Traditionally, criminology has focussed on male offenders and early criminologists were mainly men. With reference to your academic reading, outline the rise of feminist criminology, offering examples of crime to illustrate its importance.

For the rationale of this paper, the author will deliberate the crime from men and women in the 1800 era, it will touch upon two of the UKs notorious serial killers male and female. We will touch upon, the early criminologist and there theory that all criminals were undoubtedly men. The author will give understanding of the initial works, of the world famous ‘Father of Criminology’ Cesare Lombroso’s (1876). Data taken regarding women in prisons, is on the rise. This paper will look at feminist criminology from an early era until the present date.

In the early 1800s crime was relatively insignificant, compared to today’s society. In the 1800s women did not commit crimes, although crimes for men such as breaking into a dwelling, stealing, setting fires, administrating vitriol powder or poison to cause death, beating and wounding. The age range of men committing crimes was aged 14 years to 48 years, there charges would be death, sentenced to prison, acquittal or discharged. In the 1800s it was not that uncommon to be transported to Australia for crimes. In 1862 there was a vast surge of sexual crimes, street robberies, most offenders were indeed young men their crimes such as drunk and disorder. However in society today we have a mammoth surge in domestic violence incidents, yet in 1862 this was never reported to the police as a crime, this crime would be dealt with within the home. In 1888 the era found its self with a new sexual crime, and this would be Jack the Ripper. London’s notorious Jack the Ripper was undeniably a gruesome serial killer, who killed 5 (maybe more) female prostitutes in the same area in London’s west end.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

However at the time of the killings, prostitution was illegal, but only if it caused a public disturbance it seemed nobody cared for the ladies of the night. Therefor no crimes entailing prostitution were disclosed, society and the police did not want to know. Jack the ripper was no commonplace killer, he butchered his victims, and he then mutilated them his act was only towards women. Even though Jack the Ripper, massacred all these women his intention are still unknown. In the 1800 era women were expected to marry a man, keep a well-ordered home, and bare her husband children. When a woman married, she could no longer own a property and any wealth of hers must be forwarded to her husband. However in doing this, the husband was involuntarily guilty of any crime she committed. The main crime committed by women, of this time would be prostitution women had no serious crimes against them.

@14060560

In the era 1866 we see a serious crime, involving a woman Amelia Dyers.

Amelia Dyers was Britain’s most prolific woman serial killer, and her trial was the most sensational trial of the Victorian era, she was blameable for 300 new born babies that she massacred. Dyer strangled them with white tape, then embalmed their tiny bodies and tossed them into the Themes River London. Amelia Dyers earnt her living, through murdering new-born babies born out of wedlock to young mothers. The melancholiest part of this story, is that Amelia Dyers was a midwife, she was sentenced to death by hanging.

In the early centauries the earliest criminologists were all documented as men, criminologist such as Cesare Bonesano Beccaria (1738-94), Jemamy Bentham (1748-1832), Charles Darwin and Lambert Adolphne Queteelet (1796-1847). During the centuries, it has been men such as Cesare Lombroso (1876) that led the field in criminology, his ‘old aged philosophy’ he deemed that only ‘men’ committed crime. Lombroso’s alleged that women committing a crime, was unheard of, and if there was a crime by a women it was singular. Thomas (1907) has a similar view as Lombroso’s, he stated that “women are emotional and feel the need to give and receive hence prostitution”. Lombroso’s works, include the writing of well-known books, such as Criminal Man (1876) and Criminal Women, The Prostitute and the Normal Woman. Lombroso’s considered that, the born criminal was that of a men, he believed they had prominent features such as, large jaws, high cheekbones scanty beards, and long arms.

Lombroso’s was sure that the criminal behaviour of men, was an inherited genetic factor. All the male criminologist, in one way or another studied both Crime and Men.

Conversely Lombroso’s did study the female law-breaking he took photographs of them, and looked at their skulls and the female measurements. He also concluded that female criminals are undeniably very rare and they had regressed less than men.

Quote “ Lombroso’s argued it was females natural passivity that withheld them from breaking the law, as they lacked the intelligence and incentive to become a criminal”( Lombroso’s 1980)

Nonetheless a well-known datum, in the world of criminology that the criminality of woman has been ignored by many centuries, women have always been seen as mediocre to men. Even though feminism has, been around for centuries it wasn’t until the 1960s that the second wave of feminism arrived. These feminist were no longer going to be ignored, or brushed under the carpet as they had been for years. The new wave of feminists approach was to stand up for the rights of women, not just in the UK, but all over the world.

@14060560

Carol Smart (1978), a feminist (critique), was one of the very first criminologists to study “women and crimes”. Her book woman, crime and criminology (1978) had a colossal influence on feminism. Although feminist criminology critique how women are ignored and stereotyped within the criminology circle. Feminism has always been, a theoretic perspectives, there are many types of feminism such as liberal feminism, social feminism, black feminism and existential feminism. However the feminist’s aspiration is to clarify the oppression of the woman all over the world. Feminists today argue with the statistics that women do commit crime, on par with men. Criminologists only started to associate women and crime, in the advanced part of the 20th century.

