Retinal image analysis is a cardinal component in diagnosing retinopathies in patients. The forms of disease that affect the fundus of the oculus are varied. Therefore, a trained human perceiver such as an eye doctor is required to place these forms. By analyze some characteristics in a retinal images, eye doctor can diagnosis the possible optic disease that occur in the retinal such as diabetes retinopathy ( DR ) , macular devolution, glaucoma and etc. Main characteristics to be observed for diagnosing disease are divided into two classs which are bright musca volitanss and dark musca volitanss. The bright musca volitanss in retinal images consist of Optic phonograph record, exudates, and cotton wool while dark musca volitanss are blood vass, bleedings, and microaneurysm.

Most of the original retinal images are low contrast and have happening of noise that will makes the diagnosing procedure go tougher because all of the characteristics are unobvious. It is difficult for an eye doctor to detect a characteristic accurately in hapless quality retinal images.

Harmonizing to the National Eye Institute, sightlessness or low vision affects 3.3million Americans age 40 and over. This figure is expected to make 5.5million by the twelvemonth 2020 [ 1 ] . As the increasing Numberss of retinopathy instances, eye doctors need to analyse more retinal images which increase their work load. Ophthalmologist might necessitate a system which can help them to better the efficiency of diagnosing procedure.

Therefore, in this undertaking, we are traveling to construct a Decision Support System based on Retinal Images for disease diagnosing procedure.

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Undertaking Scopes

Pre-processing on retinal images to heighten the local contrast and cut down the noises in the image. The pre-processing can better the noticeability of of import characteristics in bright topographic point such as ocular disc, exudations and cotton wool musca volitanss.

Detect and pull out the characteristics in bright topographic point of retinal images which are ocular disc, exudations and cotton wool musca volitanss.

Present each chief characteristic in separate images in user interface.

Analyze on each characteristic based on regulations of diagnosing to make up one’s mind whether it is normal or unnatural.

Diagnosis whether any optic disease is proven based on the analyzed characteristics.

A simple and user friendly interface is necessary for this system because the user might non familiar in programming codification.


To construct a determination support system utilizing retinal images for disease diagnosing such as Diabetes Retinopathy. This system will calculate out the possible optic disease based on the characteristics in retinal images.

To treat on retinal images utilizing Matlab Image Tools for pull outing the characteristics needed in disease diagnosing procedure. These characteristics include ocular disc, exudates, and cotton wool which are the bright topographic point in the retinal image.

To assist the eye doctor to better their productiveness, efficiency and cost effectual in the disease diagnosing procedure. Ophthalmologist can place each characteristic by utilizing this system instead than manual diagnosing by analyze utilizing the original retinene images which characteristics are non shown evidently.

To make research on methodological analysiss for treating retinal images such as sensing and extraction of ocular disc, exudates, and cotton wool. Besides, research on certain optic disease and the regulations of diagnosing these diseases are needed in this undertaking.

1.5 Gantt Chart

Background And Literature Search


Retinal images are widely used as tools to name retinopathies by eye doctor. Retinal images are obtained utilizing fundus camera. Figure 2.1 shows a fundus camera and figure 2.2 shows a normal human retinene obtained by fundus camera. A fundus camera or retinal camera is a specialised low power microscope with an inner attached camera designed to take exposures for the interior surface of the oculus [ 2 ] . The interior surface of the eyes includes retina, ocular phonograph record, sunspot, and posterior pole.

Figure 2.1 Example of a fundus camera Figure 2.2 A normal retinal image.

The characteristics that can establish in bulk of retinopathies retinal images are categorize into two groups which are bright musca volitanss and dark musca volitanss. Bright musca volitanss include ocular phonograph record, exudations and cotton wool musca volitanss while dark musca volitanss include blood vass, bleedings and microaneurysms. By analyze these characteristics, certain retinopathies can be detected. Examples of retinopathies that can be detected from retinal images are diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, macular devolution, hypertensive retinopathy and etc.

Figure 2.3 shows a retinal image for diabetic retinopathy. Most of the characteristics are shown and labelled in this retinal image.

Features in Retinal Images for Disease Diagnosis

Exudates, cotton wool musca volitanss and ocular phonograph record are three types of bright musca volitanss in retinal images.

Exudates or difficult exudations: seeable as bright xanthous sedimentations with crisp borders on the retinal due to the escape of blood from unnatural blood vass. The diminished vass walls causes out-pouching in their walls called microaneurysms, which may besides leak. Exudates often arranged in round form or crescents environing zones of retinal hydrops or group of microaneurysms. Besides, exudates besides possible to set up as single points, sheets, or feeder spots. Exudates represent accretions of lipid and protein. If exudations encroach on the sunspot, vision will be affected [ 3 ] .

