.
unconditioned stimulus.
c.
unconditioned response.
d.
conditioned stimulus.
e.
neutral stimulus.
A
In Pavlov’s experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was
a.
a tone.
b.
salivation to the sound of a tone.
c.
the presentation of food in the dog’s mouth.
d.
salivation to the food in the mouth.
e.
not used in the conditioning trials.
C
In Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n)
a.
unconditioned stimulus.
b.
unconditioned response.
c.
conditioned stimulus.
d.
conditioned response.
e.
preconditioned stimulus.
A
In Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, infants develop a fear of roses after roses are presented with electric shock. In this fictional example, the presentation of the roses is the
a.
conditioned stimulus.
b.
unconditioned stimulus.
c.
unconditioned response.
d.
conditioned response.
e.
fear response.
A
A child’s learned fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n)
a.
conditioned response.
b.
unconditioned stimulus.
c.
conditioned stimulus.
d.
unconditioned response.
e.
nonconditioned response.
A
If a tone causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the tone is called a(n)
a.
unconditioned stimulus.
b.
primary reinforcer.
c.
conditioned stimulus.
d.
immediate reinforcer.
e.
conditioned reinforcer.
C
A real estate agent showed Gavin several pictures of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later, when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakeshore property was a
a.
US.
b.
CS.
c.
UR.
d.
CR.
e.
SA.
B
Which of the following is an unconditioned response?
a.
salivating at the sight of a lemon
b.
raising your hand to ask a question
c.
jerking your hand off a very hot stove
d.
walking into a restaurant to eat
e.
working for money.
C
In Pavlov’s experiments, the taste of food triggered salivation in a dog. The food in the dog’s mouth was the
a.
US.
b.
UR.
c.
CS.
d.
CR.
e.
SR.
A
In Pavlov’s experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, a CR was
a.
salivation to the sound of a tone.
b.
salivation to the taste of food.
c.
the sound of a tone.
d.
the taste of food.
e.
sight of the food in the bowl.
A
If the sound of an electric can opener causes a child to salivate because it has previously been associated with the presentation of food, the child’s salivation to the sound of the can opener is a(n)
a.
conditioned response.
b.
unconditioned response.
c.
conditioned stimulus.
d.
unconditioned stimulus.
e.
preconditioned stimulus.
A
The infant Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was associated with a loud noise. In this example, fear of the white rat was the
a.
US.
b.
UR.
c.
CS.
d.
CR.
e.
SA.
D
In Pavlov’s experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the CS was
a.
the taste of food.
b.
salivation to the taste of food.
c.
the sound of a tone.
d.
salivation to the sound of a tone.
e.
the anticipation of food.
C
Researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The stage in which the flatworm’s contraction response to light is established and gradually strengthened is called
a.
shaping.
b.
acquisition.
c.
generalization.
d.
spontaneous recovery.
e.
latent learning.
B
In classical conditioning, the ________ signals the impending occurrence of the ________.
a.
US; CS
b.
UR; CR
c.
CS; US
d.
CR; UR
e.
US; CR
C
A geometric figure is most likely to become sexually arousing if presented shortly
a.
after an appropriate UR.
b.
after an appropriate US.
c.
before an appropriate UR.
d.
before an appropriate US.
e.
after an appropriate CS.
D
For the most rapid acquisition of a CR, the CS should be presented
a.
shortly after the CR.
b.
shortly after the US.
c.
shortly before the US.
d.
at the same time as the US.
e.
shortly before the CR.
C
An experimenter plans to condition a dog to salivate to a light by pairing the light with food. The dog will learn to salivate to the light most quickly if the experimenter presents the light
a.
five seconds before the food.
b.
a half-second before the food.
c.
at precisely the same time as the food.
d.
a half-second after the food.
e.
five seconds after the food.
B
Associating a conditioned stimulus with a new neutral stimulus can create a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. This best illustrates
a.
shaping.
b.
spontaneous recovery.
c.
intermittent reinforcement.
d.
higher-order conditioning.
e.
extinction.
D
If a tone that regularly signals food triggers a salivation response, then a light that becomes associated with that tone may also begin to trigger salivation. This best illustrates
a.
latent learning.
b.
the law of effect.
c.
higher-order conditioning.
d.
a variable-ratio schedule.
e.
positive reinforcement.
C
In classical conditioning, the
a.
neutral stimulus is presented before the unconditioned stimulus.
b.
unconditioned stimulus elicits the conditioned response.
c.
neutral stimulus elicits salivation.
d.
unconditioned stimulus is the same as the conditioned stimulus.
e.
unconditioned response produces the conditioned response.
A
After Pavlov had conditioned a dog to salivate to a tone, he repeatedly sounded the tone without presenting the food. As a result, ________ occurred.
a.
generalization
b.
negative reinforcement
c.
latent learning
d.
extinction
e.
discrimination
D
The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called
a.
generalization.
b.
spontaneous recovery.
c.
secondary reinforcement.
d.
latent learning.
e.
shaping.
B
Spontaneous recovery refers to the
a.
expression of learning that had occurred earlier but had not been expressed because of lack of incentive.
b.
organism’s tendency to respond spontaneously to stimuli similar to the CS as though they were the CS.
c.
return of a response after punishment has been terminated.
d.
reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
e.
tendency of organisms to generalize conditioned responses.
D
Which of the following provides evidence that a CR is not completely eliminated during extinction?
a.
latent learning
b.
partial reinforcement
c.
spontaneous recovery
d.
generalization
e.
discrimination
C
Long after being bitten by a stray dog, Alonzo found that his fear of dogs seemed to have disappeared. To his surprise, however, when he was recently confronted by a stray dog, he experienced a sudden twinge of anxiety. This sudden anxiety best illustrates
a.
delayed reinforcement.
b.
latent learning.
c.
spontaneous recovery.
d.
shaping.
e.
discrimination.
C
Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.
a.
UR; CR
b.
CS; UR
c.
US; UR
d.
CS; US
e.
NS; NR
D
The tendency for a CR to be evoked by stimuli similar to the CS is called
a.
spontaneous recovery.
b.
conditioned reinforcement.
c.
latent learning.
d.
generalization.
e.
shaping.
D
Dogs conditioned to salivate to stimulation of the thigh also begin to salivate when stimulated on other body parts. This BEST illustrates
a.
spontaneous recovery.
b.
continuous reinforcement.
c.
latent learning.
d.
generalization.
e.
habituation.
D
Monica’s psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she has to her own dad. Her reactions to her therapist best illustrate the importance of
a.
habituation.
b.
latent learning.
c.
generalization.
d.
delayed reinforcement.
e.
shaping.
C
Because of the discomfort and embarrassment associated with his childhood bed-wetting, Andrew becomes nervous whenever he has the urge to urinate. If genital arousal subsequently makes Andrew unusually anxious, this would best illustrate
a.
shaping.
b.
generalization.
c.
spontaneous recovery.
d.
secondary reinforcement.
e.
a discriminative stimulus.
B
Toddlers taught to fear moving cars may also begin to fear moving trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates
a.
generalization.
b.
secondary reinforcement.
c.
shaping.
d.
intermittent reinforcement.
e.
spontaneous recovery.
