Recently, Mobile IP has been widely used to back up seamless cyberspace user mobility. However, unneeded enrollment procedure of Mobile IP system for tracking nomadic users ‘ motion causes big addition of signaling costs, and affects the scalability. Therefore, it is necessary to look into how to cut down the signaling costs in Mobile IP. This paper proposes a Two Measure Paging In External Sub-Paging Area and Adaptive Individual Paging in Internal Sub-Paging Area. For Mobile IP ( TSAP-MIP ) to cut down signaling costs and the sensitiveness of the system with assorted user parametric quantities. The chief construct is to partition Sub-Paging Area and choose the optimum paging sequence. The public presentation of the proposed TSAP-MIP is compared with three conventional strategies, viz. , Two-Step Paging for Mobile IP ( TSP-MIP ) and Adaptive Individual Distributed Local Paging Scheme ( ADLP-MIP ) via analysis and simulation consequences. The reported consequences show that the entire signaling costs of TSAP-MIP is the lowest, compared with those three conventional strategies.
Index Terms-Mobile IP, External Sub-Paging, Internal Sub-Paging Area.
As the due demand of unlined real-time application, such as All wireless communicating webs, the webs must be designed to back up the user ‘s mobility to keep the continuity of ongoing communicating services. Mobile IP [ 1 ] , [ 2 ] has been proposed to back up a simple mobility mechanism. In Mobile IP, a nomadic node ‘s ( MN ) location is tracking by its enrollment while traveling by utilizing simple mechanism for routing IP packages to MNs. In this mechanism MN is tracking by place agent ( HA ) by utilizing two IP reference. The first IP reference is a monumental reference, called place reference, and else reference is called care-of-address ( COA ) which is a impermanent reference used by MN in a visited web. However, it still has several facets that have to be solved but one of the job is the additions signaling cost operating expense and power ingestion.
In nomadic cyberspace protocol, enrollment and paging procedure are used to cut down the signaling operating expense. paging is procedure that the system searches for idle MN by airing or multicasting the paging petition message in paging countries ( PA ) . Besides the writer [ 3 ] Paging nomadic IP ( P-MIP ) introduce the paging to cut down the signaling cost for nomadic IP. However, the signaling cost of P-MIP is non ever less than that of nomadic IP when the PA size is big.
to work out P-MIP job, assorted writer [ 4 ] proposed an adaptative and single paging strategy for each MN computes its optimum PA and optimisation parametric quantity are clip changing. However, the important jobs is hard to be tracked by MN.
In [ 5 ] , the writer proposed Distributed Local Paging strategy ( DLP-MIP ) that can cut down both the entire signaling cost and power ingestion of an MN by partitioning the paging country into sun-paging country ( SPA ) . However, DLP-MIP cause big paging signaling cost when each ( SPA ) consists of many cells.
work out DLP-MIP job In [ 6 ] , the writer proposed a two-step paging for nomadic IP ( TSP-MIP ) by partitioning the SPA into an interior SPA and an Outer SPA together with choosing the optimum paging sequence, TSP-MIP can cut down the signaling cost but the important job is times delay because MN paging 2 times, when the first paging efforts to page the interior sub-paging country. if nomadic user is non found, the paging instigator continues to back paging in outer sub-paging country.
In this paper, we propose a two-step paging in external sub-paging country and adaptative single paging internal sub-paging country together with optimum PA by choosing the optimum paging sequence. This paper is organized as follow in Section II, we review TSP-MIP, ADLP and propose TSAP-MIP. In Section III, we present the analysis of signaling cost. the public presentation comparing by mathematical analysis and simulation consequence is provided in Section IV. Section. Finally, Section V concludes the paper.
II. Overview of ADLP-MIP, TSP-MIP and the Proposed TSAP-MIP
A. Two Step Paging strategy for nomadic IP ( TSP-MIP )
TSP-MIP [ 6 ] can cut down the entire signaling cost by configuring sub paging-area ( SPA ) within divider each SPA into an interior SPA and an outer SPA, as show in Figure 1. The first paging is skipped. if non, the 2nd paging measure is done in the outer SPA.
