Impact of Ecotourism on Local Communities

Table of Contentss

Table of Figures

Section1: Introduction

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With the chief aim of advancing responsible travel to natural countries. the wellbeing of communities and the environmental preservation. ecotourism is presented as an alternate type of touristry which is turning improbably fast ( Scheyvens. 1999 ) . One of the aims of ecotourism is to convey benefits to local communities. The of import relationship between ecotourism and local communities could be explained by the fact that traditional fatherlands of autochthonal people are normally the most natural and least developed countries of the universe ( Coria & A ; Calfucura. 2012 ) The paper is first reexamining the different impacts that ecotourism can hold on local communities. The development of ecotourism can hold an of import economic impact and can bring forth income. employment and concern chances ( Yacob. Shuib. & A ; Radam. 2008 ) .

Therefore. several developing states have adopted ecotourism with the hope to better their economic system in an environmentally sustainable mode ( Coria & A ; Calfucura. 2012 ) . In the 2nd portion. a deep analysis of the methodological analysis of three articles about the impact of ecotourism on local communities has been done. The analysis shows both strengths and failings of each types of methodological analysiss that were used and assist so to find which one would be the most suited when composing an undergraduate thesis with similar purpose. Refering the methodological analysis that was used for this undertaking. the information was chiefly taken from university databases. academic diaries and studies every bit good as the research methods books to assist the analyze of the methodological analysiss.

Section 2: Literature Reappraisal
Ecotourism is being proposed as a scheme that will assist to decide societal and economic issues encountered by local communities. and as an adequate and effectual manner of of conserving the environment ( Garrod. 2003 ) . Therefore. this construct has been adopted by many developing states with the hope that it will convey them economic benefits ( Coria & A ; Calfucura. 2012 ) . However. several writers wondered whether local communities are truly beneficiating from those benefits ( Jones. 2005 ) . Sheyvens ( 1999 ) besides agree on the fact that to guarantee the procedure of ecotourism will be a success merely if they are sharing the benefits of it. The grounds why local communities should see the ecotourism include going aware of natural attractive forces value. understanding the necessity for sustainable touristry and the environment preservation. Besides. several benefits should be taken into consideration such as the extra grosss that it could bring forth for any local types of concern every bit good as the addition in employment chances and the sweetening of their civilization. Unfortunately. even though ecotourism is conveying benefits. some drawbacks have to be taken into consideration.

For case. host communities do non take part a batch in determination devising ; they are besides sometimes exploited for the resources without having any benefits. it can damage their community coherence and the rapid touristry growing can precipitate of import socio-cultural alterations ( Wearing & A ; Neil. 2009 ) . Belsky genuinely encourages local community to take part into preservation and ecotourism but he mentions that they will non make so unless communities benefit from touristry ( as cited in Stronza & A ; Gordillo. 2008 ) . Ecotourism is surely conveying many economic benefits but is besides bettering many different facets of the communities’ support. Garrod ( 2003 ) explains that by affecting them in the ecotourism undertaking. they will obtain bigger control over their resources and over the determinations refering the usage of such resources that affect the manner they live. However. some negative facets of ecotourism should be considered. Merely few local communities. engaged in ecotourism or truly close to tourism operations and preserved countries. have realized existent benefits from it. Several circuit operators have been unenthusiastic with the fact that they had to portion the possible returns with local communities ( Stronza & A ; Gordillo. 2008 ) . In the same manner. Lima and d’Hauteserre ( 2011 ) stated that circuit operators do non assist the communities in the manner they should. Besides. even though ecotourism is bring forthing new grosss. it is increasing the spread between the richer and the poorer.

Net incomes are most of the clip unequal and struggles are emerging which are interrupting the societal coherence of local communities. Information retrieved from different interviews. it appeared clearly that the net incomes received were non sufficient and could non back up everyone ( Stronza & A ; Gordillo. 2008 ) . Retrieved from other interviews with other communities. the same thought was shared refering the fact that economic benefits could bring forth new struggles within the community such as differences between the members. misconstruing refering the grosss distribution and tasks allotments. which could so take to a more of import job if people do non join forces a right manner ( Lima & A ; d’ Hauteserre. 2011 ) Some of the interviewees testified that ecotourism was non the solution to repair economic issues but agreed on the fact that it could convey more chances such as set uping a good web. developing new accomplishments and better self-pride ( Stronza & A ; Gordillo. 2008 ) .

Locals seem to go more cognizant of their ain civilization through the relation established between tourers and foreigners and this seems to increase the community self-esteem and beliefs ( Lima & A ; d’ Hauteserre. 2011 ) . Harmonizing to Jones. when local communities are wholly involved in the ecotourism procedure. being straight engaged in determination devising and working independently with direction undertakings. they become cognizant of the fact that new accomplishments are required. Therefore. many people attended preparation Sessionss. sometimes organized by the authorities or associations. This helps them to confront new worlds and new wonts ( Lima & A ; d’ Hauteserre. 2011 ) . Besides. ecotourism can hold an impact on locals that are non straight working into the ecotourism sector. For case. the presentation of handcrafts. folklore. narratives and fundamentally the presentation of their civilization look to cut down the lower status feelings that some local people could experience.