A
After receiving a painful shot from a female nurse in a white uniform, 3-year-old Vaclav experiences fear of any woman wearing a white dress. Vaclav’s reaction best illustrates
a.
shaping.
b.
extinction.
c.
latent learning.
d.
spontaneous recovery.
e.
generalization.
E
An allergy attack triggered by the sight of plastic flowers best illustrates the process of
a.
latent learning.
b.
delayed reinforcement.
c.
generalization.
d.
secondary reinforcement.
e.
spontaneous recovery.
C
Two-year-old Philip was recently clawed by the neighbor’s cat. Philip’s newly developed tendency to fear all small animals demonstrates the process of
a.
generalization.
b.
latent learning.
c.
shaping.
d.
spontaneous recovery.
e.
secondary reinforcement.
A
Compared with nonabused children, those who have experienced a history of abuse show a stronger brain-wave response to an unfamiliar but angry-looking face. This best illustrates
a.
shaping.
b.
generalization.
c.
the law of effect.
d.
negative reinforcement.
e.
punishment.
B
Little Albert was conditioned by John B. Watson to fear furry white rats. After conditioning, Albert also showed fear to rabbits, dogs, and fur coats. This best illustrates
a.
discrimination.
b.
generalization.
c.
acquisition.
d.
shaping.
e.
extinction.
B
Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of
a.
latent learning.
b.
shaping.
c.
intermittent reinforcement.
d.
discrimination.
e.
spontaneous recovery.
D
Some of Pavlov’s dogs learned to salivate to the sound of one particular tone and not to other tones. This illustrates the process of
a.
shaping.
b.
latent learning.
c.
secondary reinforcement.
d.
discrimination.
e.
extinction.
D
After recovering from a serious motorcycle accident, Gina was afraid to ride a motorcycle but not a bicycle. Gina’s pattern of fear best illustrates
a.
shaping.
b.
conditioned reinforcement.
c.
spontaneous recovery.
d.
discrimination.
e.
negative reinforcement.
D
Your heart may race when confronted by a lion but not when approached by a kitten. This best illustrates the adaptive value of
a.
shaping.
b.
discrimination.
c.
extrinsic motivation.
d.
spontaneous recovery.
e.
negative reinforcement.
B
Nikki has learned to expect the sound of thunder whenever she sees a flash of lightning. This suggests that associative learning involves
a.
negative reinforcement.
b.
cognitive processes.
c.
spontaneous recovery.
d.
shaping.
e.
continuous reinforcement.
B
After repeatedly taking alcohol spiked with a nausea-producing drug, people with alcohol dependence may fail to develop an aversive reaction to alcohol because they blame their nausea on the drug. This illustrates the importance of ________ in classical conditioning.
a.
biological predispositions
b.
generalization
c.
negative reinforcement
d.
cognitive processes
e.
spontaneous recovery
D
The cognitive perspective would be likely to emphasize that classical conditioning depends on
a.
an organism’s active behavioral responses to environmental stimulation.
b.
the amount of time between the presentation of the CS and the US.
c.
how frequently an organism is exposed to an association of a CS and a US.
d.
an organism’s expectation that a US will follow a CS.
e.
the expectation of a reward being fulfilled after the organism has responded appropriately.
D
Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks
a.
experienced extinction.
b.
underwent spontaneous recovery.
c.
developed learned helplessness.
d.
experienced a discriminative stimulus.
e.
developed a conditioned reinforcer.
C
After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg’s reaction most clearly illustrates
a.
negative reinforcement.
b.
observational learning.
c.
learned helplessness.
d.
partial reinforcement.
e.
latent learning.
C
How does Robert Rescorla’s model for classical conditioning differ from Ivan Pavlov’s?
a.
Rescorla emphasizes that an animal’s capacity for conditioning is constrained by biology.
b.
Rescorla believes that learning by observation is more long lasting than learning through pairing stimuli.
c.
Rescorla demonstrated that intermittent schedules of reinforcement lead to behaviors that are more resistant to extinction.
d.
Rescorla argued against the use of animals in research because of ethical concerns.
e.
Rescorla showed that cognition is important in an animal learning that one stimulus reliably predicts another stimulus.
E
Animals most readily learn the specific associations that promote
a.
shaping.
b.
survival.
c.
extrinsic motivation.
d.
prosocial behavior.
e.
social interaction.
B
Wolves that were tempted into eating sheep carcasses laced with poison develop an aversion to sheep meat. Which of the following provided the initial evidence leading to this practice?
a.
Robert Rescorla’s research on the importance of cognition in classical conditioning
b.
B. F. Skinner’s studies on intermittent schedules of reinforcement
c.
Martin Seligman’s research on learned helplessness
d.
John Garcia’s studies on the importance of biological predispositions in conditioning
e.
Edward L. Thorndike’s research on the law of effect
D
Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with
a.
loud sounds.
b.
bright lights.
c.
novel tastes.
d.
high-pitched sounds.
e.
acrid smells.
C
Garcia and Koelling’s studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by
a.
cognitive processes.
b.
biological predispositions.
c.
environmental factors.
d.
continuous reinforcement.
e.
latent learning.
B
Children learn to fear spiders more easily than they learn to fear flowers. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on learning.
a.
spontaneous recovery
b.
conditioned reinforcers
c.
shaping
d.
cognitive processes
e.
biological predispositions
E
In a series of experiments, men found women more attractive and sexually desirable when their photos were framed in
a.
black.
b.
yellow.
c.
violet.
d.
red.
e.
white.
D
An integrated understanding of associative learning in terms of genetic predispositions, culturally learned preferences, and the predictability of certain associations is most clearly provided by
a.
Pavlov’s experiments.
b.
Watson’s behaviorism.
c.
a biopsychosocial approach.
d.
the law of effect.
e.
operant conditioning.
C
Dr. Kingston emphasizes that learned fears reflect the interacting influences of a person’s inborn emotional reactivity, family life history, and capacity to generalize from previous experiences. Dr. Kingston’s emphasis best illustrates
a.
behaviorism.
b.
the law of effect.
c.
prosocial behavior.
d.
a biopsychosocial approach.
e.
cognitive-behavioral approach.
D
Pavlov’s research on classical conditioning was important because
a.
it highlighted the role of cognitive processes in learning.
b.
so many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically conditioned.
c.
it demonstrated an essential difference between animal and human learning.
d.
all learning depends on reinforcement.
e.
it demonstrated that rewards were more effective than punishment.
B
Ivan Pavlov’s experiments
a.
illustrated how the law of effect can be applied to conditioning.
b.
revealed how biological predispositions affect learning.
c.
showed that cognition is important to learning.
d.
demonstrated how learning can be studied objectively.
e.
exhibited the central principles of operant conditioning.
D
Watson to the study of learning?
a.
He challenged the prevailing belief that all associations can be learned equally well.
b.
He demonstrated that the more predictable the association, the stronger the conditioned response.
c.
He showed how the law of effect can be used to teach new behaviors.
d.
He explained how partial reinforcement schedules can be used to maintain learned behaviors.
e.
He demonstrated how some emotions and behaviors can be learned by classical conditioning.
E
After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of
a.
secondary reinforcement.
b.
generalization.
c.
shaping.
d.
latent learning.
e.
spontaneous recovery.