Even more so before this surge in criminology, little consideration had ever been given to women and their crimes including from the Criminal Justice System. All who studied women and crime, stated that women were not born for a life of crime. The women’s expertise was to stay at home, with the children, all along it has been said that woman are “nurturers”. In the 1950s crimes of woman are relevantly small, but however still a punishable crime. Crimes in this era, was prostitution, stealing, petty crimes and abortion. Feminist have argued regarding the, philosophies of the criminologist, they state that the world of criminology is a “gender issue “and always has been. Feminist’s criminology involves them being critical in all aspects, especially when it concerns women offenders other criminologists are ignorant.

Women do not represent the large population of offenders in the UK. In 2013 in the UK the prison population was 84,832 of that 80,880was men, and 3,952 were women (gov.uk.stastics). There are officially 71 prisons in the UK, there are 12 women’s prisons (justice.gov.uk). In 2014 there is a slight rise in prison population for women, the prison population was 85,406 the male population was 81,528, and the female population was 3,878(gov.uk.stastics). However data collected from the prison reform trust may explain, why women commit crime. The data explained a study of women in prison, 49% of women that were assessed suffered from anxiety and depression. 46% of women in prison have suffered domestic abuse, 53% of women in prison have experienced emotional, physical or sexual abuse as a child. Even more so is the statistics of the attempted suicide, of 46% of women. (prisonreformtrust.org).

Crimes in the 2015, for women are much more serious the punishable crimes such as , fraud, theft, theft from shops, wounding, robbery, burglary, other fraud, production supply and intent, to supply class A drugs handling stolen goods. For these offences women are more likely to get a caution. However woman may be issued with a prison term, but according to figures women will receive a shorter term than men. The average age of a woman offender is 14 years old, up to adulthood. (historylearningsite.co.uk). In the 1950s there was criminally no domestic violence, rape in marriage, child abuse as these crimes were hidden behind closed doors.

@14060560

In today’s society drug abuse and alcohol abuse is at an all-time high, the amount of women suffering from mental health issues is astonishing. Today the most prolific crimes of women are cases such as,

Myra Hindley who murdered raped and tortured both male and female children, and burying them on the moors with her lover Ian Huntley.

Rose West murdered and tortured young girls, including her own step daughter with her husband Fred West. There murders were for sexual gratification. All their own children were sexually abused.

Tracie Andrews murdered her partner Lee Harvey in a frenzied knife attack.

Beverly Alit named the angel of death, she was a nurse working on a children’s ward. Four children died in her care, and many more injured. Alit killed them by administrating the lethal injection. The next crime, is a crime that shocked the world.

Tracey Connerly, Baby Ps mother this case will never be forgotten, by the public as authorities failed this child. Baby P was tortured until his death his list of injuries including broken bones, swallowed teeth, broken ribs, black eyes , bruises, broken nail and ripped out nails both to his feet and hands. Both Connerly and her partner inflicted the injuries. The list of professionals that failed this child was police, social services, hospital staff. However the person who failed him the most was his own mother.

When you look at the above cases you will see the criminal, but you will also see a victim. Women who kill like those named above are in fact victims too, some were battered, some suffered horrific abuse as a child, and some suffer from mental illness. Even more so the fact is each and every one of them was abused.

Feminist have argued regarding the, philosophies of the criminologist, they state that the world of criminology is a “gender issue “and always has been. Feminist’s criminology involves them being critical in all aspects, especially when it concerns women offenders other criminologists are ignorant. However women do not represent the large population of prison. Today the roles of the criminal has altered beyond recognition, and this is due to the uprising of the new Feminist Criminology.

Women do not represent a large proportion of the total of offenders involved with the criminal justice system has been well documented over the years (Heidensohn 1985; Williams 1991; Lombroso 1968).Feminist criminology has attempted to “create a space for a woman’s voice” (Gelsthorpe 2002).

@14060560

To conclude, more studies are needed to research woman and crime. However had this area been studied from the 19th century, I really do not think society would be living alongside woman who have, murdered, stabbed, sexually abused. Maybe if they was researched earlier, there crimes would not have been committed.

REFERENCES

BBC (2014) History – British history in depth: Crime and the Victorians. BBC.

Boles, J. and Smart, C. (1977) ‘Women, crime and criminology: A feminist critique.’ Social Forces. JSTOR, 56(2) p. 727.

Carrington, K. (2013) ‘Girls, crime and violence: Toward a feminist theory of female violence.’ International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy. Queensland University of Technology, 2(2) pp. 63–79.

Carroll, L. and Reid, S. T. (1977) ‘Crime and criminology.’ Teaching Sociology. SAGE Publications, 4(4) p. 387.