It besides enhances their individuality and they become more cognizant of their civilization taking to a better self-pride ( Lima & A ; d’ Hauteserre. 2011 ) . Thus. even if ecotourism could look is an ideal alternate type of touristry that will assist to turn to economic and societal issues toward local communities. some negative facets should non be neglected. To do certain that the procedure is working absolutely. betterments need to be done. Besides. local communities should non be exploited and should have the benefits of their engagement ( Wearing & A ; Neil. 2009 ) .

Section 3: Comparison of methodological analysiss

In this subdivision. methodological analysiss of three different articles used in the old literature will be analyzed and compared taking into account their strengths and failings and more specifically their cogency. dependability and truthfulness. The three articles that will be compared are: “Community positions of ecotourism” by Stronza. “Ecotourism impacts in the Nicoya Peninsula. Costa Rica” by Almeyda. Broadbent. Wyman. and Durham. and “Community capitals and ecotourism for heightening Amazonian wood livelihoods” by Lima and d’Hauteserre. All three articles are speaking about the impact of ecotourism on local communities but they nevertheless differ by the method they used to obtain their information. To make a better comparing of the methodological analysiss. the book “Research Methods For Business Students” wrteen by Saunders. Lewis and Thornhill was truly utile.

1. Stronza. 2008 “Community positions of ecotourism” .
2. Almeyda. Broadbent. Wyman. and Durham. 2010 “Ecotourism impacts in the Nicoya Peninsula. Costa Rica”- 3. Lima. d’Hauteserre. 2011. “Community capitals and ecotourism for heightening Amazonian forest livelihoods” Method and attack used

Quantitative and qualitative attack

Use of secondary informations

In depth interviews with local families

Semi structured interviews with community leaders
Qualitative attack. usage of primary informations
Deductive attack ( but inductive at some points )
In depth studies. semi structured interviews
Qualitative attack: usage of secondary and primary informations.
Mix of inductive and deductive attack
Structured participant Observations
In-depth and semi-structured interviews
Aim and aims of the article
Give an overview of what host communities think of the impact of ecotourism Determine the effects of the Punta Islita eco-lodge on the Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica. Investigate how ecotourism development enhances bing capital at community degree. Location

Amazone part:
Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica
Brazil. Amazonia:
Time Period
The survey was done during six months in 2003 and consisted of three five-days workshop. 2008 ( clip of publication )
Three months fieldwork
Purposive sampling
164 families ( 62 from Peru. 67 from Bolivia. 35 from Ecuador. represented 45 % . 55 % and 7 % of the communities population. ) One community leader from each commnity

Purposive sample with 63 families within 45 had at least a member employed in the Lodge and 17 non employed by touristry industry but still having gross from it Random trying for employees in deepness studies

39 tourers filled out self-administered questionnaires
27 community dwellers
42 local stakeholders ( 10 people from circuit operators. 10 frim NGOs and 22 people from authorities environmental bureaus

Interview model
Semi-structured interview of 2-3 hours
Open ended
In depth interviews with families
Semi structured interviews with community leaders and self administred questionnaire for hotel invitees In deepness questionnaire –based studies
Not specified with who they did each types of interview
Benefits and indexs of success in each site were determined by emic. or subjective instead than etic. This research may reflect a state of affairs that might alter
Sample size
Stronza. 2008
Almeyda. Broadbent. Wyman. and Durham. 2010
Coria and Calfucura. 2012
Table Comparison of methodological analysis

The first article written by Stronza. is giving an interesting attack as an overview of the subject is foremost given to depict ecotourism in general every bit good as the possible benefits it could convey to local communities. The writer so relied on a survey done 5 old ages before which had for ends to hear the community’s sentiment which used in depth interview with local families and semi structured with community leaders during workshops. As the survey was done in different states which are Peru. Bolivia and Ecuador it allows readers to believe at a large graduated table and it is likely more dependable than a survey done merely in one specific country. A possible failing would be that. as in-depth interviews are used. even though interviewers have some cardinal inquiries that they need to cover. their usage will depend from one interview to another interview.

Refering the 2nd article written by Almeyda. Broadbent. Wyman. and Durham. it is largely based on the aggregation of primary informations with studies. interviews and questionnaires that they conducted themselves in one specific eco-lodge among invitees. employees and locals. The failing of this article. even if none seem to be mentioned in it. is likely the sample size and the fact that the semi structured interviews can take to informations quality issues. Indeed. as it may be difficult to standardise the different sort of interviews. this may take to dependability job. Besides interviews are reflecting world at the minute they were collected and hence the consequences obtained from those interviews will non be automatically the same in similar interviews will be conducted in the hereafter. In contrast with the first article. this one used chiefly primary informations whereas the first one used secondary informations. Besides. in this article. the survey was undertaken merely in Costa Rica. which was likely the intent of the authors. but it narrows the research for person reading the article. Writers could hold undertaken their survey to another state to compare both analysis.