B
Watson and Rayner’s study of Little Albert demonstrated how specific fears
a.
can interfere with the process of learning.
b.
can be used as negative reinforcers.
c.
are acquired through observational learning.
d.
may be produced through classical conditioning.
e.
are highly hereditable from biological parents.
D
To assess whether Mrs. Webster had Alzheimer’s disease, researchers conditioned her to blink in response to a sound that signaled the delivery of a puff of air directed toward her face. In this application of classical conditioning, the sound was a
a.
US.
b.
UR.
c.
CS.
d.
CR.
e.
NS.
C
After he was spanked on several occasions for spilling his milk at a restaurant, Colin became afraid to go to the restaurant. In this case, spanking was a(n) ________ for Colin’s fear.
a.
negative reinforcer
b.
conditioned stimulus
c.
secondary reinforcer
d.
unconditioned stimulus
e.
primary reinforcer
D
Alexis is addicted to drugs. The room in which she usually takes them is likely to become a(n) ________ for drug cravings.
a.
primary reinforcer
b.
operant chamber
c.
US
d.
CS
e.
CR
D
Because his football coach frequently yells at him for swearing, Antonio now becomes anxious when he’s near his coach. The coach is a(n) ________ for Antonio’s anxiety.
a.
negative reinforcer
b.
conditioned stimulus
c.
secondary reinforcer
d.
unconditioned stimulus
e.
primary reinforcer.
B
A patient who had long feared going into elevators was told by his therapist to force himself to enter 20 elevators a day. The therapist most likely wanted to encourage the ________ of the patient’s fear.
a.
generalization
b.
latent learning
c.
shaping
d.
extinction
e.
reinforcement
D
Months after she was raped, Courtney’s heart pounds with fear merely at the sight of the place where she was attacked. The location of her attack is most likely a(n) ________ for Courtney’s anxiety.
a.
conditioned stimulus
b.
negative reinforcer
c.
unconditioned stimulus
d.
partial reinforcer
e.
primary reinforcer
A
An organism learns associations between events it does not control during the process of
a.
negative reinforcement.
b.
extrinsic motivation.
c.
classical conditioning.
d.
shaping.
e.
operant conditioning.
C
In classical conditioning, an organism forms associations between
a.
mirror neurons.
b.
events that it does not control.
c.
primary and secondary reinforcers.
d.
its own behavior and resulting outcomes.
e.
positive and negative reinforcers.
B
An automatic response to some stimulus is called
a.
associative learning.
b.
respondent behavior.
c.
observational learning.
d.
operant behavior.
e.
latent learning.
B
Which of the following is an example of a respondent behavior?
a.
studying for a test
b.
blushing when embarrassed
c.
thanking someone for their help
d.
sniffing to locate the source of a strange odor
e.
asking for a raise
B
In which form of learning is behavior said to be influenced by its consequences?
a.
observational learning
b.
classical conditioning
c.
operant conditioning
d.
latent learning
e.
insight
C
Voluntary behaviors that produce rewarding or punishing consequences are called
a.
respondent behaviors.
b.
prosocial behaviors.
c.
operant behaviors.
d.
conditioned responses.
e.
unconditioned responses.
C
Learning associations between one’s own personal actions and resulting events is most relevant to the process of
a.
classical conditioning.
b.
latent learning.
c.
observational learning.
d.
operant conditioning.
e.
insight.
D
Laurie’s thumbsucking has become habitual because she begins to feel less anxious whenever she sucks her thumb. This best illustrates the process of
a.
generalization.
b.
extinction.
c.
classical conditioning.
d.
latent learning.
e.
operant conditioning.
E
Ever since his mother began to give Julio gold stars for keeping his bed dry all night, Julio discontinued his habit of bed-wetting. His change in behavior best illustrates the value of
a.
primary reinforcement.
b.
classical conditioning.
c.
spontaneous recovery.
d.
operant conditioning.
e.
latent learning.
D
Which of the following terms best describes a respondent behavior?
a.
purposeful
b.
conscious
c.
reflexive
d.
voluntary
e.
unlearned
C
Which of the following terms best describes an operant behavior?
a.
automatic
b.
reflexive
c.
voluntary
d.
instinctive
e.
unlearned
C
B. F. Skinner’s work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called
a.
shaping.
b.
behaviorism.
c.
observational learning.
d.
the law of effect.
e.
latent learning.
D
Cats received a fish reward whenever they maneuvered themselves out of an enclosed puzzle box. With successive trials, the cats escaped from the box with increasing speed. This illustrates
a.
latent learning.
b.
the law of effect.
c.
respondent behavior.
d.
spontaneous recovery.
e.
intermittent reinforcement.
B
The law of effect refers to the tendency to
a.
learn associations between consecutive stimuli.
b.
learn in the absence of reinforcement.
c.
repeat behaviors that are rewarded.
d.
lose intrinsic interest in an over-rewarded activity.
e.
enhance conditioning using strict responses.
C
A Skinner box is a(n)
a.
soundproofed cubicle in which organisms are classically conditioned in the absence of distracting noise.
b.
aversive or punishing event that decreases the occurrence of certain undesirable behaviors.
c.
slot machine used to study the effects of partial reinforcement on human gambling practices.
d.
chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward.
e.
television projection device designed for use in laboratory studies of observational learning.
D
Skinner developed a behavioral technology that included a procedure known as
a.
shaping.
b.
modeling.
c.
latent learning.
d.
intrinsic motivation.
e.
conditioned stimuli.
A
Shaping is a(n) ________ procedure.
a.
latent learning
b.
operant conditioning
c.
classical conditioning
d.
observational learning
e.
cognitive mapping
B
The process of reinforcing successively closer approximations to a desired behavior is called
a.
generalization.
b.
intermittent reinforcement.
c.
shaping.
d.
secondary reinforcement.
e.
modeling.
C
To teach an animal to perform a complex sequence of behaviors, animal trainers are most likely to use a procedure known as
a.
classical conditioning.
b.
delayed reinforcement.
c.
latent learning.
d.
generalization.
e.
shaping.
E
You would be most likely to use operant conditioning to teach a dog to
a.
fear cars in the street.
b.
dislike the taste of dead birds.
c.
wag its tail whenever it is emotionally excited.
d.
retrieve sticks and balls.
e.
salivate when presented with food.
D
An animal trainer is teaching a miniature poodle to balance on a ball. Initially, he gives the poodle a treat for approaching the ball, then only for placing its front paws on the ball, and finally only for climbing on the ball. The trainer is using the method of
a.
successive approximations.
b.
delayed reinforcement.
c.
latent learning.
d.
classical conditioning.
e.
secondary reinforcement.
A
Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of
a.
secondary reinforcement.
b.
delayed reinforcement.
c.
spontaneous recovery.
d.
shaping.
e.
latent learning.
D
Because Mr. Baron demonstrates appreciation only for very good classroom answers, his students have stopped participating in class. Mr. Baron most clearly needs to be informed of the value of
a.
generalization.
b.
modeling.
c.
shaping.
d.
latent learning.
e.
spontaneous recovery.
