A people-centered vision is being advanced by citizen’s organizations working to rate an alternative world order based on economic Justice, environmental stability and political inclusiveness As the Human Development Report (UNDO 1993) commented: “People’s participation is becoming the central issue of our times” Q. So, is people participation a recent discovery? ‘People’ as real actors in history have been brought forward by the ‘Subaltern’ school. Peasant resistances were subtle and effective peoples’ actions against oppression. People do act, it is for us to appreciate it and mobiles it for participatory people-centric movements. People as development actors emerged long ago in the vision and action of Étagère at Sentimental and Gandhi at Ward. Étagère experimented with people centered rural development in the villages for the rejuvenation of rural arts and crafts and economy in general.

Gandhi relied on the manipulation of masses and their economic fulfillment through the development of cottage and small-scale industries Q. K. I get that participatory development is important. What shapes/forms does it take? Animus Raman has identified the following different forms of community organizations representing collective action by the underprivileged people to improve their socio-economic notations: First, there are grassroots organizations that are basically economic in nature, undertaking income-generating activities with the help of internal resource manipulation supplemented by resource and knowledge support from outside Second, there are other organizations that emerge in ‘pressure group’ activities.

They results explanation or oppression Day toner groups, assert economic, social Ana unman rights including women’s rights, or demand services from the public agencies Third, some of the organizations undertake social and cultural activities in such areas as lath, education, culture and so on Fourth, some aim at the promotion of holistic life by way of activities that integrate spiritual advancement with economic and social development Fifthly, community organizations to promote ecologically oriented socio- economic life are also growing in many areas such as organic agriculture, social forestry, coastal fishing etc Sixth, participatory action research is being pursued by some organizations to develop people’s own thinking about ?? Their living conditions and environment Q.

This proliferation of community based organizations must be backed by some benefits right? The value of participation as a facilitative development process has been widely recognizes and major benefits have been identified as follows: The participatory process provides important information in the planning, programming and implementation stages thereby ensuring congruence between objectives and community values and preferences By rationalizing manpower resources utilization, the process reduces project cost Any change brought about through development is more acceptable to the community if the local people are involved, also, mistakes are more tolerable if these are made by people who have to live with them 2 wry. Visional. Boston AS social audit Monitoring is better, and sustainability of the project is more likely even after the withdrawal of the external agent, be it government or MONGO agency The community learns from its own involvement and from this point of view, participation is a 2 way learning process in which the administrator and the people become co-learners Active community participation helps rebuild community cohesion and installs a sense of dignity into the community. People gain in confidence and steadily emerge as real actors in the development process. Q. Is community participation then- the answer to all development problems? Critics of community participation argue: participation has popularity without clarity and is subject to growing faddishness and a lot of lip service Serious analysis of local community life reveals differentiation in terms of status, income and power. Conflicts and rivalries are not uncommon even among the poor and underprivileged.

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The romantic vision of frictionless, harmonious community life does not match ground realities External intervention by social workers or political activists has been found necessary almost everywhere to organize the local community and mobile the local people It has also been observed hat there is an imaginary notion of continuous activism by the local people behind all discussions on community participation. Total and continuous commitment to activism Is more a revolution rays cream than ten poor people’s actual Detonator There are critics who doubt the efficacy of community participation in bringing about radical change in the life of the poor and the underprivileged through autonomous local action only. Small changes are not ruled out, but community participation to be really effective needs profound social structural change at both domestic and international levels.

Community manipulation cannot, on its own, correct the basic social imbalances that have their roots in deeper socioeconomic layers of the society Marxist argument: participatory development within capitalistic mode is unworkable, the purpose of participation is to diffuse revolutionary movements and create an illusion of solution. The state seeks to subvert popular movements through manipulative co-vitiation of the poor Q. Okay. Participatory development has its faults and shortcomings but it does stand for action, equity in resource distribution & social capital and hence cannot be ignored. What is the role of state in all this? The state plays a fundamental role in helping or hindering participation. Different social science theories evoke different images of state-society relationships. While Marxian and elite theories are pessimistic about the possibility of community participation, liberal-democratic and pluralist theories are much more helpful.