Figure 1. Partitioning in TSP-MIP
This strategy assumes that all for foreign agents ( FA ) support paging, that is all FAs can execute as pFA in [ 2 ] . The first FA in a PA that an MN visited will be registered by an MN as the pFA of that MN. This strategy allows an MN to run in to provinces as in [ 5 ] . an active MN, it operates precisely the same as that in Mobile IP. For an idle MN, it has to registration its pFA with HA merely when cross PA boundary. if it move within the same SPA, it ‘s non necessitate to execute enrollment. when it had already moved out from the same SPA but still in the same PA, it performs location update with its pFA to inform a new sub-pFA, Which is the FA that the MN visits foremost in SPA. A sub -pFA is responsible for tracking motion of MN when an MN still in the same SPA.
Dividing the paging into two-step can cut down signaling cost because jumping the 2nd paging measure ( when the first paging measure succeeds ) extinguish implosion therapy in the outer SPA the chance that MN locates in the inner SPA depend on paging country building.
B. Adaptive Individual Distributed Local Paging Scheme for Reducing Signing Cost in Mobile IP ( ADLP-MIP )
ADLP-MIP [ 4 ] can cut down the entire signaling cost by paging country constellation, each MNs user a paging country that size and form are form are dynamically adjusted. The “ optimum size ” of paging country basically depends on the MN ‘s communicating form such as incoming informations session rate and its mobility velocity. A MN ‘s paging country size can really be computed by the MN itself or by the web, However it is evidently easier and more scalable for the MN proctor these parametric quantity and calculate its optimum size.
The “ optimum form ” of paging country depend basically on the MN mobility form. In fact MN is driving along a main road would profit from, a additive paging country. In contrast, a MN traveling an urban country with random form would profit from a symmetrical, i.e. a round paging country. The mobility of MN depends on the geographic layout of the environment it is rolling in. There are two possible constellation option: In MN constellation. each MN derives its paging country form from its mobility form. A MN so necessitate to maintain in memory the history of its motions and derives from it the optimum paging country in each web it visit. this solution has two drawback: foremost the memory demand might be really big and 2nd the history might non ever be available ( i.e. when the MN visit a web for the first clip ) or out-of day of the month. Another possibility is web constellation where the web derive an aggregative paging country form from the mobility form of the hosts in its coverage. this solution might non be optimum as the old on because it does non capture the peculiar mobility form of each MN. However it cut down the memory demand of MN. Additionally it does non necessitate that each host builds its ain mobility history. As consequence a host can obtain an optimum paging country even in web it did non visited antecedently.
Figure 2. Adaptive paging country sizes and forms
C. Two Step Paging In External Sub-Paging Area and Adaptive Individual Paging in Internal Sub-Paging Area ( TSAP-MIP )
This paper propose a Two-Step Paging in External Sub-Paging Area and Adaptive Individual Paging in Internal Sub-paging Area ( TSAP-MIP ) , Which can farther cut down signaling cost, compared to TSP-MIP and ADLP-MIP. In making so, the operating of TSAP-MIP is similar like TSP-MIP [ 5 ] and ADLP-MIP [ 4 ] , we further partition each SPA into External Sub-paging Area ( E-SPA ) and each SPA into Internal Sub-paging Area ( I-SPA ) . We define each base station about country with as show in Figure 3 other base station which refer to the FA and paging agent ( PA ) is cardinal of paging country.
Figure 3. TSAP-MIP base station ( FA ) extend country
TSAP-MIP has two type of information for paging operation such as: Internal sub-paging country designation ( I-SPAI ) and External sub-paging country designation ( E-SPAI )
In [ 6 ] the writer proposed the position of MN when Active and idle as show in figure 4.