C
On Monday, Johnny’s mother gave him cookies and milk after he had played quietly for 10 minutes. On Tuesday, she required 20 minutes of quiet play before treat time, and on Wednesday, the cookies were given to him only after a full half hour of quiet play. Johnny was taught to play quietly for extended periods through
a.
latent learning.
b.
secondary reinforcement.
c.
partial reinforcement.
d.
shaping.
e.
modeling.
D
In shaping a dog to shake, the command shake would be the ________. When the dog slightly moves its paw, this would be a(n) ________.
a.
discriminative stimulus; operant behavior
b.
unconditioned stimulus; respondent behavior
c.
conditioned stimulus; positive reinforcer
d.
modeling; prosocial behavior
e.
continuous reinforcement; conditioned reinforcer
A
A rat in a Skinner box is reinforced with a food pellet only if the rat moves close to the lever. Next, reinforcement is withheld until the rat stands on its hind legs, then until the rat touches the lever, and finally, until the rat presses the lever. This example best illustrates
a.
latent learning.
b.
spontaneous recovery.
c.
modeling.
d.
shaping.
e.
generalization.
D
A psychologist would be most likely to use ________ to determine whether nonverbal organisms can perceive different colors.
a.
mirror neurons
b.
modeling
c.
a cognitive map
d.
shaping
e.
extinction
D
A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a pecking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face is a(n)
a.
unconditioned stimulus.
b.
partial reinforcement.
c.
discriminative stimulus.
d.
primary reinforcer.
e.
generalized stimulus.
C
Which of the following is true of positive and negative reinforcers?
a.
Positive reinforcers decrease the rate of operant responding; negative reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding.
b.
Positive reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding; negative reinforcers decrease the rate of operant responding.
c.
Positive reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding; negative reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding.
d.
Positive reinforcers have no effect on the rate of operant responding; negative reinforcers decrease the rate of operant responding.
e.
Positive reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding; negative reinforcers have no effect on the rate of operant responding.
C
Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
a.
conditioned stimulus.
b.
unconditioned stimulus.
c.
positive reinforcer.
d.
negative reinforcer.
e.
positive punishment.
C
Every Saturday morning, Arnold quickly washes the family’s breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance, washing the car is a(n)
a.
positive reinforcer.
b.
unconditioned response.
c.
conditioned response.
d.
negative reinforcer.
e.
punishment.
A
The more often Matthew is scolded following a temper tantrum, the more frequently he loses his temper. In this case, the scolding serves as a ________ for Matthew’s temper tantrums.
a.
negative reinforcer
b.
conditioned stimulus
c.
positive reinforcer
d.
punishment
e.
unconditioned stimulus
C
Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
a.
conditioned stimulus.
b.
unconditioned stimulus.
c.
positive reinforcer.
d.
negative reinforcer.
e.
positive punishment.
D
Escape from an aversive stimulus is a ________ reinforcer.
a.
positive
b.
negative
c.
secondary
d.
partial
e.
delayed
B
Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Mason’s running habit is maintained by a(n) ________ reinforcer.
a.
positive
b.
negative
c.
conditioned
d.
partial
e.
intermittent
B
Jacinda has a glass of wine after work because it relieves her anxiety. Her wine drinking is likely to continue because it is followed by a ________ reinforcer.
a.
secondary
b.
partial
c.
negative
d.
positive
e.
conditioned
C
Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ________ is to ________.
a.
positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
b.
primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer
c.
immediate reinforcer; delayed reinforcer
d.
reinforcement; punishment
e.
partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement
A
Closing your bedroom door so that you won’t hear the TV that is interfering with your studying is an example of
a.
positive reinforcement.
b.
conditioned reinforcers.
c.
partial reinforcement.
d.
negative reinforcement.
e.
punishment.
D
What is the difference between a primary and a conditioned reinforcer?
a.
Primary reinforcers are presented immediately after the behavior; conditioned reinforcers are presented after a delay.
b.
Primary reinforcers are introduced every time the behavior occurs; conditioned reinforcers are introduced only sometimes.
c.
Primary reinforcers lead to rapid learning of the behavior; conditioned reinforcers produce greater resistance to extinction.
d.
Primary reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding; conditioned reinforcers decrease the rate of operant responding.
e.
Primary reinforcers are unlearned and innately satisfying; conditioned reinforcers are learned.
E
Money is to food as ________ is to ________.
a.
delayed reinforcer; immediate reinforcer
b.
secondary reinforcer; primary reinforcer
c.
discrimination; generalization
d.
partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement
e.
operant conditioning; classical conditioning
B
Innately satisfying stimuli that fulfill biological needs are called ________ reinforcers.
a.
fixed
b.
primary
c.
positive
d.
continuous
e.
unconditioned
B
A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power by association with a primary reinforcer is called a ________ reinforcer.
a.
delayed
b.
negative
c.
partial
d.
conditioned
e.
positive
D
Which of the following is the best example of a conditioned reinforcer?
a.
applause for an excellent piano recital
b.
a spanking for eating cookies before dinner
c.
a cold root beer for mowing the lawn on a hot day
d.
termination of shock after removing one’s finger from a live electric wire
e.
pudding for eating all your peas at supper
A
The removal of electric shock is to the receipt of good grades as ________ is to ________.
a.
delayed reinforcer; immediate reinforcer
b.
primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer
c.
discrimination; generalization
d.
partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement
e.
operant conditioning; classical conditioning
B
Most animals are best conditioned through reinforcers delivered immediately after the desired behavior is performed. What are these reinforcers called?
a.
unconditioned
b.
conditioned
c.
partial
d.
immediate
e.
primary
D
To quickly teach a dog to roll over on command, you would be best advised to use
a.
classical conditioning rather than operant conditioning.
b.
partial reinforcement rather than continuous reinforcement.
c.
latent learning rather than shaping.
d.
immediate reinforcers rather than delayed reinforcers.
e.
negative reinforcers rather than positive reinforcers.
D
Humans, unlike many other animals, can be conditioned with reinforcers not delivered until a long time after the desired behavior. What are these reinforcers called?
a.
continuous
b.
interval
c.
partial
d.
delayed
e.
secondary
D
A trainer wants to train a chicken to peck a key to obtain food. If she wants the chicken to learn this trick quickly and the behavior to be resistant to extinction, she should use ________ reinforcement until the response is mastered and then follow with a period of ________ reinforcement.
a.
positive; negative
b.
negative; positive
c.
primary; secondary
d.
partial; continuous
e.
continuous; partial
E
Four-year-old Della asks her mother for a special treat every time they go to the grocery store. At first her mother granted every request, but now she does so less consistently. Research suggests that Della will
a.
soon give up asking for a treat entirely.
b.
come to ask for a treat only occasionally.
c.
continue to ask for a treat nearly every time she goes to the store.
d.
ask for a treat every time her mother takes her out, even if they don’t go to the grocery store.
e.
begin to ask for treats every time she sees her mother.
C
The way slot machines reward gamblers with money best illustrates
a.
spontaneous recovery.
b.
partial reinforcement.
c.
generalization.
d.
shaping.
e.
continuous reinforcement.
B
A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n)
a.
specified time period has elapsed.
b.
unpredictable time period has elapsed.
c.
specified number of responses have been made.
d.
unpredictable number of responses have been made.
e.
specific number of rewards and punishments are applied.