State’s actions depend phone definition and purpose of community participation, state’s perception about its role and the political will to decentralized power and resources to local institutions Accordingly 4 different state’s responses have emerged (ideal oodles to characterize better): Anti-participatory mode: The state in a capitalist system is interested, not in ameliorating the conditions of the poor, but in promoting the interests of capital and the ruling class. Power is, therefore, concentrated and not dispersed to facilitate accumulation of wealth Manipulative mode: The state follows a diplomatic approach and the state support to community participation is intended to ensure political and social control as well as reduce local development costs and facilitate successful project implementation.

State seeks to neutralize political position by co-opting autonomous movements with the ulterior motive of gaining control over them. The rhetoric of participation is invoked to mobile local labor in state’s development activities and to give legitimacy to the regime in power Incremental mode: It is marked by an ambivalent approach to community participation. There is no lack of government support to participation but the policy is unclear and piecemeal & ad-hoc approaches are the norm. The state in reality is not willing to part with power and to devolve resources to local community groups. Also, the bureaucrats and the technocrats have their own ways of bringing about efficient” local development management. Still, community participation is not, in theory, rejected and decentralization continues in an ad-hoc fashion with a plurality of actors Participatory mode: centralize Day state’s own Annihilative to create Institutions AT community participation to ensure effective involvement at the grassroots level. There are no ulterior motives and genuine popular involvement is ensured by providing resources to local bodies and sensitizes bureaucracy through training and directives. Within an overall development planning framework, the central, regional and local velveteen policies and activities are harmonize through positive political will and bureaucratic support (Follow-up Q: Which of these modes is true for India?

Have we evolved from one mode to another or is there one particular mode more applicable or does the state adopt different modes at different times/places) Enough of participation, lets come to voluntary organizations: Q: What is a MONGO? According to the World Bank, “a Non-governmental Organization (MONGO) is a private organization that pursues activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect he environment, provide basic social services, or undertake community development”. In other words, Nags are legally constituted organizations, operate independently from the government and are generally considered to be “non-state, non-profit oriented groups who pursue purposes of public interest”. The primary objective of Nags is to provide social Justice, development and human rights.

Nags are generally funded totally or partly by governments and they maintain their non- governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization. In a democratic society, it is the state that has the ultimate accessibility for ushering development to its citizens. In India, through the progressive interpretation of the Constitution and its laws and policies, the scope of development has been significantly broadened to include not Just economic progress for citizens, but also promotion of social Justice, gender equity, inclusion, citizen’s awareness, empowerment and improved quality of life. To achieve this holistic vision of development, the state requires the constructive and collaborative engagement of the civil society in its various developmental activities and programs.

Non- overpayment organizations (Nags) as the operational arm of the civil society therefore have an important role in the development processes. Q: What are the different types of civil society organizations? 1 . Civil rights advocacy organizations: to promote human rights of specific social groups e. G. Women, migrants, disabled, HIVE, sex workers, Dalai people, tribal people, and the likes. 2. Civil liberties advocacy organizations: to promote individual civil liberties and human rights of all citizens, rather than focusing on particular social group. 3. Community based organizations, tizzy’s groups, farmers’ cooperatives: to increase citizen’s participation on public policy issues so as to improve the quality of life in a particular community. 4.

Business and industry chambers of commerce: to promotion policies and practices on business. 5. Labor unions: to promote the rights of employees and workers. 6. International peace and human rights organizations: to promote peace and human rights. 7. Media, communication organization: to produce, disseminate, or provide production facilities in one or more media forms; it includes television, printing and radio. 8. National resources conservation and protection organizations: to promote conservation of natural resources, including land, water, energy, wildlife and plant resources, for public use. 9. Private and public foundations: to promote development through grant- making and partnership. 10.

Also the Civil society includes – Political Parties; Religious organizations; Housing cooperatives, slum learners Ana resident welfare associations. Q: What has been the interaction and relationship between the Indian state and Nags like? In India the state policies have significantly influenced the formation of Nags and their activities. The government sponsored and aided programmer provided financial assistance to Nags either as grants or as matching grants to 4 support the implementation of social development projects. The need for the involvement of voluntary organizations has been acknowledged by a number of official committees dealing with development.