Figure 4. Status of MN
In instance 1: the first measure paging found MN When user ‘s MN in position is active and traveling cross PA boundary and MN has already moved out from the same SPA. A MN ‘s paging country size can really be computed by the MN itself or by the web, in making so HA cheques whether the MN is in a sub-pFA ‘s visitant ( E-SPAI ) and ( I-SPAI ) list or non. if there non found a record for the MN paging country, that MN will registers to about pFA and direct informations adhering update ( I-SPAI ) to server HA for update location. if HA founds a record for the MN paging country. A MN will non register to about pFA.
In instance 2: the first measure paging non found MN When user ‘s MN in position is idle and traveling cross PA boundary and MN has already moved out from the same SPA. For the MN paging country so the system TSAP-MIP will paging by 2nd measure paging, if found MN, A MN will registers to about pFA and direct informations adhering update ( E-SPAI ) to server HA for update location.
III. Analysis of Entire Signaling cost
The entire signaling cost of Mobile IP, P-MIP, DLP-MIP, ADLP-MIP and TSAP are analyze in [ 3 ] , [ 5 ] , and are presented here for convenience. We analyzed entire signaling cost of TSAP. In add-on, the analysis is base on the fluid flow theoretical account, and take into assorted parametric quantity, i.e. , paging country size and Mobile ‘s motion velocity. The signaling cost is defined as the merchandise of the leaden distance between MN and FA, HA, we consider merely the non-overlapping PA attack.
The form of the PAs, SPSs and wireless cells is assumed to be square as in [ 5 ] . The margin of cell is. The margin of SPA is and the margin of PA is.We assume that MNs move at mean Speed of ( m/sec ) in way that are uniformly distributed over [ 0,2 ] and are uniformly distributed with denseness. The rate of cell boundary crossing is. the rate of SPA boundary crossing is. the rate of PA boundary crossing rate is.
A. Mobile IP
The entire signaling cost of nomadic IP [ 1 ] is
( 1 )
is the entire signaling cost of nomadic IP ( leaden hop*packet/s )
is the mean distant between FA and HA,
is the ratio of the figure of hops in nucleus, web to the entire figure of hops between HA and FA,
is the ratio of the figure of hops in local entree web to the entire figure of hop between HA and FA,
is the weight of each hop in the IP nucleus web,
is the weight of each hop in entree web,
is the cell traversing rate ( mobile node/s )
is the nomadic nod denseness ( nomadic node/ )
is the figure of cell in a consider PA,
is the cell margin ( m )
is the mean MN enrollment refresh as associated with registry for life clip.
This expression used for compute the entire signaling cost P-MIP is
( 2 )
is the entire signaling cost of P-MIP
is the mean distance between FAs within a PA,
is the PA crossing rate ( mobile nodes/s ) ,
is the ratio of active node to the entire figure of nomadic nodes,
is the incoming informations session of MN ( 1/s ) ,
is the surpassing informations session rate of MN ( 1/s ) ,
is the weight of radio hop for paging.
This expression used for compute the entire signaling cost DLP-MIP is
( 3 )
is the entire signaling cost of DLP-MIP,
is the mean distance between FAs within a SPA,
is the SPA crossing rate ( mobile node/s ) ,
is the figure of cells in a sub-paging country,
This expression used for compute the entire signaling cost TSP-MIP is
( 4 )
is the entire signaling cost of TSP-MIP
is figure of cell in an interior SPA,
is the chance of turn uping an MN in an outer SPA.
E. The Signaling cost in an Internal Sub-paging Area for TSAP-MIP
We follow method [ 4 ] , [ 7 ] to happen The Total Signaling cost Internal Sub-paging Area. We define The margin of I-SPA is
( 5 )
is sum of cells in SPA for Tier when pFA Extend country as show in figure 5.
( 6 )
Figure 5. The margin of cell
is country of SPA
( 7 )
Where: is country of one cell
The entire enrollment of signaling cost I-SPA depend with MN, mean distant MN between pFA and mean distant MN between HA
( 8 )
( 9 )
The entire signaling cost mean distant MN between pFA,
The entire signaling cost mean distant MN between HA,
The signaling cost per hops for radio web,
The signaling cost per hops for wire line web,
mean distant MN between pFA,
mean distant MN between pFA.