C
Coffee shops that reward customers with one free cup of coffee after every ten coffee purchases are using a ________ reinforcement schedule.
a.
fixed-interval
b.
variable-interval
c.
fixed-ratio
d.
variable-ratio
e.
intermittent-continuous
C
Luana edits manuscripts for a publisher and is paid $25 for every three pages she edits. Luana is reinforced on a ________ schedule.
a.
fixed-interval
b.
fixed-ratio
c.
variable-interval
d.
variable-ratio
e.
partial-interval
B
Blake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot of carpet he lays rather than with an hourly wage. Blake prefers working on a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
a.
fixed-ratio
b.
fixed-interval
c.
variable-interval
d.
variable-ratio
e.
intermittent-interval
A
A variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after
a.
a specified time period has elapsed.
b.
an unpredictable time period has elapsed.
c.
a specified number of responses have been made.
d.
an unpredictable number of responses have been made.
e.
the desired behavior is performed during a predetermined time interval.
D
Which of the following behaviors is typically reinforced on a variable-ratio schedule?
a.
studying to be prepared for unexpected quizzes
b.
inserting coins into a slot machine
c.
paying a cashier for a candy bar
d.
checking the mailbox to see if the mail has arrived
e.
assembling car parts in a factory
B
Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ________ schedule.
a.
fixed-interval
b.
intermittent-continuous
c.
fixed-ratio
d.
variable-ratio
e.
variable-interval
D
Asking for dates is most likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
a.
continuous-ratio
b.
fixed-ratio
c.
variable-interval
d.
variable-ratio
e.
fixed-interval
D
Glancing at the television in the next room in hopes of seeing the beginning of the evening news is likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
a.
intermittent-variable
b.
fixed-ratio
c.
variable-interval
d.
variable-ratio
e.
fixed-interval
E
A small-town radio disc jockey frequently announces how much money is currently in a jackpot. Every day several randomly selected residents are called and asked to identify the amount, and thereby win it. Those who keep track of the jackpot amount are most likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
a.
fixed-ratio
b.
variable-interval
c.
variable-ratio
d.
fixed-interval
e.
partial-delayed
B
A fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n)
a.
unpredictable time period has elapsed.
b.
specified time period has elapsed.
c.
specified number of responses has been made.
d.
unpredictable number of responses has been made.
e.
the desired behavior is performed a set number of times.
B
An executive in a computer software firm works with his office door closed. At the same time every hour he opens the door to see what his employees are doing. The employees have learned to work especially hard during the five minutes before and while the door is open. Their work pattern is typical of responses that are reinforced on a ________ schedule.
a.
fixed-interval
b.
partial-interval
c.
variable-ratio
d.
variable-interval
e.
fixed-ratio
A
A variable-interval schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n)
a.
specified time period has elapsed.
b.
unpredictable number of responses has been made.
c.
specified number of responses has been made.
d.
unpredictable time period has elapsed.
e.
number of responses is performed in a specific time period.
D
On the first day of class, Professor Wallace tells her geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace’s surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
a.
fixed-interval
b.
conditioned-response
c.
variable-interval
d.
variable-ratio
e.
fixed-ratio
C
Watching the night sky for shooting stars is likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
a.
fixed-interval
b.
fixed-ratio
c.
variable-interval
d.
variable-ratio
e.
partial-delayed
C
A choppy stop-start pattern of operant responding is associated with the ________ schedule of reinforcement.
a.
fixed-ratio
b.
fixed-interval
c.
variable-ratio
d.
variable-interval
e.
continuous-immediate
B
A slow but steady rate of operant responding is associated with the ________ schedule of reinforcement.
a.
fixed-ratio
b.
immediate-interval
c.
variable-ratio
d.
variable-interval
e.
fixed-interval
D
An event that decreases the behavior that precedes it is a
a.
negative reinforcer.
b.
punishment.
c.
conditioned stimulus.
d.
delayed reinforcer.
e.
secondary reinforcer.
B
The introduction of a pleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus is to ________.
a.
positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
b.
acquisition; extinction
c.
reinforcement; punishment
d.
generalization; discrimination
e.
primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer
C
Which of the following is true of negative reinforcement and punishment?
a.
Negative reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding; punishments decrease the rate of operant responding.
b.
Negative reinforcers decrease the rate of operant responding; punishments increase the rate of operant responding.
c.
Negative reinforcers decrease the rate of operant responding; punishments decrease the rate of operant responding.
d.
Negative reinforcers have no effect on the rate of operant responding; punishments decrease the rate of operant responding.
e.
Negative reinforcers decrease the rate of operant responding; punishments have no effect on the rate of operant responding.
A
The introduction of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________.
a.
acquisition; extinction
b.
negative reinforcer; positive reinforcer
c.
primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer
d.
punishment; reinforcement
e.
partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement
D
Myron quit gambling after he lost more than a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects of
a.
negative reinforcers.
b.
generalization.
c.
spontaneous recovery.
d.
punishment.
e.
secondary reinforcers.
D
A child who is punished for swearing at home but reinforced for swearing on the school playground is most likely to demonstrate a patterned habit of swearing that is indicative of
a.
negative reinforcement.
b.
instinctive drift.
c.
discrimination.
d.
extinction.
e.
spontaneous reinforcement.
C
Punishment is a potentially hazardous way for teachers to control young children’s behaviors because
a.
the more severely children are punished for undesirable behaviors, the more likely they will exhibit those behaviors.
b.
children will forget how to perform punished behaviors even when the behaviors may be justified and necessary.
c.
the use of punishment could condition children to fear and avoid school.
d.
punishment cannot temporarily restrain undesirable behaviors.
e.
although punishments delivered by parents can be effective, teacher-delivered punishments usually have little effect.
C
When 4-year-old Michael hit his sister, his Mom placed him in a time-out by having him stand in a corner for 4 minutes. A time-out is considered to be
a.
positive punishment.
b.
negative reinforcement.
c.
positive reinforcement.
d.
negative punishment.
e.
continuous reinforcement.
D
Robert was late for school, so he parked in a space reserved for teachers. Later, when he went to get his car, he noticed a yellow parking ticket under the windshield wiper. The parking ticket would be considered
a.
continuous reinforcement.
b.
negative punishment.
c.
positive reinforcement.
d.
negative reinforcement.
e.
positive punishment.
E
A young child who is spanked after running into the street learns not to repeat this behavior. In this case, the spanking is a
a.
positive reinforcer.
b.
conditioned reinforce.
c.
positive punishment.
d.
negative punishment.
e.
negative reinforcer.
C
Revoking the driver’s license of a reckless driver is intended to serve as a
a.
negative reinforcement.
b.
positive reinforcement.
c.
negative punishment.
d.
positive punishment.
e.
punishing reinforcer.
C
For purposes of effective child-rearing, most psychologists favor the use of
a.
shaping over modeling.
b.
reinforcement over punishment.
c.
spontaneous recovery over extinction.
d.
classical conditioning over operant conditioning.
e.
primary reinforcers over secondary reinforcers.