Cotton wool musca volitanss: Cotton wool musca volitanss or soft exudations appear as white, pale xanthous fluffy opaque country with unclear borders in retinal. They result from the harm of nervus fibres whereby the blood supply to that country has been impaired. The nervus fibres in that peculiar country are injured due to the absence of normal blood flow through the blood vas at that place. Therefore, swelling will happen at that topographic point and it appear as cotton wool musca volitanss. Diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure will impact the retinal and do the happening of cotton wool musca volitanss [ 3 ] .

Ocular phonograph record: Ocular phonograph record is the brightest portion in the normal retinal image. It is pale, unit of ammunition or vertically egg-shaped phonograph record. Normally, the phonograph record is orangish to yellowish-pink in coloring material with good defined borders. An ocular phonograph record is the entrance part of ocular nervousnesss and blood vass to the retinene. It ever acts as a landmark for other characteristics in retinal image. In retinal image analysis, location of ocular phonograph record is of import to mensurate distance and place some anatomical parts in retinal images. The deficiency of photosensitive cells, rods and cones at the ocular phonograph record consequences a physiological blind topographic point in the ocular field of each oculus. Glaucoma, a disease cause by degenerative ocular nervus is fundamentally related with a sustained addition of the oculus force per unit area [ 4 ] .

The dark musca volitanss in retinal can be spliting into three characteristics which are blood vass, bleedings, and microaneurysms.

Blood vass: Blood vass are the blood supply for retinal. Blood vass visual aspect is an of import index for many diagnosings such as diabetic retinopathy and high blood pressure. It can reflect different provinces of Numberss of diseases, which besides the pre-characteristic for the enrollment and mosaic of retinal images. Discernible characteristics of blood vass such as diameter, coloring material, tortuousness ( comparative curvature ) , and opacity ( coefficient of reflection ) can supply information on pathological alterations caused by some diseases. The abnormalcies of retinal blood vass include obstructions and hemorrhage ( bleedings ) from them.

Bleedings: Haemorrhages is the unnatural hemorrhage of the damaged blood vass in retinal. The visual aspect of bleedings may hold many sorts of forms sometimes resembling packages of straw but they besides can be round or fire shaped [ 3 ] . The hemorrhage of vass which are bleedings can do impermanent or lasting loss of ocular truth. There is assorted cause of bleeding which major causes are diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, high blood pressure and prematureness retinopathy. Besides, it can besides caused by agitating, peculiarly in immature babies.

Microaneurysms: Microaneurysms are included in dark musca volitanss in retinal image that appear as little dark ruddy points on retinal surface. Its definition is less than the diameter of the major ocular venas as they cross the ocular phonograph record. Microaneurysms are little out pouching in capillary vass. Normally, capillary vass are non seeable in retinal image. Due to the increasing figure of microaneurysms, these little points appear between the seeable retinal vasculature. Microaneurysms are caused by weakening of vass wall or diseases include diabetic retinopathy.

Literature Review

Nowadays, there is an increasing involvement for making system and algorithms that can back up for screen a large sum of patients for sight endangering diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and high blood pressure retinopathy. These systems and algorithms provide automated sensing of these retinopathies. Retinal images are widely used as tools to test and name retinopathies by eye doctor. Currently, digital image processing is really celebrated and practical for retinopathies diagnosing. By utilizing image processing, characteristics such as blood vass and exudations can be detected, extracted, and analyzed for the intent of diagnosing. In the literature, there are some illustrations of image processing techniques which have been applied in designation and sensing of characteristics in retinal image for disease diagnosing. Research is done on several literatures about characteristics sensing and extraction in retinal images.

Exudates Detection

Anantha et Al. [ 12 ] have implemented an algorithms for automatic sensing of exudations by utilizing dynamic thresholding and border sensing ( IDTED ) . In first measure, green constituent of the pre-processed image was divided into blocks of 64×64 pels with 50 % convergence with each other. A dynamic thresholding was selected based on the histogram of each blocks. High threshold value is set if the histogram was unimodal, else threshold value can be happen utilizing Otsu & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s thresholding algorithms. As each pels belongs to four blocks, a peculiar pels was classified as an exudates pels if its strength value was higher than the interpolate of threshold value of the four blocks to which it belongs. The consequence of this categorization procedure was a binary image. The 3rd measure was borders sensing which purpose to observe all objects with crisp borders included exudations by utilizing Canny border sensor. A binary image incorporating crisp borders was obtained from thresholding utilizing a defined planetary threshold value. The last measure was false positive part riddance. The binary images obtained from measure 2 and 3 were combined by a characteristic based AND. Pixels that ON in both image were marked as white in a new binary image and became the exudations part. The IDTED algorithm was tested against 25 digital retinal images and compared with the public presentation of a human grader, has shown a average sensitiveness of 99 % and a average predictivity of 93 % .


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