Blatant Aria Meta Committee, 1957: Today in the implementation of the various schemes of community development, more and more emphasis is laid on Nags and workers and on the principle that ultimately people’s own local organizations should take over the entire work Rural- Urban Relationship Committee, 1966: Local voluntary organizations can be very helpful in monopolizing popular support and assistance of the people in the activities of local body. It is possible to maintain constant and close contact with the people through these organizations Shoo Meta Committee: Of the several voluntary organizations engaged in rural welfare, a few have helped the PRISM in preparation of area development plans, conduct feasibility studies and cost/benefit analysis, explore ways and meaner to induce local participation in planning and implementation. In the

Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-1985), the government identified new areas in which Nags as new actors could participate in development The Seventh Five Year Plan (1985- 1990), envisioned a more active role for Nags as primary actors in the efforts towards self-reliant communities. This was in tune with the participatory and empowerment ideologies, which was gaining currency in the developmental discourse at that time Government support and encouragement for Nags continued in the Eighth Five- year plan, where a nation-wide network of Nags was sought to be created The Ninth Five- ear plan proposed that Nags should play a role in development on the public- private partnership model.

Also, the agricultural development policies of the government and its implementation mechanisms provided scope and space for Nags. A case in point is the watershed development program, which has led to the growth of Nags working for rural development In March 2000, the Government declared Planning Commission as the nodal agency for GO-MONGO interface. The message was clear- government has to and will work with the voluntary sector. A ‘Civil Society Window’ was started in 2004, in the hope that it would enable people to engage with the Planning Commission and offer the benefit of their field experiences During the 1 lath Five Year Plan process a regional consultation was organized to get civil society feedback.

Participation of Civil Society (CSS) had thus already become a strong and robust element in the preparation of the Plan Consultations with citizens on ten Approach Paper to ten TNT Plan Degas on many platforms, Including ten internet. Members of Planning Commission traveled across the country attending Public Meetings called by CSS around various sectored issues to gather inputs for the 2 Five Year Plan National Policy on the Voluntary Sector, 2007:Recognizes the contribution of the voluntary sector and the need for Government- Voluntary Sector partnership and that project grants are a useful meaner for both the Government to promote its activities without its direct involvement and a valuable source of support to small and medium Voluntary Organizations.

It highlights the need for Government to encourage all Central and State Government agencies to introduce pre-service and in-service training modules on constructive relations with voluntary organizations. It coziness the difficulties faced by the voluntary sector in accessing government schemes and suggests ways to tackle this. The main objective of the National Policy on the Voluntary Sector is to identify systems by which the Government may work together with the Voluntary Organizations on the basis of the principles of mutual trust, respect and shared responsibility. It also recognizes the importance of independence of voluntary organizations, which allows them to explore alternative models of development.

The National Policy on the Voluntary Sector is Just the beginning of the process to evolve a new working relationship between the overspent and the voluntary sector without affecting its autonomy and identity. There are many areas in which help of the voluntary sector is sought- for social audits, behavior change, good governance and increasingly even for better service delivery. Q: How has India benefited from Nags? Know more about national policy on voluntary sector India has a long history of civil society based on the concepts of Danna meaner giving and save meaner service. Voluntary organizations were active in cultural promotion, education, health, and natural disaster relief as early as the medieval period.

During he second half of the 19th century, nationalist consciousness spread across India and selfless emerged as the primary focus of socio-political movements. The early examples of such attempts are Friend-in- 5 know more Need Society (1858), Paraphernalia (1864), Sadomasochism’s (1873), Array Assam (1875), the National Council for Women in India (1875), the Indian National Conference (1887) etc. The Society’s Registration Act (SARA) was approved in 1860 to confirm the legal status of the growing body of non-governmental organizations. In India, it was the sass which saw rapid growth in the formation of formally registered Nags and the process continues to this day.

Most Nags have created their respective tenement, social group anon geographical powerless sun as pope alleviation, community health, education, housing, human rights, child rights, women’s rights, natural resource management, water and sanitation; and to these ends they put to practice a wide range of strategies and approaches. Primarily, their focus has been on the search for alternatives to development thinking and practice; achieved through participatory research, community capacity building and creation of demonstrable models. When we review some of the work done by Nags over the past 3 decades, we find that they have contributed greatly to nation building. Many Nags have worked hard to include children with disability in schools, end caste- based stigma and discrimination, prevent child labor and promote gender equality resulting in women receiving equal wages for the same work compared to men.

During natural calamities they have played an active role in relief and rehabilitation efforts, in particular, providing psycho-social care and support to the disaster affected children, women and men. Nags have been instrumental in the formation ND capacity building of farmers and producers’ cooperatives and women’s self- help groups. Several Nags have worked hand in hand with the Government to ensure that millions of out of school children are enrolled and continue their school education, thus making the right to education a reality. The leprosy eradication programmer was spearheaded by Nags and today only residual leprosy remains in our country.