B
Operant response rates remain highest when individuals anticipate that their behavior will actually lead to further reinforcement. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning.
a.
secondary reinforcers
b.
cognitive processes
c.
biological predispositions
d.
intrinsic motivation
e.
spontaneous recovery
B
If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates
a.
shaping.
b.
latent learning.
c.
delayed reinforcement.
d.
spontaneous recovery.
e.
modeling.
B
Some psychologists believe that rats develop mental representations of mazes they have explored. These representations have been called
a.
primary reinforcers.
b.
successive approximations.
c.
discriminative stimuli.
d.
cognitive maps.
e.
intrinsic motives.
D
The best evidence that animals develop cognitive maps comes from studies of
a.
shaping.
b.
generalization.
c.
latent learning.
d.
secondary reinforcement.
e.
spontaneous recovery.
C
Studies of latent learning highlight the importance of
a.
primary reinforcers.
b.
respondent behavior.
c.
spontaneous recovery.
d.
cognitive processes.
e.
conditioned reinforcers.
D
Elijah has learned to expect that whenever he studies diligently for tests, he will receive good grades. This suggests that associative learning involves
a.
respondent behavior.
b.
cognitive processes.
c.
primary reinforcers.
d.
intermittent reinforcement.
e.
shaping.
B
What type of learning sometimes occurs after an extended period of thinking about a problem but little or no direct, systematic interaction with the environment?
a.
operant learning
b.
classical conditioning
c.
observational learning
d.
insight learning
e.
latent learning
D
Professor Kohler observed chimpanzees discover a novel way to reach a banana hung out of their reach. This scenario is most likely an example of which type of learning?
a.
operant learning
b.
classical conditioning
c.
observational learning
d.
insight learning
e.
latent learning
D
Caroline was halfway through writing an essay for her English class, when she couldn’t think of what to say next. She decided to stop working on the essay for a while. When she returned to her desk, she suddenly realized what she should write. Caroline’s experience best illustrates
a.
latent learning.
b.
spontaneous recovery.
c.
insight.
d.
intrinsic motivation.
e.
shaping.
C
The desire to engage in an activity for the sake of its own enjoyment involves
a.
secondary reinforcers.
b.
spontaneous recovery.
c.
intrinsic motivation.
d.
latent learning.
e.
unconditioned stimuli.
C
Promising people monetary rewards for doing what they already enjoy doing is most likely to undermine
a.
latent learning.
b.
intrinsic motivation.
c.
spontaneous recovery.
d.
generalization.
e.
discrimination.
B
Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit
a.
respondent behavior.
b.
continuous reinforcement.
c.
latent learning.
d.
spontaneous recovery.
e.
intrinsic motivation.
E
The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves
a.
latent learning.
b.
extrinsic motivation.
c.
partial reinforcement.
d.
delayed reinforcers.
e.
classical conditioning.
B
Caroline loves to read and enjoys looking up the meanings of words she does not know. In school, her teacher promises a gold star to students each time they learn a new word. The teacher’s behavior is most likely to undermine
a.
latent learning.
b.
intrinsic motivation.
c.
spontaneous recovery.
d.
generalization.
e.
insight learning.
B
Researchers trained pigs to pick up large wooden dollars and deposit them in a piggy bank. Instead of picking up the wooden discs, the pigs would drop them, push them with their snouts, and then pick them up to put them in the piggy bank. This behavior best illustrates
a.
intrinsic motivation.
b.
latent learning.
c.
spontaneous recovery.
d.
generalization.
e.
instinctive drift.
E
It is easier to train a dog to bark for food than to train it to stand on its hind legs for food. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.
a.
primary reinforcement
b.
generalization
c.
biological predispositions
d.
negative reinforcement
e.
spontaneous recovery
C
It’s easier to train a pigeon to peck a disk for a food reward than to flap its wings for a food reward. This illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.
a.
primary reinforcers
b.
generalization
c.
spontaneous recovery
d.
biological predispositions
e.
shaping
D
After pigs learned to pick up and deposit wooden coins in a piggy bank, the pigs subsequently dropped the coins repeatedly and pushed them with their snouts. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning.
a.
conditioned reinforcement
b.
spontaneous recovery
c.
latent learning
d.
generalization
e.
biological predispositions
E
Animals tend to revert from newly learned habits to their biologically predisposed behaviors. This is an example of
a.
latent learning.
b.
instinctive drift.
c.
the law of effect.
d.
spontaneous recovery.
e.
operant conditioning.
B
According to B. F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by
a.
biological predispositions.
b.
external influences.
c.
emotions.
d.
unconscious motives.
e.
conscious thoughts.
B
In explaining prosocial behavior, B. F. Skinner would most likely have emphasized
a.
genetic influences.
b.
empathy and compassion.
c.
an unconscious need for social approval.
d.
the internalization of moral values.
e.
the beneficial consequences of prosocial behavior.
E
B. F. Skinner’s critics have claimed that he neglected the importance of the individual’s
a.
personal freedom.
b.
early childhood experiences.
c.
pleasure-seeking tendencies.
d.
cultural background.
e.
past behaviors.
A
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be considered an important component of effective student instruction involving the use of interactive software?
a.
respondent behavior
b.
immediate reinforcement
c.
operant behavior
d.
shaping
e.
positive reinforcement
A
B. F. Skinner believed that teaching machines could promote effective learning because they allow for both
a.
continuous reinforcement and latent learning.
b.
positive reinforcement and punishment.
c.
classical and operant conditioning.
d.
shaping and immediate reinforcement.
e.
observational learning and spontaneous recovery.
D
Golf instruction that reinforces short putts before attempting to reinforce long putts best illustrates the process of
a.
generalization.
b.
shaping.
c.
modeling.
d.
discrimination.
e.
delayed reinforcement.
B
Alex learned how to make 3-point basketball shots by successfully making very short shots before shooting from increasingly longer distances from the hoop. This learning strategy best illustrates the process of
a.
observational learning.
b.
delayed reinforcement.
c.
classical conditioning.
d.
shaping.
e.
operant conditioning.
D
Tennis instruction that reinforces soft, short lobs over the net before attempting to reinforce hard, long, cross-court hits best illustrates the process of
a.
shaping.
b.
modeling.
c.
discrimination.
d.
delayed reinforcement.
e.
insight learning.
A
Mr. Schlenker has improved worker productivity at his furniture manufacturing plant by occasionally sending notes of appreciation to his hard-working employees. Mr. Schlenker has improved productivity by means of
a.
latent learning.
b.
classical conditioning.
c.
modeling.
d.
operant conditioning.
e.
observational learning.
D
Two years ago, the de Castellane Manufacturing Company included its employees in a profit-sharing plan in which workers receive semi-annual bonuses based on the company’s profits. Since this plan was initiated, worker productivity at de Castellane has nearly doubled. This productivity increase is best explained in terms of
a.
observational learning.
b.
latent learning.
c.
operant conditioning.
d.
classical conditioning.
e.
spontaneous recovery.
C
Compared with apartment dwellers whose landlords pay their electricity costs, those apartment dwellers who pay their own electric bills use less electricity. This most clearly illustrates that consumer electricity usage is influenced by
a.
operant conditioning.
b.
classical conditioning.
c.
observational learning.
d.
spontaneous recovery.
e.
latent learning.