The signaling cost depend on transubstantiation of the signal to each cell in SPA
( 10 )
Harmonizing to the fluid flow theoretical account we can happen the rate of cell boundary crossing in I-SPA
( 11 )
Where: is mean of motion velocity of MN,
The rate of SPA boundary traversing SPA in I-SPA
( 12 )
The rate enrollment of MN when traversing SPA in I-SAP
( 13 )
The entire signaling cost of MN in the I-SAP to cipher The “ optimum size ” , we can happen from the amount of Eq. 8, Eq 9, Eq. 10 and Eq. 13. All in above are depend on the parametric quantity ( data session of MN ) , sum of cell grade and ( mean motion velocity of MN ) show as in Eq.14
( 14 )
F. The Total Signaling cost for TSAP-MIP
As defined we can happen the entire signaling cost in a External Sub-paging country from Eq. 4 ( E-SPA ) and replace the SAP outer by Eq. 14 ( I-SPA ) is
( 15 )
VI. Analysis and Simulation Results
In this subdivision we present the public presentation of TSAP-MIP comparison to five conventional strategies ( Mobile IP, P-MIP, DLP-MIP, ADLP-MIP ) with the MN speed. see cellular macro system, which have an mean margin cell size of 4000 m, maximal MN speed of 45m/s and MN denseness of 0.0002 MN/ . the parametric quantity used in this analysis are set to typical value as in [ 4 ] . ( See table 1. )
Table 1. Input signal Parameters
About the analytical, We proposed strategy via simulation consequences by changing speed. the mobility theoretical account is assumed to be random walk a affiliated graph theoretical account. We consider merely individual MN in the simulation period ( 10,000 timeslots ) , which result in 92 % of assurance interval. For the random walk theoretical account, MN will alter its FA with assigned chance and remain within the same FA with chance 1-. depend on the given mean speed of MN, but does non depend on figure of cell, All parametric quantity we apply same Table 1.
Figure 6. Consequence of MN velocity on the entire signaling cost
Figure 6 shows the signaling cost as a map of MN speed. We set a PA size to 144 cell and in a SPA, and so the figure of cells in an I-SPA is 16 cell. when MNs move faster, TSAP-MIP, TSP-MIP, DLP-MIP, ADLP-MIP perform better than Mobile IP an P-MIP. However, when MN move slower the entire signaling cost of Mobile IP is somewhat lower than TSAP-MIP, TSP-MIP and ADLP-MIP. TSAP performs better than Mobile IP up to 81 % .
Figure 7. Consequence of MN velocity on the entire signaling cost ( TSAP-MIP compared TSP-MIP and ADLP-MIP )
Figure 7 shows the signaling cost as a map of MN speed. We set a PA size to 144 cell and in a SPA, and so the figure of cells in an I-SPA is 16 cell. when MNs move faster, TSAP-MIP, TSP-MIP perform better than ADLP-MIP. However, when MN move slower the entire signaling cost of TSP-MIP is somewhat lower than TSAP-MIP. TSAP performs better than TSP-MIP, ADLP-MIP up to 24 % and 34 % severally.
This paper, We proposed a two-step paging in External sub-paging country and adaptative in internal sub-paging country to cut down the entire signaling cost and the sensitiveness of the system with assorted user parametric quantity by divider a sub-paging country into external sub-paging country and internal sub-paging country by adaptative person. The first paging effort to adaptive single for MN to “ optimum size ” of paging country basically. If nomadic user is found so the first paging process is terminate. if non, the paging impersonator continues to direct paging message to the external sub-paging country, which mean the remainder of bomber paging country receive paging messages in the 2nd measure. The public presentation of TSAP-MIP is compare via mathematical analysis and simulation. In add-on, look into the public presentation of TSAP-MIP when MNs move faster TSAP-MIP performs hitter than TSP-MIP, ADLP-MI, DLP-MIP. P-MIP and Mobile IP. so in farther we will analysis and simulation for the clip mean paging hold for TSAP-MIP.