The last article consists of a aggregation of secondary and primary informations. collected through structured participant observations every bit good as in-depth and semi-structured interviews. The strength of this article is that. as secondary informations beginnings. it provides informations that are easy to look into. Besides. it allows bookmans or research workers to salvage clip and attempt by supplying ideas of several writers about one specific subject. However. when utilizing secondary informations. readers have to be careful that the beginnings cited in one literature reappraisal were non misunderstood by the one composing the literature reappraisal and that they are dependable and valid beginnings. Although. a possible failing of the last article would be that the instance survey do non automatically reflect what is go oning in other parts.

As the survey took topographic point in Brazil. it is non a standardised theoretical account that could be applicable to another community everyplace else in the universe. Besides. their sample was truly interesting as they interviewed people for NGOs. circuit operators and governmental bureaus every bit good as with local people. Therefore one time the information has been gathered it gave to the readers a better and generalised overview of the ecotourism impact of locals. Structured observations aid besides to make that but the chief issues about it is the inquiry of dependability as the perceiver must construe something in a incorrect manner and therefore the perceiver should do certain he understood the scene really good before construing.

Section 4: Choice of Methodology
Out of the three articles cited in the above subdivision. the 1 with the most appropriate methodological analysis for the thesis of an undergraduate pupil would be the first 1. As antecedently analyzed. the methodological analysis used in this article proposed foremost a kind of literature reappraisal which seems important to hold an overview of the subject and so series of consequences obtained through in deepness interview with local families and semi structured interviews with community leaders. The most interesting thing is that it is stand foring three different states which are Peru. Bolivia and Ecuador. that are still near to each other in South America but stand foring different civilizations. By supplying both qualitative and quantitative informations. it gives the pupil a better apprehension of the subject.

However. the sample size was non ever appropriate as it was non all the clip stand foring the bulk of the population. Particular attending should be given to the size of the sampling to do the survey dependable. Indeed. if the bulk is non represented it can be considered as undependable. The semi-structured and in-depth interviews are. for an undergraduate pupil. likely one of the best ways for a better apprehension of the subject as they might accommodate their inquiries from interview to interview. It will be truly helpful to research in deepness the subject the pupil might be interested in.

Almeyda. A. M. . Broadbent. E. N. . Wyman. M. S. . & A ; Durham. W. H. ( 2010 ) . Ecotourism impacts in the Nicoya Peninsula. Costa Rica. International Journal of Tourism Research. 12 ( 6 ) . 803–819. doi:10. 1002/jtr. 797 Coria. J. . & A ; Calfucura. E. ( 2012 ) . Ecotourism and the development of autochthonal communities: The good. the bad. and the ugly. Ecological Economics. 73. 47–55. doi:10. 1016/j. ecolecon. 2011. 10. 024 Garrod. B. ( 2003 ) . Local Engagement in the Planning and Management of Ecotourism: A Revised Model Approach.

Journal of Ecotourism. 2 ( 1 ) . 33–53. doi:10. 1080/14724040308668132 Jones. S. ( 2005 ) . Community-Based Ecotourism. Annalss of Tourism Research. 32 ( 2 ) . 303–324. doi:10. 1016/j. annals. 2004. 06. 007 Lima. I. B. . & A ; d’ Hauteserre. A. -M. ( 2011 ) . Community capitals and ecotourism for heightening Amazonian forest supports. Anatolia. 22 ( 2 ) . 184–203. doi:10. 1080/13032917. 2011. 597933 Scheyvens. R. ( 1999 ) . Ecotourism and the authorization of local communities. Tourism Management. 20 ( 2 ) . 245–249. doi:10. 1016/S0261-5177 ( 98 ) 00069-7 Stronza. A. . & A ; Gordillo. J. ( 2008 ) . Community positions of ecotourism. Annalss of Tourism Research. 35 ( 2 ) . 448–468. doi:10. 1016/j. annals. 2008. 01. 002 Yacob. M. R. . Shuib. A. . & A ; Radam. A. ( 2008 ) . How Much Does Ecotourism Development Contribute to Local Communities? An Empirical Study in a Small Island. The Icfai Journal of Environmental Economics. VI ( 2 ) . 54–68. Wearing. S. . & A ; Neil. J. ( 2009 ) . Ecotourism impacts. potencies and possibilities. ( 2nd erectile dysfunction. . pp. 115-136 ) . Oxford. England: Butterworth-Heinemann.


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