Casebook: Jack the Ripper – victims] http://www.casebook.org/victims/.

Crime and punishment in the 1800’s (http://wuff.me.uk/assizes/P5.html.

E., H. (1895) ‘The female offender: By prof. LOMBROSO and W. FERRERO. With an introduction by W. DOUGLAS MORRISON. London: Fisher Unwin. 1895. Pp. 313.’ The British Journal of Psychiatry. Royal College of Psychiatrists, 41(175) pp. 719–721.

Histories: Women in the 1800’s (2013).

http://www.thebirdtree.co.uk/showmedia.php?mediaID=66.

Lombroso, C. (2006) Criminal man. Google Books. Duke University Press.

Lombroso, C., Ferrero, G., Rafter, N. H. and Gibson, M. (2004) Criminal woman, the prostitute, and the normal woman. Google Books. Duke University Press.

Lombroso, C., Gibson, M. and Rafter, N. H. (2006) ‘Intelligence and education of criminals.’ Criminal Man. Duke University Press, June, pp. 72–76.

Lombroso, C. (Deviance, disorder and the self: Criminality. [Online] [Accessed on 4th December 2015] http://www.bbk.ac.uk/deviance/criminality/italian/3-3_intro_lombroso_crime.htm.

The ‘born criminal’? Lombroso and the origins of modern criminology (2015). History Extra.

http://www.historyextra.com/article/feature/born-criminal-lombroso-origins-modern-criminology.

Vale, A. (2013) ‘Amelia Dyer: The woman who murdered 300 babies.’ The Independent – Crime. 22nd February. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/amelia-dyer-the-woman-who-murdered-300-babies-8507570.html.

@14060560

REFERENCES

http://www.societyofgenealogists.com/2-5-million-criminal-records-to-be-published-online-for-first-time-by-findmypast-co-uk/.

BBC (2014) History – British history in depth: Crime and the Victorians. BBC.

(BBC, 2014)

Boles, J. and Smart, C. (1977) ‘Women, crime and criminology: A feminist critique.’ Social Forces. JSTOR, 56(2) p. 727.

(Boles and Smart, 1977)

Carrington, K. (2013) ‘Girls, crime and violence: Toward a feminist theory of female violence.’ International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy. Queensland University of Technology, 2(2) pp. 63–79.

(Carrington, 2013)

Carroll, L. and Reid, S. T. (1977) ‘Crime and criminology.’ Teaching Sociology. SAGE Publications, 4(4) p. 387.

(Carroll and Reid, 1977)

Casebook: Jack the Ripper – victims (http://www.casebook.org/victims/.

(Casebook: Jack the Ripper – victims,

Crime and punishment in the 1800’s (http://wuff.me.uk/assizes/P5.html.

(Crime and punishment in the 1800’s,

E., H. (1895) ‘The female offender: By prof. LOMBROSO and W. FERRERO. With an introduction by W. DOUGLAS MORRISON. London: Fisher Unwin. 1895. Pp. 313.’ The British Journal of Psychiatry. Royal College of Psychiatrists, 41(175) pp. 719–721.

(E., 1895)

Histories: Women in the 1800’s (2013). [http://www.thebirdtree.co.uk/showmedia.php?mediaID=66.

(Histories: Women in the 1800’s, 2013)

Lombroso, C. (2006) Criminal man. Google Books. Duke University Press.

(Lombroso, 2006)

Lombroso, C., Ferrero, G., Rafter, N. H. and Gibson, M. (2004) Criminal woman, the prostitute, and the normal woman. Google Books. Duke University Press.

(Lombroso et al., 2004)

@14060560

REFERENCES

Lombroso, C., Gibson, M. and Rafter, N. H. (2006) ‘Intelligence and education of criminals.’ Criminal Man. Duke University Press, June, pp. 72–76.

(Lombroso et al., 2006)

Lombroso, CDeviance, disorder and the self: Criminality http://www.bbk.ac.uk/deviance/criminality/italian/3-3_intro_lombroso_crime.htm.

(Lombroso,

The ‘born criminal’? Lombroso and the origins of modern criminology (2015). History Extra. [Online] [Accessed on 4th December 2015] http://www.historyextra.com/article/feature/born-criminal-lombroso-origins-modern-criminology.

(The ‘born criminal’? Lombroso and the origins of modern criminology, 2015)

Vale, A. (2013) ‘Amelia Dyer: The woman who murdered 300 babies.’ The Independent – Crime. [Online] 22nd February. [Accessed on 16th November 2015] http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/amelia-dyer-the-woman-who-murdered-300-babies-8507570.html.

(Vale, 2013)

] http://www.societyofgenealogists.com/2-5-million-criminal-records-to-be-published-online-for-first-time-by-findmypast-co-uk/.

x

Hi!
I'm Niki!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out