A
Using an operant chamber, Skinner timed food pellets to drop every 15 minutes. If a rat was in a certain location just before the food was presented, the rat went to that location more frequently even though it was not directly tied to the appearance of food. Which of the following best explains this superstitious behavior?
a.
Learning sometimes becomes apparent when there is some incentive to demonstrate it.
b.
Reinforcement for a task already enjoyed can backfire, reducing intrinsic motivation.
c.
A continuous reinforcement schedule will lead to the most rapid learning.
d.
Conditioned reinforcers get their power through learned association with primary reinforcers.
e.
Any behavior that is accidentally reinforced is more likely to be repeated.
E
Marvin happens to wear a red shirt when he takes a test he expects to fail. Surprisingly, he does well on the test, so he wears the red shirt every time he takes a test. Which of the following explains Marvin’s superstitious behavior?
a.
Learning sometimes becomes apparent when there is some incentive to demonstrate it.
b.
Reinforcement for a task already enjoyed can backfire, reducing intrinsic motivation.
c.
A continuous reinforcement schedule will lead to the most rapid learning.
d.
Conditioned reinforcers get their power through learned association with primary reinforcers.
e.
Any behavior that is accidentally reinforced is more likely to be repeated.
E
If a baseball player gets a hit after tapping the plate with the bat, he is more likely to repeat that behavior the next time he’s up to the plate. Which of the following best explains this superstitious behavior?
a.
Reinforced behavior, even if it is accidental, is more likely to be repeated.
b.
Operant behaviors are voluntary.
c.
Immediate reinforcers are more effective when delayed in changing behavior.
d.
Variable-ratio schedules produce high rates of responding.
e.
Latent learning becomes apparent only when there is some incentive to demonstrate it.
A
To modify your own behavior using operant conditioning principles, you should
a.
monitor and record the actual frequency of the operant behavior you wish to promote.
b.
formulate goals for behavior change that are a bit more ambitious than what you can actually accomplish.
c.
carefully observe and imitate the specific behaviors practiced by others who have successfully achieved your goals.
d.
systematically reinforce the operant behavior you wish to promote with delayed rather than immediate reinforcers.
e.
associate the desired behavior with an unconditioned stimulus.
A
The results of early research on biofeedback were surprising because they indicated that people could learn to control bodily functions regulated by the
a.
somatic nervous system.
b.
autonomic nervous system.
c.
cerebellum.
d.
frontal lobes.
e.
endocrine system.
B
Which of the following is an example of biofeedback?
a.
Milos learns to relax by being provided with information on changes in his heart rate.
b.
Jane decides to work fewer hours after seeing a film linking stress with cancer.
c.
Chico learns to lower his blood pressure by meditating twice a day.
d.
Kecia successfully quits smoking after her psychologist has her smoke so rapidly she cannot tolerate another cigarette.
e.
Guy learns to stop crying after being rewarded with gold stars for bravery.
A
The most important benefit of biofeedback is its capacity to
a.
encourage regular aerobic exercise.
b.
reduce the production of lymphocytes.
c.
elevate blood sugar levels.
d.
facilitate the relaxation response.
e.
enhance latent learning potential.
D
Neal Miller observed that rats decrease their heartbeat if they receive pleasurable brain stimulation when their heartbeat slows. This best illustrated that
a.
suppression of the immune system can be carcinogenic.
b.
biofeedback can facilitate control of autonomic nervous system functioning.
c.
loss of personal control heightens reactions to stressful situations.
d.
positive as well as negative stimulation can trigger the general adaptation syndrome.
e.
positive reinforcement is more effective than punishment.
B
Electronically recording, amplifying, and displaying information regarding subtle physiological responses is called
a.
acupuncture.
b.
biofeedback.
c.
relaxation training.
d.
psychoneuroimmunology.
e.
psychometrics.
B
A learned association between a response and a stimulus is to ________ as a learned association between two stimuli is to ________.
a.
latent learning; observation learning
b.
generalization; discrimination
c.
operant conditioning; classical conditioning
d.
secondary reinforcement; primary reinforcement
e.
acquisition; extinction
C
Both classical and operant conditioning are forms of
a.
associative learning.
b.
respondent behavior.
c.
observational learning.
d.
intrinsic motivation.
e.
latent learning.
A
Classical conditioning involves a learned association between
a.
two stimuli.
b.
two responses.
c.
two reinforcers.
d.
behavior and its consequence.
e.
reinforcers and punishers.
A
A learned association between two stimuli is central to
a.
shaping.
b.
negative reinforcement.
c.
extrinsic motivation.
d.
classical conditioning.
e.
observational learning.
D
Operant conditioning involves a learned association between
a.
two responses.
b.
two stimuli.
c.
two reinforcers.
d.
behavior and its consequence.
e.
unconditioned and conditioned stimuli.
D
A learned association between a response and a consequence is central to
a.
operant conditioning.
b.
latent learning.
c.
classical conditioning.
d.
intrinsic motivation.
e.
insight learning.
A
Automatically blinking to an air puff is to ________ as raising your hand to answer a question is to ________.
a.
classical conditioning; operant conditioning
b.
immediate reinforcement; delayed reinforcement
c.
unconditioned response; conditioned response
d.
discrimination; generalization
e.
operant behavior; respondent behavior
A
After being classically conditioned to salivate to a tone, a dog continues to hear a tone but does not receive food; as a result, salivation will decrease, then disappear. A dog owner may use operant conditioning to train a dog to sit by presenting a treat each time the dog sits. However, the behavior may diminish if the treats are discontinued. Both examples illustrate
a.
spontaneous recovery.
b.
generalization.
c.
discrimination.
d.
cognitive processes.
e.
extinction.
E
Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of
a.
respondent behavior.
b.
immediate reinforcement.
c.
spontaneous recovery.
d.
modeling.
e.
shaping.
D
Dan and Joel, both 4-year-olds, have been watching reruns of Superman on television. Joel’s mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. What best accounts for the boys’ behavior?
a.
shaping
b.
delayed reinforcement
c.
observational learning
d.
immediate reinforcement
e.
classical conditioning
C
The tendency for children to imitate behaviors seen on television best illustrates the importance of
a.
shaping.
b.
modeling.
c.
respondent behavior.
d.
immediate reinforcement.
e.
spontaneous recovery.
B
Our ability to learn by witnessing the behavior of others best illustrates
a.
respondent behavior.
b.
prosocial behavior.
c.
operant conditioning.
d.
observational learning.
e.
classical conditioning.
D
Without any explicit training from adults, many 8-year-old children know how to turn the ignition key to start their parents’ cars. This best illustrates the importance of
a.
observational learning.
b.
classical conditioning.
c.
operant conditioning.
d.
spontaneous recovery.
e.
discrimination.
A
The transmission of cultural fads and fashions best illustrates the impact of
a.
respondent behavior.
b.
immediate reinforcement.
c.
spontaneous recovery.
d.
primary reinforcers.
e.
observational learning.
E
Rhesus macaque monkeys are more likely to reconcile after a fight if they grow up with forgiving older macaque monkeys. This best illustrates the impact of
a.
observational learning.
b.
immediate reinforcement.
c.
spontaneous recovery.
d.
respondent behavior.
e.
shaping.
