Roman Empire Essay, Research Paper
& # 8220 ; The Romans were a people of mastermind whose imperium dominated the western universe for 500 years. & # 8221 ; ( Pg. 7, Ancient Rome ) What made the Romans so powerful was their manner of authorities. It was really similar to the 1 that we have today, except emperors don & # 8217 ; t govern us. The kiss of peace romana, or & # 8216 ; the Roman Peace, & # 8217 ; gave 1000000s of people in Italy and environing countries peace. Rome fell when it was invaded by overpowering folks and groups of savages. Rome was foremost founded on the legendary day of the month of 735 B.C. The myth of Romulus and Remus was how Rome got its name. The myth was that Mars, God of war, came down to the mortal universe and met a human princess. Romulus and Remus were so born shortly after, but abandoned. A She-Wolf nursed them until they were old plenty to be on their ain. Their dream was to do a beautiful metropolis, and regulate it and go powerful. Romulus and Remus had an statement. Which led to a battle to the decease. Romulus won, killing his brother Remus. The peoples called his metropolis Rome, after Romulus, who became the laminitis. Rome & # 8217 ; s Symbol is the She-Wolf that nursed Romulus and Remus nursing them. Rome started out every bit merely a group of husbandmans and Romulus as the emperor. Finally, the little city state became larger, and the authorities stronger, and more sophisticated. In 509 B.C. , the Roman Republic was founded. Patricians were the 1s who organized the province. Alternatively of a King, Rome picked 2 magistrates, or consuls, to govern Rome. Finally, the consuls became excessively powerful, and the plebeians ( peoples of Rome ) became angry because they wanted rights equal to those of the consuls in ways. In 494 B.C. the plebs revolted. They elected certain members to be called & # 8216 ; the Tribunes, & # 8217 ; and be their leaders. The plebs wanted the consuls to detect them. Finally, after a twelvemonth of rebelling, the 2 consuls allow the plebs have the rights they wanted because in the hereafter, Rome would necessitate some of the plebs to go an ground forces for the protection of Rome and the conquest of new district. Finally, The 2 consuls & # 8217 ; determinations became utile. Rome started to pay wars with its neighbours, the Aequi, Volsci, Celts, and Samnites. For 250 old ages, the Romans were about at war invariably. The Romans either made confederations with their neighbour & # 8217 ; s or they conquered them. By 280 B.C. , All of Italy was under Rome & # 8217 ; s control. The Romans were careful non to suppress the remainder or Italy for Rome new that they were critical in supporting Rome from encroachers. Most of the peoples joined the armed forces because they were offered particular rights as military citizens. The folk and metropoliss that were further off from Rome were allowed protection from Rome & # 8217 ; s ground forces and their authorities. Rome & # 8217 ; s sent ex-soldiers to countries in Italy that Rome thought may hold problem, and finally they became a town over clip. This was really smart in Rome & # 8217 ; s behalf because a Grecian King named Pyrrhus brought a immense ground forces to Rome thought that he could win a huge and great imperium easy. But he was incorrectly because the Romans pushed him back to Greece and the southern metropoliss of Italy allied with Rome. Later, Hannibal wanted control of Sicily, so he fought Rome for it. He crossed the Alps with War Elephants and began contending Rome. He was defeated, and Rome gained control of Sicily. Hannibal reeked mayhem on Rome for 13 old ages, and even though Rome lost 1 conflict, they remained contending in other countries like Spain, Italy, Africa and Sicily. Finally, Carthage, Rome & # 8217 ; s & # 8216 ; rival & # 8217 ; , was broken down and under Roman control. A small piece subsequently, Rome was yet once more at war, and now with Greece. Macedonia and Syria had powerful swayers who joined powers to assail Greece and Egypt. They defeated both the male monarchs, but this drove Rome to do Greece and Egypt into states. In 133 B.C. , Rome controlled all of the Mediterranean and Carthage was destroyed wholly due to a new rebelling. From 133 to 30 B.C. , Rome was in a civil war with itself. The swayers of Rome and other states became avaricious, taxing the people and going really flush. This led the manner for military dictators. 