Nags have implemented the Savannah programmer for creation of wells for safe drinking water; promoted community toilets for total sanitation, and supported the public lath programs on immunization and for eliminating tuberculosis and malaria. The much celebrated ENRAGE, KIDS, SIPS, Normal gram, and Switchblade of the government have their roots in the work of many Nags. Nags have significantly influenced the development of laws and policies on several important social and developmental issues such as the right to information, Juvenile Justice, ending corporal punishment in schools, anti-trafficking, forests and environment, wildlife conservation, women, elderly people, people with disability, rehabilitation and resettlement of development induced displaced people to name a few.

Further, Nags dad their modest attempts to ensure the effective implementation of these laws and policies by conducting and disseminating findings from participatory research, budget analysis, public hearings, social audits, workshops, seminars and conferences. Summing up, it is now well established that Nags have an important role to play in the development processes and that both the state and market need the collaboration of credible, active, and accountable Nags. Given their connect with the grassroots realities, Nags can and should play the “game changer” to pro-poor development through leadership on participatory research, community empowerment and search for development alternatives.

With the increasing role of the Nags in development activities they are now attracting professionals from various other sectors, and capacities are being built in support areas such as financial management, resource manipulation, human resources, leadership development, governance procedures and practices and institutional development. At another level Nags have been addressing the social service issues and empowerment related advocacy efforts have been increasing. The study conducted by a New Delhi based MONGO concluded that every fifth MONGO in India works on the Issues AT community Ana social service. I nee Devoured Locations AT ten governments and the political will to involve Nags is more pronounced in implementation of the welfare schemes addressing causes of women and children. Further, the industrial policies have influenced the formation and relations between the businesses and Nags.

The Confederation of Indian Industries (C”), a leading organization, has been raising the issues of corporate social responsibility. The emphasis of industrial policies on the promotion and development of small, cottage and village industries has also lead to the formation of agencies such as the Jihad ND Village Industries Commission, Small Industries Associations and likes. Profiling Nags: India has possibly the largest number of active non-government, non-profit organizations in the world. There has been a sharp increase in the number of new Nags in the past decade in India. According to a government study, there were only 1. 44 lack registered societies till 1970.

The maximum increase in the number of registrations happened after 2000. A recent study commissioned by the government showed that there are about 3. 3 million Nags in India by the end of 2009 I. E. , one MONGO for less than an average of 400 Indians. Even this staggering number may be less than the actual number of Nags active in the country. This is because the study, commissioned in 2008, took into consideration only those entities which were registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 or the Iambi Public Trust Act and its variants in other states. 6 It can be noted that a great majority of the Nags are small and about three-fourths of all Nags are run entirely by volunteers.

About 13 percent of the Nags have between 2 to 5 employees; about 5 percent have between 6 to 10 employees and only about 8. percent Nags employ more than 10 people. According to a survey conducted by society for Participatory Research in Asia (PAIR), 73. 4 percent of Nags have one or no paid staff, although across the country, more than 19 million persons work as volunteers or paid staff at an MONGO. More often Nags are registered as trusts, societies, or as private limited non-profit companies, under Section- 25 of Indian Companies Act, 1956. They also enjoy income tax exemption. Foreign contributions to non-profits are governed by Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FACE), 1976. Q: What are the key governance challenges facing Nags?

In view of the emergence of a new paradigm of scaling up, in which Nags are seen as catalysts of policy innovations and social capital; as creators of programmatic knowledge that can be spun off and integrated into government and market institutions; and as builders of vibrant and diverse civil societies, it’s imperative to critically analyze the role of Nags in the process of development and understanding the challenges facing the Sector. Transparency and accountability are key ingredients of Governance in the MONGO Sector as these determine operational efficiencies and risk mitigation. Over the years, report sector NAS Eden addle to recognize Ana Implement Test governance practices through appropriate institutional framework. However, the MONGO sector is yet to evolve any institutionalized framework, which could potentially play an important role in overall development of the nation. Nags play an increasingly active role in today’s political and social arenas. Civil society organizations are increasing in number all over India.