A
Chimpanzees learn foraging and tool use by observing other chimpanzees. This best illustrates
a.
generalization.
b.
modeling.
c.
shaping.
d.
insight.
e.
habituation.
B
Which of the following factors most influences whether we will imitate a model?
a.
whether the model is rewarded or punished
b.
if the model is seen on television or in person
c.
models that demonstrate antisocial behaviors are generally not imitated
d.
fantasy models (such as cartoon characters) are more likely to be imitated.
e.
disreputable, evil models are more likely to be imitated
A
Researchers discovered that the regions of the frontal lobe activated when a monkey moves peanuts to its own mouth are also activated when the monkey simply observes other monkeys move peanuts to their mouths. This discovery pointed to the significance of
a.
intrinsic motives.
b.
mirror neurons.
c.
extrinsic motives.
d.
cognitive maps.
e.
unconditioned stimuli.
B
Mirror neurons provide a biological basis for
a.
the law of effect.
b.
spontaneous recovery.
c.
observational learning.
d.
extrinsic motivation.
e.
insight learning.
C
Which of the following become active both when people watch an action being performed and when they perform that action themselves?
a.
cognitive maps
b.
fixed-ratio schedules
c.
mirror neurons
d.
operant chambers
e.
biofeedback systems
C
Which of the following are most clearly activated both by picking up a spoon and by simply watching another person pick up a spoon?
a.
extrinsic motives
b.
intrinsic motives
c.
cognitive maps
d.
mirror neurons
e.
delayed reinforcers
D
Neuroscientists have discovered mirror neurons in the
a.
frontal lobe adjacent to the motor cortex.
b.
temporal lobe adjacent to the auditory cortex.
c.
parietal lobe adjacent to the sensory cortex.
d.
occipital lobe adjacent to the visual cortex.
e.
hippocampus in the brain stem.
A
Mirror neurons most clearly provide us with the capacity for
a.
spontaneous recovery.
b.
intrinsic motivation.
c.
intermittent reinforcement.
d.
imitation.
e.
insight learning.
D
Children are helped by ________ to develop a theory of mind.
a.
spontaneous recovery
b.
mirror neurons
c.
instinctive drift
d.
operant chambers
e.
insight learning
B
The reduced imitative yawning displayed by people with autism is most directly related to their reduced levels of
a.
mirror neuron activity.
b.
spontaneous recovery.
c.
respondent behavior.
d.
positive reinforcement.
e.
associative learning.
A
We find it harder to frown when viewing a smile than when viewing a frown. This can most clearly be attributed to
a.
partial reinforcement.
b.
spontaneous recovery.
c.
mirror neurons.
d.
cognitive maps.
e.
positive reinforcement.
C
In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of
a.
negative reinforcement.
b.
operant conditioning.
c.
respondent behavior.
d.
observational learning.
e.
spontaneous recovery.
D
Skinner is to shaping as Bandura is to
a.
punishing.
b.
extinguishing.
c.
discriminating.
d.
modeling.
e.
generalizing.
D
Bandura’s experiments indicate that ________ is important in the process of learning.
a.
shaping
b.
generalization
c.
modeling
d.
respondent behavior
e.
secondary reinforcement
C
Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment demonstrated that the power of observational learning depends on what?
a.
whether the participant is directly rewarded or punished for behaving
b.
whether violence is performed
c.
whether the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus
d.
whether we see the people as similar to us
e.
the power of extinction to overcome conditioning
D
In his classic study, Albert Bandura found that children exposed to an adult model who behaved aggressively by beating up a Bobo doll
a.
imitated the adults actions.
b.
acted aggressively in the presence of other children.
c.
behaved aggressively in the presence of their parents.
d.
did not demonstrate prosocial behavior even when such behavior was modeled later.
e.
displayed little interest in the experimental situation.
A
Mr. Zandee has stopped smoking because he wants to model healthy behavior patterns for his children. Mr. Zandee is apparently aware of the importance of ________ in his children’s development.
a.
shaping
b.
observational learning
c.
generalization
d.
delayed reinforcement
e.
spontaneous recovery
B
Like European Christians who risked their lives to rescue Jews from the Nazis, civil rights activists of the 1960s had parents who
a.
consistently used reinforcement in combination with punishment to shape their children’s moral behavior.
b.
modeled a strong moral or humanitarian concern.
c.
consistently used psychological punishment rather than physical punishment in shaping their children’s behavior.
d.
consistently used permissive rather than authoritarian child-rearing practices.
e.
consistently explained to their children the harsh consequences of immoral behavior.
B
Experiments suggest that children exposed to a model who says one thing and does another will
a.
ignore both what the model says and does.
b.
ignore what the model does but talk in ways consistent with what the model says.
c.
ignore what the model says but act in ways consistent with what the model does.
d.
talk in ways consistent with what the model says and act in ways consistent with what the model does.
e.
talk in ways that contradict the model in order to match the observed behavior.
D
Christian and Maggie are concerned with teaching their children to act prosocially. Social learning psychologists would advise them to
a.
read self-help books to their children.
b.
begin prosocial modeling after the children turn 8 years old.
c.
make sure their own actions and words are consistent.
d.
keep their children isolated from antisocial models.
e.
avoid reinforcing their children for tasks they already enjoy doing.
C
Children of abusive parents often learn to be aggressive by imitating their parents. This illustrates the importance of
a.
delayed reinforcement.
b.
spontaneous recovery.
c.
observational learning.
d.
respondent behavior.
e.
shaping.
C
Most researchers who have examined the effects of viewing televised aggression conclude that
a.
viewing violence takes people’s minds off their own problems and thus reduces their aggressive urges.
b.
viewing violence leads children and teenagers to behave aggressively.
c.
there is no correlation between viewing aggression and behaving aggressively.
d.
although viewing violence is correlated with increased aggression, there is no evidence that viewing violence actually leads to aggression.
e.
viewing violence is cathartic and lessens aggressive impulses.
B
The violence-viewing effect is especially pronounced when the observed violence
a.
causes visible harm.
b.
goes unpunished.
c.
seems unjustified.
d.
is committed by an unattractive person.
e.
is committed by children.
B
Desensitization and imitation are two factors that contribute to
a.
the law of effect.
b.
spontaneous recovery.
c.
the violence-viewing effect.
d.
instinctive drift.
e.
operant conditioning.
C
A dramatic increase in children’s violent play immediately after they viewed a video of the Power Rangers illustrates the role of television as a source of
a.
respondent behavior.
b.
spontaneous recovery.
c.
negative reinforcement.
d.
observational learning.
e.
intermittent reinforcement.
D
Ten-year-old Karen frequently watches violent movies on television. This is most likely to lead her to
a.
underestimate the actual frequency of violent crimes in the real world.
b.
experience less distress at the sight of other children fighting on the school playground.
c.
become more hesitant about personally starting a fight with another child.
d.
become less fearful about being criminally assaulted.
e.
experience more distress when witnessing real-life violent episodes
B
After prolonged exposure to television violence, viewers became more indifferent to violence when later viewing a brawl, whether on TV or in real life. This finding best illustrates
a.
latent learning.
b.
spontaneous recovery.
c.
extinction.
d.
instinctive drift.
e.
desensitization.
E
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