Robbery and Gender
Conducting research on robbery is one of the complex area as the correct data as to the offence and the offenders are difficult to collect. Even if extra efforts are made to collect data on this phenomenon, the available data need not be error free. This necessitates the identification of an effective method to carry out study robbery. The most important problem with robbery data is that the criminal offences are converted into official criminal statistics mostly on the basis of available information. The following method seems to be ideal for the purpose:
Quantitative Research Method
Quantitative research method is usually referred to as measuring criminal justice reality. To carry out a qualitative study in criminology, various variables associated with robbery offence and gender must be identified and studied. To understand this process several concepts from similar studies and literature of criminology must first be identified. These concepts are then assigned numerical values based on their importance of a particular context. Subsequently, the numerically expressed variables are evaluated to examine patterns of relation, co-variation, and cause and effect. The study under this approach, at the most basic level, involves one dependent variable and independent variable. The dependent variable is the outcome variable, which depends upon other variable (s) and this is what the researcher is going to predict after the study. On the other hand, the independent variable is the one on which predictor variable relies on. It has been noticed that criminological theorists are interested in examining the relationship between impulsivity (independent variable) and criminal behavior (dependent variable) (Dwight, 1973). In examining such an association, researchers usually use a summated scale of items, which is formulated to indirectly measure the perception of impulsivity. Accordingly, this impulsivity scale is applied to forecast the association between criminal offence and gender.
There are multifarious quantitative research methods available to researchers; but, most of which can be applied in certain contexts. These research methods include the following:
1. Survey research;
2. Experimental and quasi-experimental research;
3. Cross-sectional research;
4. Longitudinal research;
5. Time series research, and
The present study used survey method in which data on various variables of the study are collected directly from respondents. Thus, this is basically a primary data study, which relies heavily (or solely) on the data provided by respondents from different parts of the study area.
Usually, survey research involves the collection of data from a sample of respondents via questionnaire or interview schedule. It is to be noticed in this context that a survey research can be carried out through mail, telephone, computer, or in person.
The present study has two sets of samples. The first set being respondents who have committed crime (or offenders). The second set consists of people who have been affected by robbery (victimizers). The first sample set is approached with an interview schedule to collect data relating to criminal behavior. The samples are fixed on the basis of the information given by each offender about another known to him/her who has also been in the same filed. This method of sampling is known as Snowball Sampling.
The second sample respondents consist of people affected by robbery and those who are known to offenders. Data are collected from this group by a questionnaire carefully drafted incorporating open-ended as well as closed -ended questions. Open-ended questions ask the respondent to provide an answer to a particular question. On the other hand, closed-ended questions ask the respondents to select an answer from a list of choices provided (Shumake, 1988). Database for both set of samples are available with police officials and other important news agencies and investigating agencies.
Gender and Crime – Similarities in Male and Female Offending Rates and Patterns, Differences between Male and Female Offending Patterns- Steffensmeier, Darrell and Emilie Allan
This article publication shows that Gender is the single best forecaster of the criminal performance and the men commit more crime and the women commit fewer crimes. This information proofs throughout the narration, all members in the societal activity and all the groups in the civilization. However the general fact is that it is truly quite significant yet many people tend to take it for endowment. Majority of the attempt to find out the reality on the focus of male misdeed since the men have concerned in criminal behavior.
However, this article reviews both existing and chronological information on the rate and prototype of female crime in relation to male offense. So it provides more focus on the gender separation in which the offense is very high. Ultimately the author sketch the fact that understands the female crime that takes into explanation is the pressure of gender difference in norms, socialization, and social control and in illegal occasion as well as the psychological and physiological dissimilarity between men and women.
The associations of criminal behavior among unusual groups are using the information from an assortment of sources. The writer quoted several sources here to show the reality in the discrimination are US federal bureau of investigation’s Uniform crime report, dates from the local law agencies etc. Under his abbreviation found that both the male and female have small rates of seize for the grave crime like slaughter or robbery. And they will be penalized at higher rate for the petty property crime, public order offences, and alcohol and drug transgression. However in general the women lean to have a high rate of detain in most of the same crime class of men, which men have maximum arrests.
Yet the male or female detain lean over time or across groups or the geographic section is similar. In some cases in a group will be high rate of men arrest and high rate of female arrest also. However a major omission to this age – by- gender prototype is for prostitution, where the age bow of female exhibits much higher attentiveness arrest or the involvement in robbery by young. Female lawbreaker like male offenders and it lean to come from the environment discernible by poverty, unfairness, poor schooling and other disadvantages. Yet the woman who entrust the robbery are fairly more expected than men to have been harmed physically, psychologically or sexually both in babyhood and as adults.