4 great Generals tried to go Rome & # 8217 ; s new Emperor, but merely Julius Caesar was the master. Marius, Sulla, Pompey, and Caesar were great Generals who went away and conquered Rome & # 8217 ; s enemies and sent back to Rome to have their award. Afterwards, Sulla was sent to destruct King Mithridates and his ground forcess. Marius was angry at that determination that the senate had chosen, and he gathered his ground forces and they started to put to death multitudes of Optimates ( Senate People ) . Marius made himself a consul, but he died a little while subsequently. When Sulla marched back to Rome, he found that all of Rome was under the control of Populares. New executings began. French honeysuckle gathered his ground forces and captured Rome, and killing the Populares. He remained the Dictator of Rome for 3 old ages ; he constricted the powers of the people and made the senate really powerful. But so, he retired. Shortly after, Pompey arrived, and gave the people back their power that Sulla had crushed. Pompey planned to govern Rome with Caesar and Crassus. Caesar and Pompey became Consuls, but every one opposed them. In 59 B.C. , Caesar was given all of Gaul as a wages, but so it was under onslaught by German Barbarian Tribes And Celts from the North. 8 old ages subsequently, Caesar conquered all of France. Pompey became frightened of Caesar & # 8217 ; s military art, and ordered him to remember his ground forces and return to Rome. Caesar refused and sent his ground forcess to occupy Italy. 2 old ages subsequently, Caesar had crushed Pompey & # 8217 ; s ground forcess in Spain, Asia, Egypt and Greece. Caesar now ruled. He took the senate and dwindled its Numberss to a few that Caesar knew owed him. Caesar knew that they would be loyal to him, but Caesar still had enemies. Some of the senators were afraid that if Caesar ruled any longer, that he would seek to do himself a male monarch, so they set up a program to kill him. After Caesars decease, Mark Antony dealt with the Murderers. This didn & # 8217 ; t assist the wars from halting. Octavian, Caesars nephew, wanted control of the imperium merely every bit bad as Antony did. Octavian won the difference, and Antony killed himself shortly after. The people loved Octavian from halting the feuds and the wars. They gave him tonss of wagess and renamed him Augustus, intending & # 8216 ; Revered One. & # 8217 ; Augustus set aside his powers and he stood entirely for the rubric of consul. He was elected. The Romans
were ready to allow him anything he wanted. Augustus brought back the ways of the old Republic. This made him even more loved. Except this clip, he kept check on the army’s powers. Augustus did much during his rain as the 1st Emperor. While he was at place, he thought of ways to better the authorities. He took away all of the bad and unworthy senators, and finned the 1s that didn’t travel to its meetings. All at the same clip, Augustus reorganized the Empire. He knew that Italy would be pressured by Barbarian Tribes, so he sent 3 powerful Generals to force them back ; Agrippa, Drusus, and Tiberius. Hey pushed back the Germanic Barbarian folk and at the same clip gained huge new districts. This created a ‘Ring’ of Providences in which can help Rome in supporting against Barbarian Tribes. Augustus so allotted paid governors from the ranks of the senators and tried his hardest to do certain that they governed good and decently. To guarantee that Augustus kept in touch with other states, he set up a postal system. The couriers could go 50 stat mis in 1 twenty-four hours. Augustus wanted the Empire to be deserving regulating ; he spent tonss of his ain money reconstructing temples and naming the best designers of the twenty-four hours to assist him. He worked really difficult to convey back the old fashioned Roman life system ; difficult work, regard for the Gods, and responsibility. In order to protect himself from any bravos, he gathered a hand-picked group of work forces called the Praetorian Guard, who subsequently became a powerful voice in taking the new Emperor or Rome and its states, protected Augustus. In A.D. 14, Augustus died. His nephew Tiberius became the following in a long line of emperors for the following 400 old ages. In 69 A.D. to 180 A.D. , the Roman Empire was at its highest point. The ground for this is because strong Emperors governed it. They did the same thing that Augustus did ; do certain that the senate remained equal with the people and made the military be little forces and kept far off from Rome and their power in cheque. Rome had a failing though, emperor