Of late, some of the local and national Nags have been found involved in malpractices and acting irresponsibly, thus undermining the credibility of civil society. It’s a huge concern and poses a great challenge to the development movement spearheaded by Nags in the country. There is a huge flow of funds into the nongovernmental organization sector and this requires prudence and good practices to maintain accountability and transparency to the benefit of all stakeholders. Although, Nags do internal auditing but for more accountability and transparency, it is advisable to go through external auditing also, especially where public funds are involved. Hence, issues of internal control mechanisms, professionalism, accountability, transparency and financial management must be even impetus.

The challenge is multidimensional, and is compounded by thunderhead’s’ nature of the sector, lack of regulatory frameworks and the fact that India boasts of more than a million Nags of different roles, structures and sizes. In particular, the Indian voluntary sector urgently needs self-regulatory guidelines and transparency mechanisms to increase the trust and awareness as to how the philanthropic funds are being utilized. This is a critical challenge that creates a barrier to raising funds and capital for the sector. The general lack of transparency in he functioning of a large proportion of Nags leads to aversion in donating funds for charitable causes since the general public is largely cynical about the ‘genuineness’ of the non-profit spirit of the sector.

The stringent governance standards of an MONGO will facilitate the effective management and increase the accountability to its stakeholders including donors, the government and the community. It is in the self- interest of the Nags to realize the fact that to implement a structure of ‘corporate governance’ principles would provide the real value to the stakeholders. Also, this could enable to track the potentially dubious sources of funding coming in for the voluntary sector – an aspect which has gained impetus in the wake of the increased number of terror attacks and extremist activities. Recently, this Union Home Ministry has identified some Nags as security threat to the country.

Such security considerations have underscored the rising need of improving the governance practices in the Indian Nags and exercising better regulatory mechanisms, disclosure norms, and management processes including financial management and budgeting systems as well. Moreover, in the larger interest going beyond the security incinerations, the impetus has to be on inculcating a culture of including performance goals, conducting financial and performance audits, and reforms for increasing the operational accountability and transparency in the eyes of the public, volunteers, donors and other stakeholders. Suggestions: The implementation of a strategic framework is essentially important in the management of an MONGO. The endorsement of such a framework brings in professionalism and internal control mechanisms, which further makes the organization’s performance more effective.

Developing strategies also include establishing a mechanism of consistent molting AT winter teen are Delve Implemented Ana lining ten results to ten organization’s goals. There is need to bolster public confidence in the voluntary sector by opening it up to greater public scrutiny. The Government will encourage Central and State level agencies to introduce norms for filing basic documents in respect of Nags, which have been receiving funding by Government agencies and placing them in the public domain (with easy access through the internet) in order to inculcate a spirit of public oversight. 7 Public donation is an important source of funds for the MONGO sector and one that can ND must increase substantially. Tax incentives play a positive role in this process.

The Government could simplify and streamline the system for granting income tax exemption status to charitable projects under the Income Tax Act. At the same time, the Government might consider tightening administrative and penal procedures to ensure that these incentives are not misused by paper charities for private financial gain. The Government should encourage all relevant Central and State Government agencies to introduce pre-service and in-service training modules on constructive relations with the voluntary sector. Such agencies need to introduce time bound procedures for dealing with the Voss. These could cover registration, income tax clearances, financial assistance, etc. There must be a formal systems for registering complaints and for redressing grievances of Nags.

The Government should encourage setting up of Joint Consultative Groups / Forums or Joint Machineries of government and voluntary sector representatives, by relevant Central Departments and State Governments. It also needs to encourage district administrations, district planning bodies, district rural development agencies, lapidaries and local governments to do so. These groups could be permanent forums with the explicit mandate to share ideas, views and information and to identify opportunities and mechanisms of working together. The Government also might introduce suitable mechanisms for involving a wide cross-section of the voluntary sector in these Groups/Forums.

Summing Up: We are entering into an important phase where the 12th five year plan is being worked out and there are many targets that the government intends to achieve with the active collaboration of Voss. Therefore, it is important to conduct an effective review or report card of the National Policy with specific recommendations. These recommendations could become an agenda for all Voluntary Organizations, Planning Commission, state governments and national Ministries. Efforts are also needed to further disseminate the information about the policy and its intentions with small Voss as well as government functionaries. There is a need to solicit commitment from state governments and national ministries. A systematic intervention is also needed to get National Policy approved and adopted by the Indian Parliament.


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