Majority of the girls and woman concerned in the illegal justice arrangement have committed ordinary crimes. By keep away from their mates and children’s, they indulged in the severe offence. However they are not vocation criminals, but their situations tempt them into the activity. Ultimately this strongly reflects that the gender gap of criminal offending is an extraordinary determination across the country.
The Journal of Law and Economics – David B Mustard, University of Chicago
The article of gender disparity in the Robbery activities clearly shows that the situation of robbery happening from male offenders with low levels of education and income with considerably longer sentences. The primary reason for the situation is disappearance from the guidelines rather than the sentencing within the principle. However it quoted that the disappearance produce about 55% block white difference and 70% of the male – female difference. By the way drug tracking also guide to the encouragement of robbery with a convicted tracking and firearm ownership.
The journal clearly states about three main aspects and how it manipulates once personality into a criminal robbery activity. The first factor which grounds for the crime is low level of income or the unemployment. For livelihood, he will indulge in such kind of criminal activities like theft, Kidnap, Robbery etc. Survival condition and modern pattern of lifestyle, really motivating people to commit definite kind of crime, instead of getting a good way for life. The person having inquisitiveness to earn more money, or to make good possessions than other people with an effortless way, really tempt to commit the crime
The second most aspect was quoted by this journal is use of drug addiction. This report clearly shows that men commit more crime than woman. Use of heavy drug and certain kind of intoxicating helps him to commit sever crime. Due to his mental as well as physical aspect or the family as well as the societal problem pushes him into this kind of rut. The numbers of drug addicted criminals are increasing day by day in the US demine. The socioeconomic and the demographic variables are encouraging the people to go away from the original system and to exploit the authenticity in the environment. The basic personal developmental factors like education, living condition and the source of income will decide a person to be an influential personality. Due to lack of education and the source of income tends them, to get indirect way of achievement. Ultimately this report states that male offender is highly indulged in the criminal activity due to lack of proper guidance and the facility.
Violence against the elderly- Mark Lachs
This article mainly focused to get data from National Victimization Survey for 1992- 1994 to analyze the gender differentiations with robbery activities. According to the report it states against how the older American and how they differ across age and masculinity group. Differential prototype of risks were recognized by contextual characteristics of the persecution including the place of occurrence, weapon force , injuries continued, medical care required, number of offenders and the fatalities relationship to the offenders.
Generally the male had higher rate of persecution for both robbery and assault in all age group. But there is an exception to this was for robberies against the aged male and female older than 65 had equivalent a rate of robbery victimization. Regarding the grievance as the result of aggressive attack and more likely to necessitate remedial care of these injuries. However it shows the prejudice in the age and locations of their respective locations.
However this paper gives a numerical form of representation about the gender differentiation in the illegal activity. The average figure of man theft victims from 1998-2002 was 1.8 times larger than female victims. Majority of the fatalities were in their 20th age followed by its above age without finding any considerable gap among age group. But among them, 42.4% people accounted by the adolescent people and 18.3% accounted by the elderly people.
Ultimately the clarification gives brief information about the male and female above the age of 65 are equivalent rate in the robbery persecution. When we contrast with female inhabitants, the male inhabitants are very high in higher level of crimes like robbery. However in the ultimate stage it will be equal to men. The background characteristics of a person and the position of the incidence will be accountable for all these mall practices. And extremely it tempts the people to indulge such an illegal activity.
Bachman, Ronet, Heather Dillaway and Mark S. Lachs (1998) Research on Aging, SAGE journal Online, Vol. 20, No. 2, 183-198, accessed on 22nd July, 2009, from http://roa.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/20/2/183
Dwight, Helen and Reid Educational Foundation (1973) Sociology; Reviews of New Books, Helen Dwight Reid Educational Foundation
Mustard, B David (2001) Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Disparities in Sentencing: Evidence from the U.S. Federal Courts, The Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 44
Shumake, A. Stephen and Roger W. Bullard (1988) Vertebrate pest control and management materials: 5th volume, ASTM International
Steffensmeier, Darrell and Emilie Allan, Gender and Crime – Similarities in Male and Female Offending Rates and Patterns, Differences between Male and Female Offending Patterns, accessed on 22nd July, 2009, from http://law.jrank.org/pages/1256/Gender-Crime.html