wise. Some of the Emperors ruled to weakly or decease excessively shortly. So that left small countries for encroachers to come and assail. States were lost because of this. Franks and Alemanni in the West, and Persians attacked in the E. The ground forcess in the surrounding states took advantage of Rome’s failing and had the commanding officer of their ground forcess to go a soldier-emperor. They rose up against Rome but they all faced a acrimonious decease. Possibly one of the strongest of these soldier-emperors was a Roman general named Diocletian. He went mending the imperium and divided it into to halves. He controlled the Latin speaking side, and appointed his friend Maximinanus to the Grecian speech production side. Rome was eventually divided into 2 zones where 2 emperors ruled over 2 different countries but were still under the Roman Rule. The 2 emperors brought all of the states back together and under Roman Rule one time once more. In every town, the Romans worshipped the Gods and largely all of Rome’s states spoke Latin. The Roman Gods were: 0 Jupiter- King of the Gods and accountant of conditions. 0 Neptune- God of the sea and Jupiter’s brother. 0 Juno- Wife of Jupiter. 0 Minerva- The Goddess of good judgement and trades. 0 Mars- The God of war and male parent or Romulus and Remus. 0 Venus- The Goddess of Love. 0 Diana- A huntress who roamed the wood with her attenders and is the Goddess of the Moon and pureness. 0 Apollo- God of music, humanistic disciplines, ground, and bringer of pestilences and diseases. 0 Mercury- The Messenger of the Supreme beings who was really fast with the assistance of charming sandals and helmet with wings on them. He is besides the God of Peaceful Trade. 0 Bracchus- The God of Wine. Celebrations were portion of his worship. 0 Lares & Panates- Gods of the family. Lares guarded he House while Penates guarded the familys Pantry. 0 Vesta- Goddes of Fire and the Hearth environing it. She was worshiped in the Home and in Temples every bit good. 0 Saturn- God of Weights and Measures and agribusiness every bit good. Even though he was a dark and disturbing God, his jubilation was a clip of great cheer. The ‘Capitoline Triad’ consisted of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. They shared the same temple together on the capitol of Italy ; Rome. The faiths of all the people under Roman Rule were all Christian, and anybody else of different faith was dealt with, either decease or they changed to Christianity. The Romans waged some wars with the Judaic peoples until they were all whipped out or they changed faith. The autumn of Rome came in 395 A.D. when Alaric, a former Roman Commander, who was a Visigoth, seized all of Rome’s Provinces along the Danube River. Then, in 410 A.D. , Alaric invaded Rome itself. After 6 yearss, all of Rome was burned and dead. Then Alaric moved on to Gaul. In 476new encroachers called Ostrogoths, invaded Italy deposed the last Emperor, Romulus Augustulus. He was given a pension and Romulus left to populate with his household. The Roman Empire was at an terminal. Although the Roman Empire has fallen, the peoples who took over still used the Roman influence, the lone 1 they knew, and rebuilt. The Roman Coinage was still used, edifices were still built the same manner, and the Roman Government was still around in some countries, except the emperor system was gone. Introduction As you read through this papers, you will happen that the Romans were a civilised people with a great imperium, which started out as a little town of husbandmans. The Romans have endured old ages of pandemonium and still managed to hang on until 476 A.D. Their architecture was genius ; they mastered the edifice of the arch and the dome, which were really critical in edifice strong Bridgess and aqueducts to keep high measures of weight. The Romans were besides great philosophers whose verse forms expressed the illustriousness of their imperium. They were the 1st peoples to get down the games, subsequently called the Olympics. The games were held inside a metropolis bath or at the amphitheater in a metropolis. The baths were a meeting topographic point for the people of that metropolis or town to travel and loosen up, play, run into people and socialise, and even work out. I hope that as you read this papers, you will see how the Romans controlled and expanded their imperium and how they defended it.
Fagg, Christopher. Warwick Press 1979, & # 8220 ; Ancient Rome & # 8221 ; . Printed in Italy by
New Interlitho, Milan.